image_shield = Ternopilgerb.jpg
map_caption = Location with the Ternopil Oblast
dot_x = |dot_y =
pushpin_map_caption =Location within the Ukraine
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_name = UKR
subdivision_type1 = Oblast
subdivision_name1 = Ternopil Oblast
subdivision_type2 = Raion
subdivision_name2 = Ternopilsky Raion
leader_name =Roman Zastavnyi
timezone = CET
utc_offset = +2
timezone_DST = CEST
utc_offset_DST = +3
latd=49 |latm=34 |lats= |latNS=N
longd=25 |longm=36 |longs= |longEW=E
area_code =+380 352
footnotes = Ternopil ( _uk. Тернопіль, translit. "Ternopil’", _pl. Tarnopol, _ru. Тернополь, translit. "Ternopol’"), is a
cityin western Ukraine, located on the banks of the Seret River. Ternopil is one of three main cities of Eastern Galicia. It is located approximately convert|132|km|mi east of Lviv, at around coord|49|33|N|25|35|E|region:UA_type:city(221,300). It is served by Ternopil Airport.
The current estimated population is 221,300 (as of 2004).
The city is the administrative center of the
Ternopil Oblast(province), as well of the surrounding Ternopilsky Raion(district) within the oblast. However, Ternopil is a city of oblast subordinance, thus being subject directly to the oblast authorities rather to the raion administration housed in the city itself.
The city was founded in 1540 by
Jan Amor Tarnowskias a Polish military stronghold and a castle. In 1544 the Ternopil castle was constructed and repelled its first Tatar attacks. In 1548 Ternopil was granted city rights by king Sigismund I of Poland. In 1567 the city passed to the Ostrogskifamily. In 1575 it was plundered by Tatars. In 1623 the city passed to the Zamoyskifamily.
In the 17th century the town was almost wiped from the map in the
Khmelnytsky Uprisingwhich drove out or killed most of its Jewish residents. Ternopil was almost completely destroyed by Turks and Tatars in 1675 and rebuilt by Aleksander Koniecpolski but did not recover its previous glory until it passed to Marie Casimire, the wife of king Jan III Sobieskiin 1690. The city was later sacked for the last time by Tatars in 1694, and twice by Russiansin the course of the Great Northern Warin 1710 and the War of the Polish Successionin 1733. In 1747 Józef Potockiinvited the Dominicanesand founded the beautiful late baroqueDominican Church (today the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception of The Blessed Virgin Mary of the Ternopil-Zboriv eparchy of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church). The city was thrice looted during the confederation of Bar(1768–1772), by the confederates themeselves, by the kings army and by Russians. In 1770 it was further devastated by an outbreak of smallpox.
Tarnopol Voivodeshipbefore 17 september 1939] In 1772 the city came under Austrian rule after the First Partition of Poland. At the beginning of the 19th century the local population put great hopes into Napoleon Bonaparte, in 1809 the city came under Russian rule, which created to "Ternopol krai" there. In 1815 the city (then with 11,000 residents) returned to Austrian rule in accordance with the Congress of Vienna. In 1820 Jesuitsexpelled from Polatskby Russians established a gymnasium in the town. In 1870 a rail line connected Tarnopol with Lviv, accelerating the city's growth. At that time Ternopil had a population of about 25,000.
World War Ithe city passed from German and Austrian forces to Russiaseveral times. In 1917 it was burnt down by fleeing Russian forces. After the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire the city was proclaimed part of the West Ukrainian People's Republicon 11 November 1918. During the Polish-Ukrainian Warit was the country's capital from 22 Novemberto 30 Decemberafter Lvivwas captured by Polish forces.The Jewish and German population accepted the new Ukrainian state, but the Poles started the military campaign against the Ukrainian authority. [...] . On November 11, 1918 following the bloody fighting the Polish forces captured Lviv. The government of the WUPR moved to Ternopil and from the end of Decemper the Council and the Government of the WUPR were located in Stanislav (now Ivano-Frankivsk).
uk icon [http://www.ji-magazine.lviv.ua/inform/orlata/dovidka.htm West Ukrainian People's Republic] in the "Dovidnyk z istoriï Ukraïny" (A hand-book on the Histoy of Ukraine), 3-Volumes, Kyiv, 1993-1999, ISBN 5-7707-5190-8 (t. 1), ISBN 5-7707-8552-7 (t. 2), ISBN 966-504-237-8 (t. 3).] After the act of union between Western-Ukrainian Republic and the
Ukrainian People's Republic(UPR), Ternopil formally passed under the UPR's control. On 15 July 1919the city was captured by Polish forces. In 1920 the exiled Ukrainian government of Symon Petluraaccepted the Polish control of Ternopil and of the entire area in exchange for the Polish assistance in restoration of Petlura's government in Kyiv. This effort ultimately failed, and in July and August 1920 Ternopil was captured by the Red Armyin the course of the Polish-Soviet Warand served as the capital of the Galician Soviet Socialist Republic. By the terms of the Riga treatythat ended the Polish-Soviet war, the Soviet Russia recognized the Polish control of the area.
