Proto-Indo-European to Dacian sound changes


Proto-Indo-European to Dacian sound changes

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The Dacian language was a Satem Indo European Language.

hort vowels

PIE has the short vowels e, o.

The existence of the PIE short vowel a is disputed.

The origin of the Late PIE short vowel a is considered to be the laryngeal unicode|h2.

But Mayrhofer (1986: 170 ff.) has argued that PIE did in fact have a phoneme independent of unicode|h2.

The PIE short vowel e passed in Dacian in a stressed syllable to ye/ya.

It is usual considered that the stressed e passed in Dacian to ye in open syllables and to ya in closed syllables.

However some Dacian dialectal variations didn't strictly obey to the above rules.

The PIE short vowel o passed in PIE dialectal times (this change happened in all the SATEM areal) to a, so it appeared in Dacian as a.

The (late) PIE short vowel a was preserved in Dacian as a.

PIE *h2e,*h2 > PIE a > Dacian a

Dacian: *akmōn-, *Akmōnia ( att. Akmonia)

*Meaning:
***akmōn- - 'stone',
***Akmōnia - 'The Stony (city); The Stony (place)'
*Attestation: :*Akmonia - [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Periods/Roman/_Texts/Ptolemy/3/8*.html Ptolemy, Geography, Book III, Chapter 8] : ::"The most important towns of Dacia are these: [...] :::Akmonia 48*00 45°00"
*Etymology: :*Dacian *Akmōnia < *PIE unicode|*h2eḱ--mōn-yo < PIE unicode|*h2eḱ-mōn- 'stone' :*Note: *Akmōnia reflects the depalatization of PIE *k^ to Dacian *k before m (but also before n, r,l). The same rule can be found in Albanian and partially in Baltic too.
*Preserved in:
**Albanian: kmesë 'sickle' < [Albanian e < Dacian ō] < Dacian *akmōntyā< PIE unicode|*h2eḱ-mōn-tyeh2 < PIE unicode|*h2eḱ-mōn- 'stone'
**Note: This Albanian etymology for kmesë supported by Robert S. P. Beekes and Martin E. Huld, needs to account for the preservation of km cluster in Albanian. However the preservation of a km cluster is also present in Old Romanian acmu /akmu/ (Miron Costin), showing that this kind of preservation is not impossible.
*Cognates:
**Baltic
***Lithuanian:
****akmuõ 'stone' < PIE unicode|*h2eḱ-men- [http://www.ieed.nl/cgi-bin/response.cgi?root=leiden&morpho=0&basename=%5Cdata%5Cie%5Cbaltic&first=1&sort=lith&text_lith=akmuo%CC%83&method_lith=substring&text_accent=&method_accent=substring&text_var=&method_var=substring&text_seealso=&method_seealso=substring&text_fraenkel=&method_fraenkel=substring&text_latv=&method_latv=substring&text_tones=&method_tones=substring&text_latvar=&method_latvar=substring&text_oprvoc=&method_oprvoc=substring&text_oprcat=&method_oprcat=substring&text_protobsl=&method_protobsl=substring&text_protoslav=&method_protoslav=substring&text_
] (with regular depalatalization unicode|*ḱ > k before m)
****ãšmens `sharp side, edge' (with no depalatization unicode|*ḱ > š for the other positions)
***Latvian:
****akmens 'stone' < PIE unicode|*h2eḱ-men- [http://www.ieed.nl/cgi-bin/response.cgi?root=leiden&morpho=0&basename=%5Cdata%5Cie%5Cbaltic&first=1&sort=lith&text_lith=akmuo%CC%83&method_lith=substring&text_accent=&method_accent=substring&text_var=&method_var=substring&text_seealso=&method_seealso=substring&text_fraenkel=&method_fraenkel=substring&text_latv=&method_latv=substring&text_tones=&method_tones=substring&text_latvar=&method_latvar=substring&text_oprvoc=&method_oprvoc=substring&text_oprcat=&method_oprcat=substring&text_protobsl=&method_protobsl=substring&text_protoslav=&method_protoslav=substring&text_
]
***Old Prussian
**Greek
***Greek: unicode|ἄκμων,-ονος /akmōn, -onos/ 'anvil, meteoric stone, heaven' < PIE unicode|*h2eḱ-mōn- [http://www.ieed.nl/cgi-bin/response.cgi?root=leiden&morpho=0&basename=%5Cdata%5Cie%5Cgreek&first=1&sort=lemma&text_lemma=&method_lemma=substring&text_grammar=&method_grammar=substring&text_meaning=&method_meaning=substring&text_forms=&method_forms=substring&text_dialect=&method_dialect=substring&text_composita=&method_composita=substring&text_derivative=&method_derivative=substring&text_origin=&method_origin=substring&text_etymology=meteoric+stone&method_etymology=substring&text_seealso=&method_seealso=substring&text_friskpag=&method_friskpag=substring&text_any=&method_any=substring]
**Indo-Aryan
***Sanskrit:
****unicode|áśman- 'stone, rock, sling-stone, thunderbolt' < PIE unicode|*h2eḱ-mon- [http://www.ieed.nl/cgi-bin/response.cgi?root=leiden&morpho=0&basename=%5Cdata%5Cie%5Cewa&first=1&sort=sktform&text_sktform=a%CC%81s%CC%81man&method_sktform=substring&text_attest=&method_attest=substring&text_gramm=&method_gramm=substring&text_paradigm=&method_paradigm=substring&text_sktmean=&method_sktmean=substring&text_rvconcord=&method_rvconcord=substring&text_iirrec=&method_iirrec=substring&text_iaother=&method_iaother=substring&text_ewa=&method_ewa=substring&text_sktsee=&method_sktsee=substring&text_av=&method_av=substring&text_op=&method_op=substring&text_khot=&method_khot=substring&text_sogd=&method_sogd=substring&text_mp=&method_mp=substring&text_parth=&method_parth=substring&text_np=&method_np=substring&text_oss=&method_oss=substring&text_irother=&method_irother=substring&text_ieform=&method_ieform=substring&text_iecert=&method_iecert=substring&text_pokpage=&method_pokpage=substring&text_idiom=&method_idiom=substring&text_other=&method_other=substring&text_note=&method_note=substring&text_any=&method_any=substring]
***Avestan:
****unicode|asman- `stone, heaven'
***Persian:
****asman- `heaven'
**Slavic
***Old Church Slavonic:
****kamy `stone' [m n] , kamene [Gens]
***Polish
***Russian
*Pokorny: :*ak^- (see "4. Mit m-Formantien: ak^mo-") 'sharp, stone' [http://www.ieed.nl/cgi-bin/response.cgi?flags=eygtnrl&single=1&basename=/data/ie/pokorny&text_recno=48&root=leiden]
*References::*ak'-m- 'stone, rock' [http://ehl.santafe.edu/cgi-bin/response.cgi?root=config&morpho=0&basename=%2Fdata%2Fie%2Fpiet&first=1&text_proto=&method_proto=substring&text_meaning=&method_meaning=substring&text_hitt=&method_hitt=substring&text_ind=stone&method_ind=substring&text_avest=&method_avest=substring&text_iran=&method_iran=substring&text_arm=&method_arm=substring&text_greek=&method_greek=substring&text_slav=&method_slav=substring&text_balt=&method_balt=substring&text_germ=&method_germ=substring&text_lat=&method_lat=substring&text_ital=&method_ital=substring&text_celt=&method_celt=substring&text_alb=&method_alb=substring&text_tokh=&method_tokh=substring&text_refer=&method_refer=substring&text_comment=&method_comment=substring&text_any=&method_any=substring&sort=proto]

Dacian: *arğ-, Arğidava (att. Argidava), *Arğesya (att. unicode|Ὀρδησσός /Ordēssos/)

