- Propaganda in the Soviet Union
communist propagandawas extensively based on the Marxism-Leninismideology to promote the Communist Party line. In societies with pervasive censorship, the propaganda was omnipresent and very efficient. It penetrated even social and natural sciences giving rise to various pseudo-scientific theories like Lysenkoism, whereas fields of real knowledge, as genetics, cybernetics, and comparative linguisticswere condemned and forbidden as " bourgeois pseudoscience". With "truths repressed, falsehoods in every field were incessantly rubbed in in print, at endless meetings, in school, in mass demonstrations, on the radio" .
Main Soviet censorship body,
Glavlitemployed seventy thousand full-time staff not only to eliminate any undesirable printed materials, but also "to ensure that the correct ideological spin was put on every published item". Telling anything against the "Party line" was punished by imprisonment. "Today a man only talks freely to his wife - at night, with the blankets pulled over his head", said writer Isaac Babelprivately to a trusted friend
Robert Conquest, "All in all, unprecedented terrormust seem necessary to ideologically motivated attempts to transform society massively and speedily, against its natural possibilities. The accompanying falsifications took place, and on a barely credible scale, in every sphere. Real facts, real statistics, disappeared into the realm of fantasy. History, including the History of the Communist Party, or rather "especially" the history of the Communist Party, was rewritten. Unpersons disappeared from the official record. A new past, as well as new present, was imposed on the captive minds of the Soviet population, as was, of course, admitted when truth emerged in the late 1980s". Robert Conquest"Reflections on a Ravaged Century" (2000) ISBN 0-393-04818-7, page 101-111]
Image of the Soviet Union abroad
An important goal of Soviet propaganda was to maintain the progressive image of the Soviet Union abroad, as an ideal for all workers of the world.
Tarek Heggy, a liberal Egyptian thinker, in his book "Culture, Civilization, and Humanity" demonstrates the success of Soviet propaganda to maintain this idealistic image with the help of two quotations of Andre Gidebefore and after his visit to the Soviet Union.
"My faith in communism is like my faith in religion: it is a promise of salvation for mankind. If I have to lay my life down that it may succeed, I would do so without hesitation"
"It is impermissible under any circumstances for morals to sink as low as communism has done. No one can begin to imagine the tragedy of humanity, of morality, of religion and of freedoms in the land of communism, where man has been debased beyond belief" [
Andre Gideas [http://www.heggy.org/books/imperative/chapter_8.htm quoted by T. Heggy] in his book "Culture, Civilization, and Humanity" (2003) ISBN 0714655546]
Indoctrination of children
An important goal of Communist propaganda was to create a new man. Schools and the Communist youth organizations, like Soviet pioneers and
Komsomol, served to remove children from the " petty-bourgeois" familyand indoctrinate the next generation into the collectiveway of life. One of schooling theorists stated::We must make the young into a generation of Communists. Children, like soft wax, are very malleable and they should be moulded into good Communists... We must rescue children from the harmful influence of the family... We must nationalize them. From the earliest days of their little lives, they must find themselves under the beneficient influence of Communist schools... To oblige the mother to give her child to the Soviet state- that is our task." Orlando Figes"The Whisperers: Private Life in Stalin's Russia", 2007, ISBN 0-08050-7461-9, pages 20-31. ] .
Indoctrination of children in the
cultof "Uncle Lenin" began from the kindergarten. "Lenin's corners", "political shrines for the display of propaganda about the god-like founder of the Soviet state" have been established in all schools . Schools conducted marches, songs and pledges of allegiance to Soviet leadership. One of purposes was to instill in children the idea that they are involved in the World revolution, which is more important than any family ties. Pavlik Morozovwho betrayed his father to the secret police NKVDwas promoted as a great positive example .
Propaganda of extermination
Some historians believe, an important goal of communist propaganda was "to justify
political repressions of entire social groups which Marxism considered antagonistic to the class of proletariat"Nicolas Werth, Karel Bartošek, Jean-Louis Panné, Jean-Louis Margolin, Andrzej Paczkowski, Stéphane Courtois, "The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression", Harvard University Press, 1999, ISBN 0-674-07608-7] , as in decossackizationor dekulakizationcampaigns . Richard Pipeswrote: "a major purpose of Communist propaganda was arousing violent political emotions against the regime's enemies." [ Richard Pipes(1993) "Russia Under the Bolshevik Regime", p. 309.]
