- Voiceless pharyngeal fricative
The voiceless pharyngeal fricative is a type of
consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabetthat represents this sound is h-bar (IPA|ħ), and the equivalent X-SAMPAsymbol is X.
Features of the voiceless pharyngeal fricative:
manner of articulationis fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
place of articulationis pharyngeal which means it is articulated with the root of the tongueagainst the pharynx
phonationtype is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords.
* It is an
oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth.
* Because it is pronounced in the throat, without a component in the mouth, the central/lateral dichotomy does not apply.
airstream mechanismis pulmonic egressive, which means it is articulated by pushing air out of the lungs and through the vocal tract, rather than from the glottisor the mouth.
This sound is the most commonly cited realization of the Semitic letter
hēth, which occurs in most dialects of Arabic, Classical Syriac, as well as Biblical and Tiberian Hebrew. It has also been reconstructed as appearing in Ancient Egyptian, a related Afro-Asiastic language. Modern non-Oriental Hebrew has merged the voiceless pharyngeal fricative with the voiceless velar (or uvular) fricative. However, phonetic studies have shown that the so-called voiceless pharyngeal fricatives of Semitic languages are often neither pharyngeal (but rather epiglottal) nor fricatives (but rather approximants). [Harvcoltxt|Ladefoged|Maddieson|1996|p=167-168]
List of phonetics topics
title=The Sounds of the World's Languages
journal=Journal of the International Phonetic Association
last = Watson
title= The Phonology and Morphology of Arabic
publisher= Oxford University Press
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