*Meaning:
***arğ- - 'glittering, silver-coloured'
***Arğidava - 'The Fortress on the Glittering (river)'
***Arğesya - 'The Glittering (river)'
*Attestation: :*Argidava - [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Periods/Roman/_Texts/Ptolemy/3/8*.html Ptolemy, Geography, Book III, Chapter 8] : ::"The most important towns of Dacia are these: [...] ::: Argidava [46*30 45°15] :*unicode|Ὀρδησσός /Ordēssos/ - [http://www.sacred-texts.com/cla/hh/hh4040.htm Herodotus Book 4: Melpomene <48>] ::unicode|"48. [1] Ἴστρος μέν, ἐὼν μέγιστος ποταμῶν πάντων τῶν ἡμεῖς ἴδμεν, ἴσος αἰεὶ αὐτὸς ἑωυτῷ ῥέει καὶ θέρεος καὶ χειμῶνος, πρῶτος δὲ τὸ ἀπ᾽ ἑσπέρης τῶν ἐν τῇ Σκυθικῇ ῥέων κατὰ τοιόνδε μέγιστος γέγονε· ποταμῶν καὶ ἄλλων ἐς αὐτὸν ἐκδιδόντων [2] εἰσὶ δὴ οἵδε οἱ μέγαν αὐτὸν ποιεῦντες, διὰ μέν γε τῆς Σκυθικῆς χώρης πέντε μὲν οἱ ῥέοντες, τὸν τε Σκύθαι Πόρατα καλέουσι Ἑλλήνες δὲ Πυρετόν, καὶ ἄλλος Τιάραντος καὶ Ἄραρος τε καὶ Νάπαρις καὶ Ὀρδησσός. [3] ὁ μὲν πρῶτος λεχθεὶς τῶν ποταμῶν μέγας καὶ πρὸς ἠῶ ῥέων ἀνακοινοῦται τῷ Ἴστρῳ τὸ ὕδωρ, ὁ δὲ δεύτερος λεχθεὶς Τιάραντος πρὸς ἑσπέρης τε μᾶλλον καὶ ἐλάσσων, ὁ δὲ δὴ Ἄραρός τε καὶ ὁ Νάπαρις καὶ ὁ Ὀρδησσὸς καὶ μέσου τούτων ἰόντες ἐσβάλλουσι ἐς τὸν Ἴστρον. οὗτοι μὲν αὐθιγενέες Σκυθικοὶ ποταμοὶ συμπληθύουσι αὐτόν, ἐκ δὲ Ἀγαθύρσων Μάρις ποταμὸς ῥέων συμμίσγεται τῷ Ἴστρῳ."::"48. The Ister, which is the greatest of all the rivers which we know, flows always with equal volume in summer and winter alike. It is the first towards the West of all the Scythian rivers, and it has become the greatest of all rivers because other rivers flow into it. And these are they which make it great:--five in number are those which flow through the Scythian land, namely that which the Scythians call Porata and the Hellenes Pyretos, and besides this, Tiarantos and Araros and Naparis and Ordessos. The first-mentioned of these is a great river lying towards the East, and there it joins waters with the Ister, the second Tiarantos is more to the West and smaller, and the Araros and Naparis and Ordessos flow into the Ister going between these two. 49. These are the native Scythian rivers which join to swell its stream, while from the Agathyrsians flows the Maris and joins the Ister,"
*Etymology:
**Dacian Arği-dava < PIE *h2erunicode|ǵ-i- < PIE *h2erunicode|ǵ- 'gliterring, silver-coloured'
**Late Dacian Arğesya < Dacian *Ardzyesya < Early Dacian *Ardzesya (att. Ordēssos) < PIE *h2erunicode|ǵ-es-yo < PIE *h2erunicode|ǵ- 'gliterring, silver-coloured'
*Preserved in: ::Romanian: Argeş (same river) < Late Dacian *Arğesya < Dacian *Ardzyesya < Early Dacian *Ardzesya (att. Ordēssos)::Note: The Romanian Argeş shows also the regular Romanian phonetic evolution from Dacian:::*Romanian ş /s^/ < Dacian sy ::*Romanian ie /ye/ < Dacian ye ::*Romanian gi /g^/ < Dacian dzy
*Cognates
**Indo-Aryan"'
***Sanskrit:
****árjuna- `light, white, silver-coloured' < PIE *h2erunicode|ǵ-u-no- [http://www.ieed.nl/cgi-bin/response.cgi?root=leiden&morpho=0&basename=%5Cdata%5Cie%5Cewa&first=1&sort=sktform&text_sktform=a%CC%81rjuna-&method_sktform=substring&text_attest=&method_attest=substring&text_gramm=&method_gramm=substring&text_paradigm=&method_paradigm=substring&text_sktmean=&method_sktmean=substring&text_rvconcord=&method_rvconcord=substring&text_iirrec=&method_iirrec=substring&text_iaother=&method_iaother=substring&text_ewa=&method_ewa=substring&text_sktsee=&method_sktsee=substring&text_av=&method_av=substring&text_op=&method_op=substring&text_khot=&method_khot=substring&text_sogd=&method_sogd=substring&text_mp=&method_mp=substring&text_parth=&method_parth=substring&text_np=&method_np=substring&text_oss=&method_oss=substring&text_irother=&method_irother=substring&text_ieform=&method_ieform=substring&text_iecert=&method_iecert=substring&text_pokpage=&method_pokpage=substring&text_idiom=&method_idiom=substring&text_other=&method_other=substring&text_note=&method_note=substring&text_any=&method_any=substring]
***Avestan
***Persian
**Italic
***Latin
****argentum 'silver' < PIE *h2erunicode|ǵ-ent-o-
****arguō
****argūtus
**Baltic
***Lithuanian
***Latvian
***Old Prussian
**Slavic
***Old Church Slavonic
***Polish
***Russian
**Greek
***Greek
**Celtic
***Irish
**Germanic
***Gothic
***English
***Old Norse
***German
**Anatolian
***Tocharian
*Pokorny::**arg^- 'glittering, white' [http://www.ieed.nl/cgi-bin/response.cgi?root=leiden&morpho=0&basename=%2Fdata%2Fie%2Fpokorny&first=1&sort=lemma&text_lemma=arg%5E&method_lemma=substring&text_meaning=&method_meaning=substring&text_ger_mean=&method_ger_mean=substring&text_grammar=&method_grammar=substring&text_comments=&method_comments=substring&text_derivatives=&method_derivatives=substring&text_material=&method_material=substring&text_ref=&method_ref=substring&text_seealso=&method_seealso=substring&text_pages=&method_pages=substring&text_any=&method_any=substring] [http://ehl.santafe.edu/cgi-bin/response.cgi?root=config&morpho=0&basename=%2Fdata%2Fie%2Fpokorny&first=1&text_root=arg&method_root=substring&text_meaning=&method_meaning=substring&text_ger_mean=&method_ger_mean=substring&text_grammar=&method_grammar=substring&text_comments=&method_comments=substring&text_derivative=&method_derivative=substring&text_material=&method_material=substring&text_ref=&method_ref=substring&text_seealso=&method_seealso=substring&text_pages=&method_pages=substring&text_any=&method_any=substring&sort=root]
*References: :*arg'- 'white, brilliant' [http://ehl.santafe.edu/cgi-bin/response.cgi?root=config&morpho=0&basename=%2Fdata%2Fie%2Fpiet&first=1&text_proto=*arg%27-&method_proto=substring&text_meaning=white%2C+brilliant&method_meaning=substring&text_hitt=&method_hitt=substring&text_ind=&method_ind=substring&text_avest=&method_avest=substring&text_iran=&method_iran=substring&text_arm=&method_arm=substring&text_greek=&method_greek=substring&text_slav=&method_slav=substring&text_balt=&method_balt=substring&text_germ=&method_germ=substring&text_lat=&method_lat=substring&text_ital=&method_ital=substring&text_celt=&method_celt=substring&text_alb=&method_alb=substring&text_tokh=&method_tokh=substring&text_refer=&method_refer=substring&text_comment=&method_comment=substring&text_any=&method_any=substring&sort=proto] :*arg'- 'silver' [http://ehl.santafe.edu/cgi-bin/response.cgi?root=config&morpho=0&basename=%2Fdata%2Fie%2Fpiet&first=1&text_proto=*arg%27-&method_proto=substring&text_meaning=silver&method_meaning=substring&text_hitt=&method_hitt=substring&text_ind=&method_ind=substring&text_avest=&method_avest=substring&text_iran=&method_iran=substring&text_arm=&method_arm=substring&text_greek=&method_greek=substring&text_slav=&method_slav=substring&text_balt=&method_balt=substring&text_germ=&method_germ=substring&text_lat=&method_lat=substring&text_ital=&method_ital=substring&text_celt=&method_celt=substring&text_alb=&method_alb=substring&text_tokh=&method_tokh=substring&text_refer=&method_refer=substring&text_comment=&method_comment=substring&text_any=&method_any=substring&sort=proto]

