- Pharyngeal consonant
A pharyngeal consonant is a type of
consonantwhich is articulated with the root of the tongueagainst the pharynx.
Pharyngeal consonants in the
International Phonetic Alphabet(IPA):
* Pharyngeal plosives are thought to be impossible. Note that when they are posited, they are sometimes transcribed with a small capital Q, [Q] .
* Although traditionally placed in the
fricativerow of the IPA chart, IPA| [ʕ] is usually an approximant. The IPA symbol itself is ambiguous, but no language has a distinct fricative and approximant at this place of articulation. Sometimes the lowering diacritic is used to specify that the manner is approximant: IPA| [ʕ̞] .
Pharyngeals are known primarily from two areas of the world: in North-Africa/Mideast (in the Semitic, Berber, Cushitic, Circassian, and Dagestanian families) and in British Columbia (in the Wakashan and Salish families). There are scattered reports of pharyngeals elsewhere, such as in the Nilo-Saharan
Tama languageand in Nenets in Northern Russia. In Finnish, a weak pharyngeal fricative is the realization of /h/ next to the vowel /a/, but since this is mere allophony, it is transcribed as /h/. According to the laryngeal theory, the Proto-Indo-European languagemight also have contained pharyngeal consonants.
Note that reported pharyngeals frequently turn out to be epiglottals. Such was the case for Dahalo and northern Haida, for example, and is likely to be true for many if not most of the others. This is perhaps because 'epiglottal' was only recently recognized as a distinct place of articulation, rather than a variant of 'pharyngeal'. The only language known to have contrastive pharyngeals and epiglottals is Agul, a Lezgian language of Dagestan.
Recently, a possible new place of articulation, epiglotto-pharyngeal, was reported.
Place of articulation
List of phonetics topics
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Look at other dictionaries:
pharyngeal consonant — noun a consonant articulated in the back of the mouth or throat • Syn: ↑guttural, ↑guttural consonant, ↑pharyngeal • Derivationally related forms: ↑guttural (for: ↑guttural) … Useful english dictionary
Epiglotto-pharyngeal consonant — An epiglotto pharyngeal consonant is a newly reported type of consonant, articulated with the epiglottis against the back wall of the pharynx. This contrasts with the pharyngeal consonants, where the root of the tongue contacts the back wall of… … Wikipedia
pharyngeal — I noun a consonant articulated in the back of the mouth or throat • Syn: ↑guttural, ↑guttural consonant, ↑pharyngeal consonant • Derivationally related forms: ↑guttural (for: ↑gut … Useful english dictionary
Pharyngeal — The word pharyngeal, meaning to do with the pharynx or throat, may refer to: * Pharynx, for pharyngeal anatomy * Pharyngeal muscles **Superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle ** Middle pharyngeal constrictor muscle ** Inferior pharyngeal… … Wikipedia
Consonant — Not to be confused with the musical concept of consonance For the alternative rock group, see Consonant (band). Places of articulation Labial Bilabial Labial–velar Labial–coronal Labiodental … Wikipedia
pharyngeal — adjective a) Of or pertaining to the pharynx. b) Articulated with the pharynx, a term usually describing a consonant which is articulated by the rear area of the tongue being raised to below the region between the uvula and the pharyngeal wall.… … Wiktionary
consonant — I (Roget s IV) n. Linguistic terms referring to consonant sounds include: voiceless, voiced; labial, bilabial, labiodental, apical, dental, alveolar, retroflex, frontal, alveopalatal, prepalatal, dorsal, palatal, velar, uvular, glottal,… … English dictionary for students
consonant — Synonyms and related words: accented, accordant, according, affirmative, agreeable, agreeing, alike, allophone, alveolar, answerable, apical, apico alveolar, apico dental, articulated, articulation, aspiration, assimilated, assimilation, assonant … Moby Thesaurus
pharyngeal — Synonyms and related words: accented, allophone, alveolar, apical, apico alveolar, apico dental, articulated, articulation, aspiration, assimilated, assimilation, back, barytone, bilabial, broad, cacuminal, central, cerebral, check, checked,… … Moby Thesaurus
guttural consonant — noun a consonant articulated in the back of the mouth or throat • Syn: ↑guttural, ↑pharyngeal, ↑pharyngeal consonant • Derivationally related forms: ↑guttural (for: ↑guttural) … Useful english dictionary