- List of DYS markers
The following list of DYS (DNA Y-chromosome Segment) markers are commonly used in
genealogical DNA testing.
DYS454 is the least diverse, and multi-copy marker DYS464 is the most diverse
The location on the Y chromosome of numbered DYS markers can be roughly given with
cytogenetic localization. For example DYS449 is located at Yp11.2 - meaning the Y chromosome, petit arm, band 1, sub-band 1, sub-sub-band 2 - DYS449 [ [http://www.gdb.org/gdb-bin/genera/genera/hgd/Amplimer?!key=GDB%3A10879367&!sub=0 DYS449 in the GDB Human Genome Database] ] .For a nearly complete map of the position of DYS and DYF markers have a look at [http://ymap.ftdna.com Ymap from Family Tree DNA] .
Mutation rates are those per generation, as estimated in Chandler (2006) [ [http://www.jogg.info/22/Chandler.pdf Chandler (2006)] (but see also this [http://archiver.rootsweb.com/th/read/GENEALOGY-DNA/2007-02/1171630468 mailing list discussion] )] . The quoted estimated errors are typically +/- 15-20%. Alternative estimates from observed pedigrees are also available for some markers [ [http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~gallgaedhil/YHRD_mutation_rates.html YHRD mutation rates] ] .
It appears that some trinucleotide markers may have much higher mutation rates at some repeat lengths than at others. For example, variation of the trinucleotide DYS 388 is generally very slow in most haplogroups, when it takes the values 11-13. But there appears to be much greater variation and more rapid mutation in Haplogroup J, where it typically has values 14-18. Similarly the trinucleotide DYS 392 is reported to be "fast" in haplogroups N and Q, where it takes values 14-16 which are rare in other groups. [ [http://archiver.rootsweb.com/th/read/GENEALOGY-DNA/2004-10/1098899485 GENEALOGY-DNA-L Archives — DYS 388 Mutation Rate?] ]
Notes & References
* Kayser et al (2004), [http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/resolve?id=doi:10.1086/421531 A Comprehensive Survey of Human Y-Chromosomal Microsatellites] Am. J. Hum. Genet., 74 1183-1197. NB online only [http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/AJHG/journal/issues/v74n6/41028/datafile1.txt data file]
List of Y-DNA single nucleotide polymorphisms
List of DXS markers
* [http://www.cstl.nist.gov/biotech/strbase/ystr_fact.htm Y STR fact sheet]
* [http://www.gendna.net/ydnacomp.htm Y-DNA Testing Company STR Marker Comparison Chart]
* [http://www.smgf.org/ychromosome/marker_details.jspx SMGF Y Marker Details]
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