Dacian: *apa, *DZaldapa (att. Zaldapa), *Apus (att. unicode|Απος /Apos/)

*Meaning:
***apa - (flowing) water
***DZaldapa - golden water
***Apus - water, river
*Attestation: :**DZaldapa (att. Zaldapa) - 'golden water':*Apus (att. unicode|Απος /Apos/) - 'water, river' - possible today Caraş - a River in Banat
*Etymology: :*Dacian *DZald + *apa < PIE *unicode|ǵholh3-dh- 'golden' + *h2ep-eh2 'flowing water'
*Preserved in: :*Romanian: apa 'water' [http://dexonline.ro/search.php?cuv=apa&source=] :* Notes: Romanian: apa 'water' is usually considered from Latin aqua. However the PIE root h2ep- - 'water' is largely attested in many PIE languages (see Cognates below). *DZ in *DZaldapa is reconstructed based on Old Romanian dz <-> Alb dh < PAlb./Dacian? *dz < PIE *g^
*Cognates:
**Baltic [http://ehl.santafe.edu/cgi-bin/response.cgi?single=1&basename=/data/ie/baltet&text_number=+++603&root=config]
***Lithuanian:
****ùpė 'water, stream'
***Latvian:
****upe 'water, stream'
***Old Prussian:
****ape 'water', apus 'spring'
**Indo-Aryan
***Sanskrit:
****āp- [f.] , [nom. pl.] unicode|āpaḥ, [acc. pl.] unicode|apáḥ `water' < PIE *h2ep-, *h2ēp-
****dvīpá- 'island, sandbank in river' < PIE *dwi-h2p-ó-
***Avestan
****āfš 'water'
**Greek
***Greek
****Āpía 'Peloponnesus'
**Anatolian
***Hittite
****hāpa- `to the river' < Pre-Anatolian *h2eb- < PIE *h2ep-h3on 'having waters'
***Palaic
****hāpnas `river' < Pre-Anatolian *h2eb- < PIE *h2ep-h3on 'having waters'
**Tocharian
***Tocharian B: āp-* [http://www.ieed.nl/cgi-bin/response.cgi?root=leiden&morpho=0&basename=%5Cdata%5Cie%5Ctoch&first=1&sort=lemma&text_lemma=%C4%81p*&method_lemma=substring&text_grammar=&method_grammar=substring&text_meaning=&method_meaning=substring&text_paradigm=&method_paradigm=substring&text_examples=&method_examples=substring&text_comments=&method_comments=substring&text_derivates=&method_derivates=substring&text_etymology=&method_etymology=substring&text_seesv=&method_seesv=substring&text_any=&method_any=substring]
*Pokorny: :*unicode|ā̆p-2 'water, river' [http://www.ieed.nl/cgi-bin/response.cgi?root=leiden&morpho=0&basename=%2Fdata%2Fie%2Fpokorny&first=1&'=lema&text_lemma=%C4%81p-2&method_lemma=substring&text_meaning=&method_meaning=substring&text_ger_mean=&method_ger_mean=substring&text_grammar=&method_grammar=substring&text_comments=&method_comments=substring&text_derivatives=&method_derivatives=substring&text_material=&method_material=substring&text_ref=&method_ref=substring&text_seealso=&method_seealso=substring&text_pages=&method_pages=substring&text_any=&method_any=substring]
*References::**ap- 'river, stream (+ bank, shore)' [http://ehl.santafe.edu/cgi-bin/response.cgi?root=config&morpho=0&basename=%2Fdata%2Fie%2Fpiet&first=1&text_proto=*ap-&method_proto=substring&text_meaning=stream&method_meaning=substring&text_hitt=&method_hitt=substring&text_ind=&method_ind=substring&text_avest=&method_avest=substring&text_iran=&method_iran=substring&text_arm=&method_arm=substring&text_greek=&method_greek=substring&text_slav=&method_slav=substring&text_balt=&method_balt=substring&text_germ=&method_germ=substring&text_lat=&method_lat=substring&text_ital=&method_ital=substring&text_celt=&method_celt=substring&text_alb=&method_alb=substring&text_tokh=&method_tokh=substring&text_refer=&method_refer=substring&text_comment=&method_comment=substring&text_any=&method_any=substring&sort=proto]

PIE *e,*h1e,*h1/stressed > PIE e/stressed > Dacian *ye/ya

Dacian: Diegis

:*see Dacian #Diegis*< PIE *dhégwh- 'to burn'

PIE *e,*h1e,*h1/not-stressed > PIE e/not-stressed > Dacian *e

*No clear etymologies could be supplied however some Dacian words like: Netindava, Decebalus point out to this phonetic rule.

Dacian: Netindava

PIE *o,*h1o, h2o, h3o,*h3e,*h3 > PIE *o > Dacian *a

Dacian: Malwa

:*see Dacian #malwa < PIE *molh-wo 'rocky shore'

Long Vowels

It is often suggested that long vowels were appeared in PIE from an unicode|e, o followed by one of the laryngeals unicode|h1,h2,h3

At least in its latest times, PIE has the long vowels unicode|ā, ē, ō; a colon "(:)" is sometimes employed to indicate vowel length instead of the macron sign ("a:, e:, o:").

Other linguists argued that long vowels already existed in early PIE.

Other long vowels may have appeared already in the proto-language by compensatory lengthening.


="PIE *eh1 > PIE ē > Early Dacian ē > Dacian *ā"=

Dacian dāwā

:*see Dacian #*dāwā < PIE *dheh1-weh2 'fortress'


="PIE *eh2 > PIE ā > Dacian *ā"=


="PIE *oh1,oh2,oh3,*eh3 > PIE ō > Dacian *ō"=

Dacian Akmōnia

:*see Dacian #*Akmōnia"' < PIE *h2ek'-mōn-yo 'stone'

emivowels

PIE has unicode|w, y (also transcribed unicode|u̯, i̯) with vocalic allophones unicode|u, i.

The PIE semi-vowels unicode|w, y was preserved in Dacian as unicode|w, y.

Their PIE vocalic allophones unicode|u, i was also preserved in Dacian as unicode|u, i.

The PIE laryngeals have generated long unicode|u:, i: vowels whenever they appeared after the PIE vowels unicode|u, i ; but in front of PIE vowels unicode|u, i the PIE laryngeals were lost.