From 1922 to September 1939, it was the capital of the
Ternopil voivodshipthat consisted of 17 powiats. The policies of the Polish authorities, especially the assimilationist ethnic policies, affected all spheres of public life. Ukrainians, who according to the 1939 Statistical Yearbook of Poland, made less than half of voivodship's population, were restricted in their rights and were prosecuted for any attempts to oppose the Polonization. This created a strong backlash and strengthened the position of the militant Organization of Ukrainian Nationalistswhose local Ternopil branch was led by Roman Paladiychukand Taras Stetsko, the future leader of OUN,
In 1939 it was a city of 40,000; 50% of the population was Polish, 40% Jewish and 10% UkrainianFact|date=September 2008.
During the Polish Defensive War it was annexed by the
Soviet Unionand attached to the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. The Soviets continued the campaign against the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists aided by the information given to them by the former Polish authorities.A commander of the Polish Police personally transferred to NKVD the Police data about the activity of Ukrainian nationalists in Ternopil and pledged to add the comments on that
Stepan Mechnyk, "OUN i rozbudova ukrains'koi derzhavy", p. 12, Lviv, Kamenyar, 1993, ISBN 5-7745-0565-0 ] The Soviets also carried the mass deportations of the Polish part of the population to
Kazakhstan. In 1941 the city was occupied by the Germans who continued exterminating the population by murdering the Jews and sending others to forced labor in Germany. In april 1944 the city was retaken by the Red Army, the remaining Polish population has been previously expelled. During the soviet reoccupation in march and april 1944 the city was encircled and completely destroyed. In march 1944 the city has been declared a "fortified place" by Adolf Hitler, to defend until the last round was shot. The stiff german resistance caused extensive use of heavy artillery by the Red Army, resulting in the complete destruction of the city and killing of nearly all german defenders. (55 survivors out of 4,500) Unlike many other occasions, where the germans had practiced a scorched earth policy during their withdraw from the territory of soviet union, the devastation was caused directly by the hostilities. [ Karl-Heinz Frieser (Ed.); "Das Deutsche Reich und der Zweite Weltkrieg" - Volume 8: "Die Ostfront 1943/44 - Der Krieg im Osten und an den Nebenfronten"; Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt München 2007; ISBN 978-3-421-06235-2] After the war Ternopil has been rebuilt in a typically soviet style. Only a few buildings have been reconstructed.
Since 1991 Ternopil is a part of independent Ukraine and along with other cities of Halychyna is an important center of Ukrainian national revival.
Polish Jewssettled in Ternopil beginning at its founding and soon formed a majority of the population. During the 16th and 17th centuries there were 300 Jewish families in the city. Among the towns destroyed by Bohdan Khmelnytskyduring his march of devastation from Zolochivthrough Galicia was Tarnopol, the large Jewish population of which carried on an extensive trade. Shortly afterward, however, when the Cossackshad been subdued by John III of Poland, the town began to prosper anew, and its Jewish population exceeded all previous figures. It may be noted that Hasidism at this time dominated the community, which opposed any introduction of Western culture. During the troublous times in the latter part of the eighteenth century the city was stormed (1770) by the adherents of the Confederacy of Bar, who massacred many of its inhabitants, especially the Jews.
After the second partition of Poland, Ternopil came under
Austrian domination and Joseph Perlwas able to continue his efforts to improve the condition of the Jews there, which he had begun under Russian rule. In 1813 he established a Jewish school which had for its chief object the instruction of Jewish youth in German as well as in Hebrew and various other branches. Controversy between the traditional Hasidim and the modernising Maskilimwhich this school caused resulted four years later in a victory for the latter, whereupon the institution received official recognition and was placed under communal control. Since 1863 the school policy was gradually modified by Polish influences, and very little attention was given to instruction in German. The " Tempel für Geregelten Gottesdienst", opened by Perlin 1819, also caused dissensions within the community, and its rabbi, S. J. Rapoport, was forced to withdraw. This dispute also was eventually settled in favor of the Maskilim. As of 1905, the Jewish community numbered 14,000 in a total population of 30,415. The Jews were engaged principally in an active import and export trade with Russia through the border city of Podwoloczyska.
Friedrich von Mellenthin
Samuel Judah Löb Rapoport
Fritz von Scholz
Yonkers, New York
Bibliography of Jewish Encyclopedia
Joseph Jacobs& Schulim Ochser
Allg. Zeit. des Jud." 1839, iii. 606;
Bresler, Joseph Perl, "Warsaw", 1879, passim;
Orgelbrandt, in " Encyklopedja Powszechna", xiv. 409;
J. H. Gurland, "Le-Ḳarot ha-Gezerot", p. 22, Odessa, 1892;
*uk icon [http://www.city-adm.ternopil.ua/ Ternopil City Council]
*uk icon [http://www.ternosvit.te.ua/ Ternopil Portal]
*uk icon [http://www.ternopil.net.te.ua/index.php?dir=/ternopil_(Leonid_Tit)/ Ternopil photos]
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