Zhong Yao

Zhong Yao

Three Kingdoms infobox
Name=Zhong Yao

Caption=Portrait of Zhong Yao in Sancai Tuhui
Kingdom=Cao Wei
Pinyin=Zhōng Yáo
WG=Chung Yao
Zi=Yuanchang (元常)

Zhong Yao [The name is also sometimes rendered Zhōng Yóu in pinyin, because the 2nd character has historically had several pronunciations. In the Norman & Mattos translation of Qiu Xigui (2000), for instance, Zhōng Yóu is given. However, according to the Hànyǔ Dàzìdiǎn's entry on the character (p.1436), it is pronounced yao2 in names, which supports Wiki's entry of Zhong Yao] (151–230) was a Chinese calligrapher and politician of Cao Wei. Born in modern Xuchang, Henan, he was at one time the Grand Administrator of Chang'an.

Following Cao Pi's death and Cao Rui taking the throne, Zhong Yao was appointed as a Grand Tutor of Wei in 226. As a student of Cai Yong, a famous calligrapher, he also contributed to the development of standard script (kaishu), and is known as the "father of standard script". His famous works include the Xuānshì Biǎo (宣示表), Jiànjìzhí Biǎo (薦季直表), and Lìmìng Biǎo (力命表), which survive through handcopies, including by Wang Xizhi. Qiú Xīguī (2000, p.143) describes the script in Zhong’s Xuānshì Biǎo as::"…clearly emerging from the womb of early period semi-cursive script. If one were to write the tidily written variety of early period semi-cursive script in a more dignified fashion and were to use consistently the pause technique (dùn 頓, used to reinforce the beginning or ending of a stroke) when ending horizontal strokes, a practice which already appears in early period semi-cursive script, and further were to make use of right-falling strokes with thick feet, the result would be a style of calligraphy like that in the “Xuān shì biǎo"".

Zhong Yao's son Zhong Hui was also a calligrapher and a general of the Wei who conquered Shu Han with Deng Ai.

Personal information

* Son
** Zhong Hui (钟会)



*漢語大字典. Hànyǔ Dàzìdiǎn, 1992. 湖北辭書出版社和四川辭書出版社 Húbĕi Cishu Chūbǎnshè and Sìchuān Cishu Chūbǎnshè; The Taiwanese edition (traditional characters) cited here is from 建宏出版社 Jiànhóng Publ. in Taipei; ISBN 957-813-478-9.

*Qiú Xīguī (2000). Chinese Writing. Translation of 文字學概論 by Mattos and Norman. Early China Special Monograph Series No. 4. Berkeley: The Society for the Study of Early China and the Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, Berkeley. ISBN 1-55729-071-7.

* Wang, Yuchi, [ "Zhong Yao"] . "Encyclopedia of China" (Arts Edition), 1st ed.

ee also

*Three Kingdoms
*Personages of the Three Kingdoms
*"Records of Three Kingdoms"
*"Romance of the Three Kingdoms"

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