="PIE *i,*h1i,*h2i,*h3i > Dacian i"=

Dacian: *Istra (att. Ister, Hister, Istros, Istru)

*Meaning:
**Istra - 'Danube'
**
*Attestation:
**Istros,Hister,Ister,Istru - 'The Danube river' :*
*Etymology:
*Dacian *Istra < PIE unicode|*h1isH-ró- or unicode|*h1isH-t-ró- 'strong, vigorous' < PIE unicode|*h1eisH- 'strong, vigurous"
*Important Note: If the original PIE Form was only PIE unicode|*h1isH-ró- that the etymon is of Thracian origin (so not a Dacian one) PIE *sr > Thracian *str but PIE *sr > Dacian *(r)r. However etymons like Istria (Dalmatian Cost) or Istra (Baltic river) indicate that (also) derivates in *-tró (and not only *-ró) existed with a great probability already in PIE times. Adding to this that the Dacian area was extended until Haemus Mountains we are more inclined to considered the originar PIE Form unicode|*h1isH-t-ró-.
*Preserved in:
*Cognates:
*Baltic
**Lithuanian:
***Is(t)ra
**Latvian:
**Old Prussian
*Greek
**Old Greek
***hierós
*Indo-Aryan
**Sanskrit:
***is.irá-
**Avestan
**Persian
*Slavic
**Old Church Slavonic
**Polish
**Russian
*Celtic
**Isara 'a river name'
*Pokorny:
*References:


="PIE *u,*h1u,*h2u,*h3u > Dacian u"=


="PIE *ih1,ih2,ih3 > PIE i: > Dacian i:"=


="PIE *uh1,uh2,uh3 > PIE u: > Dacian u:"=


="PIE *w > Dacian *w"=

Note: there wasn't any *v, in Dacian. The *v appeared from *w, very late, at the end of Dacian times

Dacian dāwā

:*see Dacian #*dāwā < PIE *dheh1-weh2 'fortress'


="PIE *y > Dacian *y"=

Diphthongs:

PIE has the following diphthongs unicode|ai, au, āi, āu, ei, eu, ēi, ēu, oi, ou, ōi, ōu


="PIE *ou > Dacian *au"=


="PIE *au > Dacian *au"=


="PIE *eu > Dacian *eu"=


="PIE *oi > Dacian *ai"=


="PIE *ai > Dacian *ai (> Late Dacian e (in sec II-III CE))"=

Dacian: *aidziyā, *aidza (att. Aizisis)

*Meaning:
***aidziyā - 'she-goat'
***aidza - 'small goat, kid'
**Aidzisis - 'The village with (many) goats'
*Attestation:
**Aizisis
*Etymology:
**Dacian *aidz-isis < PIE *h2eiunicode|ǵ-, 'goat'
*Preserved in: [http://www.argjiro.net/fjalor/]
**Albanian:
***dhi '(she-)goat' < Dacian *aidziyā < PIE *h2eiunicode|ǵ-í-yeh2 [http://www.ieed.nl/cgi-bin/response.cgi?root=leiden&morpho=0&basename=%5Cdata%5Cie%5Calb&first=1&sort=albform&text_albform=edh&method_albform=substring&text_albmeaning=kid&method_albmeaning=substring&text_paradigm=&method_paradigm=substring&text_palb=&method_palb=substring&text_qie=&method_qie=substring&text_albother=&method_albother=substring&text_albsee=&method_albsee=substring&text_albae=&method_albae=substring&text_ieform=&method_ieform=substring&text_iemean=&method_iemean=substring&text_iecert=&method_iecert=substring&text_pokpage=&method_pokpage=substring&text_gr=&method_gr=substring&text_lat=&method_lat=substring&text_arm=&method_arm=substring&text_other=&method_other=substring&text_note=&method_note=substring&text_any=&method_any=substring ]
*** edh 'small goat' < Dacian *aidza < PIE *h2éiunicode|ǵ-o [http://www.ieed.nl/cgi-bin/response.cgi?root=leiden&morpho=0&basename=%5Cdata%5Cie%5Calb&first=1&sort=albform&text_albform=edh&method_albform=substring&text_albmeaning=kid&method_albmeaning=substring&text_paradigm=&method_paradigm=substring&text_palb=&method_palb=substring&text_qie=&method_qie=substring&text_albother=&method_albother=substring&text_albsee=&method_albsee=substring&text_albae=&method_albae=substring&text_ieform=&method_ieform=substring&text_iemean=&method_iemean=substring&text_iecert=&method_iecert=substring&text_pokpage=&method_pokpage=substring&text_gr=&method_gr=substring&text_lat=&method_lat=substring&text_arm=&method_arm=substring&text_other=&method_other=substring&text_note=&method_note=substring&text_any=&method_any=substring]
***Note: Romanian: ied 'small goat' [http://dexonline.ro/search.php?cuv=ied&source=] could well be of a mixed origin: Dacian *aidza and Latin haedus.
*Cognates:
**Greek: unicode|αἴξ `(she-)goat' [http://www.indo-european.nl/cgi-bin/response.cgi?root=leiden&morpho=0&basename=%5Cdata%5Cie%5Cgreek&first=1&sort=lemma&text_lemma=&method_lemma=substring&text_grammar=&method_grammar=substring&text_meaning=he-goat&method_meaning=substring&text_forms=&method_forms=substring&text_dialect=&method_dialect=substring&text_composita=&method_composita=substring&text_derivative=&method_derivative=substring&text_origin=&method_origin=substring&text_etymology=Arm.+ayc&method_etymology=substring&text_seealso=&method_seealso=substring&text_friskpag=&method_friskpag=substring&text_any=&method_any=substring]
**Armenian: ayc `(she-)goat'
*Pokorny: aig^ - 'goat' [http://www.ieed.nl/cgi-bin/response.cgi?flags=eygtnrl&single=1&basename=/data/ie/pokorny&text_recno=32&root=leiden]
*References:


="PIE *ei > Dacian *ei, Dacian dialectal *i"=

Dentals (notation: T)

The standard PIE reconstruction identified three coronal/dental stops: unicode|t, d, dʰ.

They are symbolically grouped with the cover symbol T.

The PIE unicode|t, d was preserved in Dacian as unicode|t, d.

The PIE unicode|dʰ passed in Dacian to unicode|d.


="PIE *dh > Dacian *d"=

Dacian: *dāwā (att. -dava, -daua, -daba)

*Meaning:
**dāwā - fortress
*Attestation: :* -dava, -daua, -daba
*Etymology: :*Dacian *dāwā- < Early-Dacian: *dēwā < PIE *dheh1-weh2 < PIE *dheh1- 'to stand'
*Preserved in: :*Bulgarian Plovdiv < Dacian Pulpudeva
*Cognates:
*Baltic
**Lithuanian:
**Latvian:
**Old Prussian
*Greek
**Greek
*Indo-Aryan
**Sanskrit:
**Avestan
**Persian
*Slavic
**Old Church Slavonic
**Polish
**Russian
*Pokorny:
*References:

Dacian: *dyega, Diegis

*Meaning:
***dyega - 'to burn'
**Diegis - 'The fiery one'/'The fervent one' (Decebal's general)
*Attestation: :*"Diegis - [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Cassius_Dio/67*.html Cassius Dio - Roman History - Epitome of Book LXVII] "Domitian, having been defeated by the Marcomani, took to flight, and hastily sending messages to Decebalus, king of the Dacians, induced him to make a truce, though he himself had hitherto refused to grant one in response to the frequent requests of Decebalus. And so Decebalus accepted his overtures, for he had suffered grievous hardships; yet he did not wish to hold a conference with Domitian personally, but instead sent Diegis with the men, to give him the arms and a few captives, who, he pretended, were the only ones that he had. When this had been done, Domitian placed a diadem on the head of Diegis, just as if he had truly conquered and could give the Dacians anyone he pleased to be their king. To the soldiers he granted honours and money. And, just as if he had won a victory, he sent to Rome, among other things, envoys from Decebalus and also a letter from the king, as he claimed, though rumour declared that he had forged it."
*Etymology:
**Dacian Diegis < PIE *dhégwh- < *dhegwh- "to burn"
*Preserved in: :*Albanian: djeg "to burn" [http://www.indo-european.nl/cgi-bin/response.cgi?root=leiden&morpho=0&basename=%5Cdata%5Cie%5Calb&first=1&sort=albform&text_albform=djeg&method_albform=substring&text_albmeaning=&method_albmeaning=substring&text_paradigm=&method_paradigm=substring&text_palb=&method_palb=substring&text_qie=&method_qie=substring&text_albother=&method_albother=substring&text_albsee=&method_albsee=substring&text_albae=&method_albae=substring&text_ieform=&method_ieform=substring&text_iemean=&method_iemean=substring&text_iecert=&method_iecert=substring&text_pokpage=&method_pokpage=substring&text_gr=&method_gr=substring&text_lat=&method_lat=substring&text_arm=&method_arm=substring&text_other=&method_other=substring&text_note=&method_note=substring&text_any=&method_any=substring] < Dacian *dyega < [e/stressed > ye] < Early-Dacian *dega < *dhégwh-o
*Cognates:
*Baltic
**Lithuanian degti
**Latvian degt
**Old Prussian dagis
*Greek
**Greek theptanos
*Indo-Aryan
**Sanskrit unicode|dáhati 'to burn'
**Avestan dažaiti
**Persian dāġ
*Slavic
**Old Church Slavonic žešti
**Polish żgę
**Russian žgučij
*Italic
**Latin fovēre
*Celtic
**Irish daig
*Germanic
**Gothic dags
**English dæg/day
**Old Norse dagr
**German tag/Tag
*Tocharian tsäk/tsäk
*Pokorny:
**dhegw|h 'to burn' [http://www.ieed.nl/cgi-bin/response.cgi?flags=eygtnrl&single=1&basename=/data/ie/pokorny&text_recno=380&root=leiden]
*References:


="PIE *d > Dacian *d"=

Dacian: Duras, Diurpaneus

*Meaning:
***Duras- - (Dacian king 69-86) 'The Resistant one',
***Diurpaneus - (same Dacian king 69-86) 'That one that cannot be overtaken'
*Attestation: :*Diurpaneus - [http://www.harbornet.com/folks/theedrich/Goths/Goths1.htm#XIII Jordanes, 'GETICA sive De Origine Actibusque Gothorum' XIII 76] : ::*Cui provinciae tunc post Agrippam Oppius praeerat Sabinus, Gothis autem Diurpaneus principatum agebat, quando, bello commisso, Gothi, Romanis devictis, Oppii Sabini capite absciso, multa castella et civitates de parte Imperatoris invadentes publice depraedarunt.::*Oppius Sabinus was then in command of that province, succeeding {Fontejus} Agrippa {governor of Moesia, 69-70}, while Diurpaneus {i.e., Dacian king Duras-Diurpaneus, 69-86} held command over the Goths. Thereupon the Goths made war {A.D. 85; {actually the Dacians, not the Goths} and conquered the Romans, cut off the head of Oppius Sabinus, and invaded and boldly plundered many castles and cities belonging to the Emperor.
*Etymology: :*Dacian *Duras < *PIE unicode| < PIE unicode| "
*Preserved in:
*Cognates:
*Baltic
**Lithuanian:
**Latvian:
**Old Prussian
*Greek
**Greek
*Indo-Aryan
**Sanskrit:
**Avestan
**Persian
*Slavic
**Old Church Slavonic
**Polish
**Russian
*Pokorny:
*References:


="PIE *t > Dacian *t"=

Dacian: *tamas-, Tamasidava

*Meaning:
***tamas- dark',
*Attestation: :* Dacian: Tamasidava 'The dark fortress' ::*
*Etymology: :*Dacian Tamasi-dava < PIE *tomH-os- < *temH- 'dark'
*Preserved in:::
*Cognates:
*Baltic
**Lithuanian:
***tamsa 'the dark'
**Latvian:
**Old Prussian
*Greek
**Greek
*Indo-Aryan
**Sanskrit:
***unicode|támas- `darkness, blinding, illusion' [http://www.ieed.nl/cgi-bin/response.cgi?root=leiden&morpho=0&basename=%2Fdata%2Fie%2Fewa&first=1&sort=sktform&text_sktform=ta%CC%81mas-&method_sktform=substring&text_attest=&method_attest=substring&text_gramm=&method_gramm=substring&text_paradigm=&method_paradigm=substring&text_sktmean=&method_sktmean=substring&text_rvconcord=&method_rvconcord=substring&text_iirrec=&method_iirrec=substring&text_iaother=&method_iaother=substring&text_ewa=&method_ewa=substring&text_sktsee=&method_sktsee=substring&text_av=&method_av=substring&text_op=&method_op=substring&text_khot=&method_khot=substring&text_sogd=&method_sogd=substring&text_mp=&method_mp=substring&text_parth=&method_parth=substring&text_np=&method_np=substring&text_oss=&method_oss=substring&text_irother=&method_irother=substring&text_ieform=&method_ieform=substring&text_iecert=&method_iecert=substring&text_pokpage=&method_pokpage=substring&text_idiom=&method_idiom=substring&text_other=&method_other=substring&text_note=&method_note=substring&text_any=&method_any=substring ]
*** unicode|támisrā- `dark night' [http://www.ieed.nl/cgi-bin/response.cgi?root=leiden&morpho=0&basename=%5Cdata%5Cie%5Cewa&first=1&sort=sktform&text_sktform=ta%CC%81misr%C4%81-&method_sktform=substring&text_attest=&method_attest=substring&text_gramm=&method_gramm=substring&text_paradigm=&method_paradigm=substring&text_sktmean=&method_sktmean=substring&text_rvconcord=&method_rvconcord=substring&text_iirrec=&method_iirrec=substring&text_iaother=&method_iaother=substring&text_ewa=&method_ewa=substring&text_sktsee=&method_sktsee=substring&text_av=&method_av=substring&text_op=&method_op=substring&text_khot=&method_khot=substring&text_sogd=&method_sogd=substring&text_mp=&method_mp=substring&text_parth=&method_parth=substring&text_np=&method_np=substring&text_oss=&method_oss=substring&text_irother=&method_irother=substring&text_ieform=&method_ieform=substring&text_iecert=&method_iecert=substring&text_pokpage=&method_pokpage=substring&text_idiom=&method_idiom=substring&text_other=&method_other=substring&text_note=&method_note=substring&text_any=&method_any=substring]
***unicode|tami `to become exhausted, to be suffocated' [http://www.ieed.nl/cgi-bin/response.cgi?root=leiden&morpho=0&basename=%2Fdata%2Fie%2Fewa&first=1&sort=sktform&text_sktform=tami&method_sktform=substring&text_attest=&method_attest=substring&text_gramm=&method_gramm=substring&text_paradigm=&method_paradigm=substring&text_sktmean=&method_sktmean=substring&text_rvconcord=&method_rvconcord=substring&text_iirrec=&method_iirrec=substring&text_iaother=&method_iaother=substring&text_ewa=&method_ewa=substring&text_sktsee=&method_sktsee=substring&text_av=&method_av=substring&text_op=&method_op=substring&text_khot=&method_khot=substring&text_sogd=&method_sogd=substring&text_mp=&method_mp=substring&text_parth=&method_parth=substring&text_np=&method_np=substring&text_oss=&method_oss=substring&text_irother=&method_irother=substring&text_ieform=&method_ieform=substring&text_iecert=&method_iecert=substring&text_pokpage=&method_pokpage=substring&text_idiom=&method_idiom=substring&text_other=&method_other=substring&text_note=&method_note=substring&text_any=&method_any=substring ]
**Avestan
**Persian
*Slavic
**Old Church Slavonic
**Polish
**Russian
*Pokorny:
**unicode|*tem(ǝ)- 'dark, to dark' [http://www.ieed.nl/cgi-bin/response.cgi?root=leiden&morpho=0&basename=%2Fdata%2Fie%2Fpokorny&first=1&sort=lemma&text_lemma=tem%28%C7%9D%29-&method_lemma=substring&text_meaning=&method_meaning=substring&text_ger_mean=&method_ger_mean=substring&text_grammar=&method_grammar=substring&text_comments=&method_comments=substring&text_derivatives=&method_derivatives=substring&text_material=&method_material=substring&text_ref=&method_ref=substring&text_seealso=&method_seealso=substring&text_pages=&method_pages=substring&text_any=&method_any=substring ]
*References:

Labials (notation: P)

PIE has unicode|*p, *b, *bʰ.

unicode|*b was a very rare phoneme, which is one argument in favor of its PIE *ph3 origin.