The most effective means to achieve this objective "was the denial of the victim's humanity through the process of
dehumanization", "the reduction of real or imaginary enemy to a zoological state". [Black Book, page 749.] . In particular, Vladimir Lenincalled to exterminate enemies "as harmful insects", "lice" and "bloodsuckers". According to writer and propagandist Maksim Gorky, "Class hatred should be cultivated by an organic revulsion as far as the enemy is concerned. Enemies must be seen as inferior. I believe quite profoundly that the enemy is our inferior, and is a degenerate not only in the physical plane but also in the moral sense". He also called to use enemy of the peopleas "human guinea pigs" for human experimentationin the USSR Institute of Experimental Medicine in 1933, which would be "a true service to humanity", according to him . According to The Black Book of Communism, an example of such demonizing animal rhetoric were speeches by state procurator Andrey Vyshinskyduring Stalin's show trials. He said about the suspects [Black Book, page 750.] ::"Shoot these rabid dogs. Death to this gang who hide their ferocious teeth, their eagle claws, from the people! Down with that vulture Trotsky, from whose mouth a bloody venom drips, putrefying the great ideals of Marxism!... Down with these abject animals! Let's put an end once and for all to these miserable hybrids of foxes and pigs, these stinking corpses! Let's exterminate the mad dogs of capitalism, who want to tear to pieces the flower of our new Soviet nation! Let's push the bestial hatred they bear our leaders back down their own throats!"
oviet propaganda abroad
Propaganda abroad was partly conducted by Soviet intelligence agencies.
GRUalone spent more than $1 billion for propaganda and peace movementsagainst Vietnam War, which was a "hugely successful campaign and well worth the cost", according to GRU defector Stanislav Lunev Stanislav Lunev. Through the Eyes of the Enemy: The Autobiography of Stanislav Lunev, Regnery Publishing, Inc., 1998. ISBN 0-89526-390-4 ] . He claimed that "the GRU and the KGB helped to fund just about every antiwar movementand organization in America and abroad". According to Oleg Kalugin, "the Soviet intelligence was really unparalleled. ... The KGB programs -- which would run all sorts of congresses, peace congresses, youth congresses, festivals, women's movements, trade unionmovements, campaigns against U.S. missiles in Europe, campaigns against neutron weapons, allegations that AIDS... was invented by the CIA... all sorts of forgeriesand faked material -- [were] targeted at politicians, the academic community, at the public at large." [http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/episodes/21/interviews/kalugin/ Interview of Oleg Kalugin on CNN] ]
The biggest Soviet propaganda success was allegedly the promotion of
nuclear wintertheory. According to SVRdefector Sergei Tretyakov, the KGB "created the myth of nuclear winter." Sergei, a former Colonel in the Russian KGB/ SVRthat defected to the United States in 2000, says during the 1970s the KGB wanted to prevent the United States from deploying Pershing II cruise missilesin Western Europe. The plan, under KGB Director Yuri Andropov, aimed at fostering popular opposition to the deployment included a massive disinformationcampaign requiring false scientific reports from the Soviet Academy of Sciences and funding to European anti-nuclear and peace groups opposed to arms proliferation. The Soviet Peace Committee, a government organization, spearheaded the effort by funding and organizing demonstrations in Europe against the US bases.Pete Earley, "Comrade J: The Untold Secrets of Russia's Master Spy in America After the End of the Cold War", Penguin Books, 2007, ISBN-13 978-0-399-15439-3, pages 169-177] [http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/experience/the.bomb/opposition/ Opposition to The Bomb: The fear, and occasional political intrigue, behind the ban-the-bomb movements] ] [http://www.heritage.org/research/russiaandeurasia/bg184.cfm 1982 Article "Moscow and the Peace, Offensive"] ] The propaganda was then distributed to sources within environmental, peace, anti-nuclear, and disarmament groups including the publication "Ambio".Pete Earley, "Comrade J: The Untold Secrets of Russia's Master Spy in America After the End of the Cold War", Penguin Books, 2007, ISBN-13 978-0-399-15439-3, pages 169-177] The concept hit mainstream from there and propelled into popular culture with the help of Carl Sagan[http://www.time.com/time/magazine/printout/0,8816,960025,00.html A 1985 "Time" magazine account of Alexandrov's disappearance] ] .
Propaganda against the
United Statesincluded the following actions Mitrokhin, Vasili, Christopher Andrew (2000). The Mitrokhin Archive: The KGB in Europe and the West. Gardners Books. ISBN 0-14-028487-7. ] :
*Promotion of false John F. Kennedy assassination theories, using writer Mark Lane.
*Discreditation of the
CIA, using historian Philip Agee(codenamed PONT).
*Spreading rumors that
FBIdirector J. Edgar Hooverwas a homosexual.
*Attempts to discredit
Martin Luther King, Jr.by placing publications portraying him as an " Uncle Tom" who was secretly receiving government subsidies.
*Stirring up racial tensions in the United States by mailing bogus letters from the
Ku Klux Klan, placing an exposive package in "the Negro section of New York" (operation PANDORA), and spreading conspiracy theories that Martin Luther King, Jr.'s assassination had been planned by the US government.
*Fabrication of the story that
AIDSvirus was manufactured by US scientists at Fort Detrick; the story was spread by Russian-born biologist Jakob Segal
* [http://www.allworldwars.com/Russian%20WWII%20Propaganda%20Posters.html Soviet World War II Propaganda Posters]
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