Dub of Scotland


Dub of Scotland

Infobox_Monarch | name =Dub
title = King of Scots


caption =
reign = 962–967
coronation =
predecessor = Indulf ("Ildulb mac Causantín")
successor = Cuilén ("Cuilén mac Ildulb")
heir =
consort =
issue = Kenneth III ("Cináed mac Dub")
royal house = Alpin
royal anthem =
father = Malcolm I ("Máel Coluim mac Domnaill")
mother =
date of birth =
place of birth =
date of death = 967?
place of death = Forres
place of burial= |

Dub mac Maíl Coluim (Modern Gaelic: "Dubh mac Mhaoil Chaluim") ["Dub mac Maíl Coluim" is the Mediaeval Gaelic form. The modern form, "Dubh", has the sense of "dark" or "black", especially in reference to hair colour] , sometimes anglicised as Duff, [This form was used in older histories, but is not commonly used today] called Dén, "the Vehement" ["Duan Albanach", 23 [http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/G100028/text002.html here] ] and Niger, "the Black" ["Chronicle of the Kings of Alba" and related Scoto-Latin texts. "Niger" is a literal Latin translation of the Gaelic "Dub", which may itself have been an epithet rather than a given name: the Duan Albanach refers to him as "Dubhoda dén", Dubod the vehement or impetuous ] (died 967) was king of Alba. He was son of Malcolm I (Máel Coluim mac Domnaill) and succeeded to the throne when Indulf (Ildulb mac Causantín) was killed in 962.

While later chroniclers such as John of Fordun supplied a great deal of information on Dub's life and reign, including tales of witchcraft and treason, almost all of this is rejected by modern historians. There are very few sources for the reign of Dub, of which the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba and a single entry in the Annals of Ulster are the closest to contemporary.

The Chronicle records that during Dub's reign bishop Fothach, most likely bishop of St Andrews or of Dunkeld, died. The remaining report is of a battle between Dub and Cuilén, son of king Ildulb. Dub won the battle, fought "upon the ridge of Crup", in which Duchad, abbot of Dunkeld, sometimes supposed to be an ancestor of Crínán of Dunkeld, and Dubdon, the mormaer of Atholl, died.

The various accounts differ on what happened afterwards. The Chronicle claims that Dub was driven out of the kingdom. The Latin material interpolated in Andrew of Wyntoun's "Orygynale Cronykl" states that he was murdered at Forres, and links this to an eclipse of the sun which can be dated to 20 July 966. The Annals of Ulster report only: "Dub mac Maíl Coluim, king of Alba, was killed by the Scots themselves"; the usual way of reporting a death in internal strife, and place the death in 967. It has been suggested that Sueno's Stone, near Forres, may be a monument to Dub, erected by his brother Kenneth II (Cináed mac Maíl Coluim). It is presumed that Dub was killed or driven out by Cuilén, who became king after Dub's death, or by his supporters.

Dub left at least one son, Kenneth III (Cináed mac Dub). Although his descendants did not compete successfully for the kingship of Alba after Cináed was killed in 1005, they did hold the mormaerdom of Fife. The MacDuib (or MacDuff) held the mormaerdom, and later earldom, until 1371.

External links

* [http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/G100001A/index.html Annals of Ulster, part 1, at CELT] ( [http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/T100001A/index.html translated] )
* [http://www.arts.ed.ac.uk/scothist/booklets/sh1/documents-alba.html The Chronicle of the Kings of Alba]

Notes

References

* Duncan, A.A.M., "The Kingship of the Scots 842–1292: Succession and Independence." Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 2002. ISBN 0-7486-1626-8
* Smyth, Alfred P., "Warlords and Holy Men: Scotland AD 80–1000." Edinburgh UP, Edinburgh, 1984. ISBN 0-7486-0100-7


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