The PIE unicode|*b, *p were preserved as unicode|*b, *p in Dacian.

The PIE unicode|*bʰ passed to Dacian unicode|*b.


="PIE *p > Dacian *p"=


="PIE *bh > Dacian *b"=

Dacian: *berdza-, Berzovia, Berzobis

*Meaning:
***berdza- 'birch',
*Attestation: :* Dacian: Berzobis " (Trajan 'Getica') ::*
*Etymology: :*Dacian: Berdzovia < PIE *bHerh1g^-os 'birch' < PIE *bHerh1g^- 'to shine, white'
*Preserved in:::
*Cognates:
*Baltic
**Lithuanian:
***
**Latvian:
**Old Prussian
*Greek
**Greek
*Indo-Aryan
**Sanskrit:
***
**Avestan
**Persian
*Slavic
**Old Church Slavonic
**Polish
**Russian
*Pokorny:
**unicode|*bHer@g^- " [http://www.ieed.nl/cgi-bin/response.cgi?root=leiden&morpho=0&basename=%2Fdata%2Fie%2Fpokorny&first=1&sort=lemma&text_lemma=bher%C7%9Dg%5E-%2C+bhr%C4%93g%5E-&method_lemma=substring&text_meaning=&method_meaning=substring&text_ger_mean=&method_ger_mean=substring&text_grammar=&method_grammar=substring&text_comments=&method_comments=substring&text_derivatives=&method_derivatives=substring&text_material=&method_material=substring&text_ref=&method_ref=substring&text_seealso=&method_seealso=substring&text_pages=&method_pages=substring&text_any=&method_any=substring]
*References:


="PIE *b, *ph3 > Dacian *b"=

Dacian: Rabon, Arabon

*Meaning:
***ara- *abon- 'the furios river',
*Attestation: :* [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Periods/Roman/_Texts/Ptolemy/3/8*.html Ptolemy, Geography, Book III, Chapter 8] "After the mouth of the Tibiscus river the first turn which is west-southwest is in 47*20 44°45 then a bend near the entrance of the Rabon river which flows from Dacia in 49*00 43°30 ":*Dacian: Arrabo(n) (river in Pannonia), Arrabonna (city in Pannonia on Arabon River) [http://icarus.umkc.edu/sandbox/perseus/pecs/page.424.a.php Arrabonna,Arrabon]
*Etymology: :*Dacian *Ara- *abon- 'the furios river' < PIE *h1or-o- *h2ep-h3on < PIE *h1er-o 'to set in motion' + PIE *h2ep-h3on 'river' < 'flowing-water' [http://www.indo-european.nl/cgi-bin/response.cgi?root=leiden&morpho=0&basename=%5Cdata%5Cie%5Cceltic&first=1&sort=celtic&text_celtic=*abon&method_celtic=substring&text_oir=&method_oir=substring&text_w=&method_w=substring&text_bret=&method_bret=substring&text_co=&method_co=substring&text_gaul=&method_gaul=substring&text_lep=&method_lep=substring&text_celtib=&method_celtib=substring&text_pie=&method_pie=substring&text_pok=&method_pok=substring&text_other=&method_other=substring&text_see=&method_see=substring&text_notes=&method_notes=substring&text_references=&method_references=substring&text_any=&method_any=substring]
*Preserved in:::
*Cognates:
*Baltic
**Lithuanian:
**Latvian:
**Old Prussian
*Greek
**Greek
*Indo-Aryan
**Sanskrit:
*Celtic
** *abon (see Old Irish: ab, aub) 'river' < PIE *h2ep-h3on [http://www.indo-european.nl/cgi-bin/response.cgi?root=leiden&morpho=0&basename=%5Cdata%5Cie%5Cceltic&first=1&sort=celtic&text_celtic=*abon&method_celtic=substring&text_oir=&method_oir=substring&text_w=&method_w=substring&text_bret=&method_bret=substring&text_co=&method_co=substring&text_gaul=&method_gaul=substring&text_lep=&method_lep=substring&text_celtib=&method_celtib=substring&text_pie=&method_pie=substring&text_pok=&method_pok=substring&text_other=&method_other=substring&text_see=&method_see=substring&text_notes=&method_notes=substring&text_references=&method_references=substring&text_any=&method_any=substring]
*Latin:
**amnis- 'river' < *abnis < PIE *h2ep-h3on- [http://www.indo-european.nl/cgi-bin/response.cgi?root=leiden&morpho=0&basename=%5Cdata%5Cie%5Cceltic&first=1&sort=celtic&text_celtic=*abon&method_celtic=substring&text_oir=&method_oir=substring&text_w=&method_w=substring&text_bret=&method_bret=substring&text_co=&method_co=substring&text_gaul=&method_gaul=substring&text_lep=&method_lep=substring&text_celtib=&method_celtib=substring&text_pie=&method_pie=substring&text_pok=&method_pok=substring&text_other=&method_other=substring&text_see=&method_see=substring&text_notes=&method_notes=substring&text_references=&method_references=substring&text_any=&method_any=substring]
*Pokorny: PIE *ab- (*ap-) [http://www.indo-european.nl/cgi-bin/response.cgi?flags=undnnnn&root=leiden&basename=/data/ie/pokorny&first=1&text_lemma=ab-&method_lemma=substring]
*Comment: Rabon could be also a Celtic loan in Dacian.

Nasals and Liquids (notation: "R")

PIE has unicode|r, l, m, n, with vocalic allophones unicode|r̥, l̥, m̥, n̥

The PIE unicode|r, l, m, n was preserved in Dacian as unicode|r, l, m, n too.

The PIE syllabic unicode|m̥, n̥ passed in Dacian to unicode|a.

The PIE syllabic unicode|l̥, r̥ passed in Dacian to ri~ir, li~li.

The PIE clusters unicode|l̥h1, r̥h1,l̥h3, r̥h3 passed to Dacian ar~ra, al~la;

On the other hand the PIE clusters unicode|l̥h2, r̥h2 passed in Dacian to ur~ru, ul~lu.


="PIE *m > Dacian *m"=

Dacian malwa (attested in Dacia Maluensis later Dacia Ripensis Meaning: rocky shore, mountain Attestation: Dacia Maluensis Etymology: PIE *molH-wo < PIE *molH- 'mountain, rocky shore' Cognates: Preserved in: Romanian [http://dexonline.ro/search.php?cuv=mal&source= mal] 'shore' Albanian mal 'mountain' [http://www.argjiro.net/fjalor/ search on http://www.argjiro.net/fjalor/] Pokorny: n/a References: [http://members.tripod.com/~Groznijat/balkan/ehamp.html 'Eric Hamp - The Position of Albanian'] "d) Certain Thracian names are supposedly explained with the help of Albanian. Of these, only Dacia Maluensis ( : mal) is well explained in this way; Decebalus ( : ballë) and Burebista (burre + bisht) are surely wrong." Dacian manteia Meaning: blackberry Attestation: Apuleius Etymology: Cognates: Preserved in: Albanian man 'mulberry' [http://www.argjiro.net/fjalor/ search on http://www.argjiro.net/fjalor/] Note: In Albanian final -ntV- > -nV- (with some later evolutions to -nd(V) - ) Pokorny: References: [http://members.tripod.com/~Groznijat/balkan/ehamp.html 'Eric Hamp - The Position of Albanian']


="PIE *n > Dacian *n"=


="PIE *l > Dacian *l"=


="PIE *r > Dacian *r"=


="PIE *m. > Dacian *a"=


="PIE *n. > Dacian *a"=


="PIE *r. > Dacian *ri~*ir"=

"'see Dacian #Crisia 'Black (river)' < PIE *kWrs-yo 'Black'


="PIE *l. > Dacian *li~*il"=


="PIE *r.h1 > Dacian *ar~*ra"=

see Dacian #Karpātya "The Rocky (Mountains)" < PIE *kr.h1-p-eh2-tyo < PIE *(s)kerh1- 'to cut'


="PIE *r.h2 > Dacian *ur~*ru"=


="PIE *r.h3 > Dacian *ar~*ra"=


="PIE *l.h1 > Dacian *al~*la"=


="PIE *l.h2 > Dacian *ul~*lu"=


="PIE *l.h3 > Dacian *al~*la"=

Velars

Direct comparison, informed by the Centum-Satem isogloss yields the reconstruction of three rows of dorsal consonants in PIE.
*Palatovelars, unicode|ḱ, ǵ, ǵʰ (also transcribed unicode|k', g', g'ʰ or unicode|k̑, g̑, g̑ʰ or unicode|k̂, ĝ, ĝʰ). These were IPA| [k] - or IPA| [g] -like sounds which underwent a characteristic change in the Satem languages; they were possibly palatalized velars (IPA| [kʲ] , IPA| [gʲ] ) in Proto-Indo-European.
*Pure velars, unicode|k, g, gʰ.
*Labiovelars, unicode|kʷ, gʷ, gʷʰ (also transcribed unicode|k, g, gu̯h). Raised unicode|ʷ stands for labialization, or lip-rounding accompanying the articulation of velar sounds (IPA| [kʷ] is a sound similar to English "qu" in "queen").

The centum group of languages merged the palatovelars unicode|ḱ, ǵ, ǵʰ with the plain velars unicode|k, g, gʰ while the satem group of languages merged the labiovelars unicode|kʷ, gʷ, gʷʰ with the plain velars unicode|k, g, gʰ.

The existence of the plain velars as phonemes separate from the palatovelars and labiovelars has been disputed. In most circumstances they appear to be allophones resulting from the neutralization of the other two series in particular phonetic circumstances. It is difficult to pinpoint exactly what the circumstances of the allophony are, although it is generally accepted that neutralization occurred after unicode|s and unicode|u, and often before unicode|r.

Dorsals evolution from PIE to Dacian was the following:

PIE pure velars unicode|*k, *g remained unicode|*k, *g in Dacian.

PIE pure velar unicode|*gʰ passed in Dacian to unicode|*g.

PIE palatovelars unicode|ḱ, ǵ, ǵʰ passed in Dacian to unicode|*ts, *dz, *dz

PIE labiovelars unicode|*kʷ, *gʷ, *gʷʰ passed in Dacian to unicode|*k, *g, *g in a non-palatal context

In a palatal context {e, i,y} PIE labiovelars unicode|*kʷ, *gʷ, *gʷʰ passed in Dacian to unicode|*c^, *g^, *g^


="PIE *k > Dacian *k"=

Dacian: *karpā, Karpātya, Karpi Meaning: *karpā (noun) - 'rock' Karpātya (mountains) - 'The Rocky (mountains)' Karpi (a Dacian's Tribe) - 'The people from "the Rocky Mountains"' Attestation: unicode|Καρπάτης ὄρος /Karpátēs/ [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Periods/Roman/_Texts/Ptolemy/3/8*.html Ptolemy, Geography, Book III, Chapter 8] "Dacia is bounded on the north by that part of European Sarmatia, which extends from the Carpathian mountains to: that terminus where, as we have shown, the Tyras river is deflected in its course in 53*00 48°30" karpi Preserved in: Albanian: [http://www.indo-european.nl/cgi-bin/response.cgi?root=leiden&morpho=0&basename=%5Cdata%5Cie%5Calb&first=1&sort=albform&text_albform=karp&method_albform=substring&text_albmeaning=rock&method_albmeaning=substring&text_paradigm=&method_paradigm=substring&text_palb=&method_palb=substring&text_qie=&method_qie=substring&text_albother=&method_albother=substring&text_albsee=&method_albsee=substring&text_albae=&method_albae=substring&text_ieform=&method_ieform=substring&text_iemean=&method_iemean=substring&text_iecert=&method_iecert=substring&text_pokpage=&method_pokpage=substring&text_gr=&method_gr=substring&text_lat=&method_lat=substring&text_arm=&method_arm=substring&text_other=&method_other=substring&text_note=&method_note=substring&text_any=&method_any=substring karpë 'rock'] Romanian: Carpaţi (same mountains) Etymology: Dacian: *karpā 'stone' < PIE *krh1-p-eh2 'rock' < PIE *(s)kerh1- 'to cut' Dacian: *Karpātya 'The Rocky (mountains)' < PIE *krh1-p-eh2-tyo 'consisting of rock' *(s)korh1-p- However the zero-grade form *(s)krh1-p- is 'more in line' with others Albanian-Romanian reconstruction see: PIE nil-grade *bhrh1g^- Rom. barza 'stork' <-> Albanian bardhë 'white' Cognates: Norw. skarv 'bare rock' Pokorny: [http://www.ieed.nl/cgi-bin/response.cgi?root=leiden&morpho=0&basename=%2Fdata%2Fie%2Fpokorny&first=1&sort=lemma&text_lemma=%28s%29ker-4&method_lemma=substring&text_meaning=&method_meaning=substring&text_ger_mean=&method_ger_mean=substring&text_grammar=&method_grammar=substring&text_comments=&method_comments=substring&text_derivatives=&method_derivatives=substring&text_material=&method_material=substring&text_ref=&method_ref=substring&text_seealso=&method_seealso=substring&text_pages=&method_pages=substring&text_any=&method_any=substring *(s)ker-p < *(s)ker-4 'to cut']


="PIE *g > Dacian *g"=


="PIE *unicode|k^ > Dacian *ts"=

"'Dacian: *tsikā (Lat. sicca) Meaning: The famous Dacian short curved sword Attestation: Latin sicca 'Thracian/Dacian sword' [http://www.gutenberg.org/files/14959/14959-8.txt The Hymns of Prudentius (120)] "Sic semina sicca virescunt iam mortua iamque sepulta, quae reddita caespite ab imo veteres meditantur aristas." Preserved in: Albanian: thikë 'knife' < [Alb th < Dacian ts] < Dacian tsikā Latin: sicca (as a loanword) Etymology: Latin sicca < Dacian *tsikā < PIE *unicode|ḱh1i-ko < *unicode|ḱeh1i- 'sharpe" The original sound "ts" in Dacian *tsikā is recontructed based on: 1. Albanian thikë 'knife' and 2. on the Romanian ţ /ts/ <-> Albanian "'th correspondance (see Romanian ţeapǎ <-> Albanian thep). Note that the Dacian ts 'was translated' by the Romans as Latin s Cognates:


="PIE *unicode|ĝ, ĝh > Dacian *dz"=

see Dacian #Aidzisis < PIE *h2eiunicode|ǵ- 'goat'


="PIE *kw/- > Dacian *k"=

"'Dacian: Crisia Meaning: The Black (river) Attestation: Crisia, Crissos Etymology: PIE *kWr.s-yo < *kWers- 'black' Cognates: Preserved in: Romanian: [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
]


="PIE *kW/+ > Dacian *c^ (like in English teacher)"=


="PIE *gw/-,gwh/- > Dacian *g "=


="PIE *gw/+,gwh/+ > Dacian *ğ /g^/ "=

Dacian Ğiridava Meaning: The fortress on the wooded mountain Attestation: Giridava Etymology: From an older reconstructed Dacian form *Ğyeri-da:wa: < [gW/e > g^; e/stressed > ye] < PIE *gWérh2-i- (+ *dHeh1-weh2) < PIE *gWerh2- 'mountain, wooded mountain' Cognates: Preserved (not directly) in: The PIE nil-grade *gWrh2-i- (that leads to a reconstructed Dacian form *grui) is preserved in: Romanian: [http://dexonline.ro/search.php?cuv=grui&source= grui] 'hill, top' Albanian: gur 'stone' [http://www.argjiro.net/fjalor/ search on http://www.argjiro.net/fjalor/] Pokorny: References: Comments: A derivation of Dacian Giridava from the nil-grade *gWrh2-i-, in place of the full-grade form *gWérh2-i- cannot be excluded; But such a derivation will raise some difficulties: 1. the explanation of g^ in Giridava is not obvious. 2. the Romanian grui and Albanian gur will remain un-accountable because they cannot be derived directly from the Dacian giri. Dacian Ğermisara Meaning: The hot spring(s) Attestation: Germisara Etymology: From an older reconstructed Dacian form *ğermí-sara < [gWH/e > g^] < < PIE *gWHer-m- 'hot' + *seh1-ro- 'spring' Preserved in: Albanian: zjarm 'fire' [http://www.argjiro.net/fjalor/ search on http://www.argjiro.net/fjalor/] Cognates: Pokorny: References: Comments:


="PIE *ty/hiatus > Late Dacian *ts~*c^"=


="PIE *dy/hiatus > Late Dacian *dz~*g^"=


="PIE *ky > Late Dacian *ts~*c^"=


="PIE *gy > Late Dacian *dz~*g^"=

ibilants

The PIE has the fricative unicode|*s (with the voiced allophone unicode|*z). The "laryngeals" may have been fricatives, but there is no consensus as to their phonetic realization.

As a main rule the PIE unicode|*s was preserved in Dacian as unicode|*s

However at the beginning of the words:

1. the PIE initial unicode|*s- in accented syllables passed in Dacian to unicode|*z- and later to unicode|*z^- > *j-

2. also the PIE cluster unicode|*sw- lost the unicode|*s- and remained unicode|*w-

Also in all positions:

3. the PIE cluster unicode|*sy that was still preserved at unicode|*sy in Early Dacian Times passed in Late Dacian Times to unicode|*sh somewhere between sec II BCE and II CE.

Issues

It is still disputed if the Dacian knew a RUKI-Rule {rs > rsh, us > ush, ks > ksh , is > ish} or at least an UI-Rule {us > ush, is > ish see Naissos attested with double -ss-} or not.Also is still disputed if the intervocalic -s- was preserved as -s- in all the contexts or it passes to -h- (at least in some of them).


="PIE *s > Dacian *s "=

Dacian: sara, Germi-sara, Deu-sara Meaning: sara - 'spring' Germi-sara - 'The Hot Spring(s)' Deu-sara - 'The God Spring(s)' Attestation: [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Periods/Roman/_Texts/Ptolemy/3/8*.html Ptolemy, Geography, Book III, Chapter 8] "The most important towns of Dacia are these: [...] Zermizirga 49*30 46°15 " [corrupted form] Etymology: Dacian sara < PIE unicode|*sor-eh2 < PIE unicode|*ser- 'to flow' "'Preserved in: Cognates: Baltic Lithuanian: Latvian: Old Prussian Greek Greek: Indo-Aryan Sanskrit Avestan Persian Slavic Old Church Slavonic Polish Russian Pokorny: [http://www.ieed.nl/cgi-bin/response.cgi?flags=eygtnrl&single=1&basename=/data/ie/pokorny&text_recno=1695&root=leiden ser-1 'to flow'] References:

Dacian: *Sūsunicode|ā́gus (Susagus) Meaning: *Sūsunicode|ā́gus - 'The Old Man'/'The Grand-Father' (Decebal's General) Attestation: Susagus - [http://www.princeton.edu/~champlin/cla219/219pliny.htm Pliny - Letters to Emperor Trajan] "74. To the emperor Trajan, I received a letter, Sir, from Apuleius, an officer in the troops stationed at Nicomedia, informing me that one Callidromus being arrested by Maximus and Dionysius, (two bakers, to whom he had hired himself) fled for refuge to your statue; that being brought before a magistrate, he declared he was formerly slave to Laberius Maximus; but being taken prisoner by Susagus in Moesia, he was sent as a present from Decebalus to Pacorus, king of Parthia, in whose service he continued several years, from whence he made his escape, and came to Nicomedia. When he was examined before me, he confirmed this account; for which reason I thought it necessary to send him to you. I should have sent him sooner, but I deferred his journey, in order to make an inquiry concerning a gem which he said was taken from him, upon which was engraved the figure of Pacorus in his royal habit: I was desirous (if it could have been found) of transmitting this curiosity to you, with a small ingot of Parthian gold, which he says he brought from thence out of the mines, I have fixed my seal to it, the impression of which is, a chariot drawn by four horses. " Etymology: Dacian Sūsunicode|ā́gus < PIE unicode|*suhs-eh2 "parent, progenitor" Certainty: - "'Preserved in: Albanian: [http://www.ieed.nl/cgi-bin/response.cgi?root=leiden&morpho=0&basename=%5Cdata%5Cie%5Calb&first=1&sort=albform&text_albform=gjysh&method_albform=substring&text_albmeaning=&method_albmeaning=substring&text_paradigm=&method_paradigm=substring&text_palb=&method_palb=substring&text_qie=&method_qie=substring&text_albother=&method_albother=substring&text_albsee=&method_albsee=substring&text_albae=&method_albae=substring&text_ieform=&method_ieform=substring&text_iemean=&method_iemean=substring&text_iecert=&method_iecert=substring&text_pokpage=&method_pokpage=substring&text_gr=&method_gr=substring&text_lat=&method_lat=substring&text_arm=&method_arm=substring&text_other=&method_other=substring&text_note=&method_note=substring&text_any=&method_any=substring gjysh 'grandfather'] <-> Romanian: ghiuj "old man, grandfather" < [PAlb/Dacian? gj < PAlb s-/stressed] < < PAlb/Dacian? *sūsā < PIE *suhs-eh2 "parent, progenitor" Cognates: Indo-Aryan Sanskrit: unicode|sūṣā́ `who gives birth' Skt. unicode|sūṣán- "god of bearing" Avestan Persian Pokorny: [http://www.ieed.nl/cgi-bin/response.cgi?flags=eygtnrl&single=1&basename=/data/ie/pokorny&text_recno=1915&root=leiden su:s- 'parent'] References:


="PIE *sw-/stressed > Dacian *w"=


="PIE *s-/stressed > Dacian *z"=

Consonantic Clusters:


="PIE *sk- > Dacian *ks- > Late Dacian h-"=


="PIE *-sk-/intervocalic > Dacian *-ks- > Late Dacian *-h-"=


="PIE *sp- > Dacian *ps > Late Dacian f" =


="PIE *sm > Dacian *m"=


="PIE *sn > Dacian *n"=


="PIE *sr > Dacian *r"=

References

*DBED - Derksen Baltic etymological dictionary
*DSED - Derksen Slavic etymological dictionary
*BGED - Beekes Greek etymological dictionary
*LIAED - Alexander, Lubotsky, Indo-Aryan etymological dictionary
*DAED - Demiraj, Bardyl, Albanian Inherited Lexicon
*Matassovic An etymological lexicon of Proto-Celtic (in progress)
*Hamp, Eric P.
*Pokorny, Julius. "Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch", 1959.

External links

* [http://groups.yahoo.com/group/cybalist/ Yahoo Cybalist Group] [http://groups.yahoo.com/group/balkanika/ Yahoo Balkanika Group]


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