Italic languages


Italic languages

Infobox Language family
name = Italic
region = Originally in Southern Europe; today worldwide
familycolor = Indo-European
fam1 = Indo-European
child1 = Latino-Faliscan
child2 = Sabellic
iso2=—
The Italic subfamily is a member of the Indo-European language family's Centum branch. It includes the Romance languages (Spanish, Portuguese, French, Italian, Romanian, etc.), and a number of extinct languages of the Italian Peninsula, including Latin, Umbrian, and Oscan.

Phonetic changes

A partial list of regular phonetic changes from Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Italic:
* Palatovelars merge with plain velars
** IPA|ḱ > IPA|k
** IPA|ǵʱ > IPA|ɡʱ
** IPA|ǵ > IPA|ɡ
* Voiced labiovelars unround or lenite
** IPA|ɡʱʷ > IPA|ɡʱ
** IPA|ɡʷ > IPA|ɡ or IPA|w
* Voiced aspirates become first unvoiced, then fricativize
** IPA|bʱ > IPA|pʰ > IPA|ɸ > IPA|f
** IPA|dʱ > IPA|tʰ > IPA|θ
** IPA|ɡʱ > IPA|kʰ > IPA|x
* > IPA|θ before IPA|r; unchanged elsewhere
* Resonants and remaining stops (IPA|m n l r w b d ɡ p t k kʷ) unchanged

Further changes occurred during the evolution of the individual Italic languages, such as IPA|f > IPA|b between vowels and IPA|θ > IPA|f in Latin.

Irregular changes include IPA|p > IPA|kʷ in e.g. Latin "quinque", "five", from PIE *penkʷe, and Latin "coquere", "to cook", from PIE *pekʷ-".

Branches

The Italic family has two known branches:
* Sabellic, including:
** Oscan, which was spoken in the south-central region of the Italian Peninsula
** Umbrian group, including:
*** Umbrian (not to be confused with the modern Umbrian dialect of Italian), which was spoken in the north-central region
*** Volscian
*** Aequian
*** Marsian, the language of the Marsi
** South Picene, in east-central Italy
* Latino-Faliscan, including:
** Faliscan, which was spoken in the area around Falerii Veteres (modern Civita Castellana) north of the city of Rome and possibly Sardinia
** Latin, which was spoken in west-central Italy. The Roman conquests eventually spread it throughout the peninsula and beyond in the Roman Empire.
*** Romance languages, the descendants of Latin (see List of Romance languages)

The Italic speakers were not native to Italy, but migrated into the Italian Peninsula in the course of the 2nd millennium BC and were apparently related to the Celtic tribes that roamed over a large part of Western Europe at the time. Archaeologically, the Apennine culture (inhumations) enters the Italian Peninsula from ca. 1350 BC, east to west. Before the Italic arrival, Italy was populated primarily by non-Indo-European groups (perhaps including the Etruscans). The first settlement on the Palatine hill dates to ca. 750 BC, settlements on the Quirinal to 720 BC (see Founding of Rome).

The ancient Venetic language, as revealed by its inscriptions (including complete sentences), was also closely related to the Italic languages and is sometimes even classified as Italic. However, since it also shares similarities with other Western Indo-European branches (particularly Germanic), some linguists prefer to consider it an independent Indo-European language.

The Italic languages are first attested in writing from Umbrian and Faliscan inscriptions dating to the 7th century BC. The alphabets used are based on the Old Italic alphabet, which is itself based on the Greek alphabet. The Italic languages themselves show minor influence from the Etruscan and somewhat more from the Ancient Greek languages.

As Rome extended its political dominion over the whole of the Italian Peninsula, Latin became dominant over the other Italic languages, which ceased to be spoken perhaps sometime in the 1st century AD. From so-called Vulgar Latin the Romance languages emerged.

ee also

* Language families and languages
* Italo-Celtic

References

* Ernst Pulgram: "Tongues of Italy, Prehistory and History"
* Rix, Helmut (2004). Ausgliederung und Aufgliederung der italischen Sprachen. "Languages in Prehistoric Europe". ISBN 3-8253-1449-9


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  • Italic languages — Italic I*tal ic, a. [L. Italicus: cf. F. italique. Cf. {Italian}.] [1913 Webster] 1. Relating to Italy or to its people. [1913 Webster] 2. Applied especially to a kind of type in which the letters do not stand upright, but slope toward the right; …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Italic languages — Indo European languages spoken in the Apennine Peninsula (Italy) during the 1st millennium BC, after which only Latin survived. Traditionally thought to be a subfamily of related languages, these languages include Latin, Faliscan, Osco Umbrian,… …   Universalium

  • Gallo-Italic languages — Gallo Italic Geographic distribution: Italy, San Marino, Switzerland, Monaco Linguistic classification: Indo European Italic Romance …   Wikipedia

  • Italic — I*tal ic, a. [L. Italicus: cf. F. italique. Cf. {Italian}.] [1913 Webster] 1. Relating to Italy or to its people. [1913 Webster] 2. Applied especially to a kind of type in which the letters do not stand upright, but slope toward the right; so… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Italic order — Italic I*tal ic, a. [L. Italicus: cf. F. italique. Cf. {Italian}.] [1913 Webster] 1. Relating to Italy or to its people. [1913 Webster] 2. Applied especially to a kind of type in which the letters do not stand upright, but slope toward the right; …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Italic school — Italic I*tal ic, a. [L. Italicus: cf. F. italique. Cf. {Italian}.] [1913 Webster] 1. Relating to Italy or to its people. [1913 Webster] 2. Applied especially to a kind of type in which the letters do not stand upright, but slope toward the right; …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Italic version — Italic I*tal ic, a. [L. Italicus: cf. F. italique. Cf. {Italian}.] [1913 Webster] 1. Relating to Italy or to its people. [1913 Webster] 2. Applied especially to a kind of type in which the letters do not stand upright, but slope toward the right; …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Italic — means of or from Italy . The term is most commonly used to refer to the people and languages of what is now Italy from the historic period before the Roman Empire.It may especially refer to: *Italic languages *Ancient Italic peoples *Old Italic… …   Wikipedia

  • Italic — 1. adjective a) Of or relating to the Italian peninsula. The ancient Italic languages that are now extinct include , , and . b) Pertaining to a subfamily of the branch of the Indo European language family, that includes Latin and other languages… …   Wiktionary

  • Italic — [i tal′ik, ītal′ik] n. [L Italicus] a branch of the Indo European language family, including Latin, Oscan, Umbrian, and other languages of ancient Italy, as well as Latin s descendants, the Romance languages adj. 1. of these languages 2. of… …   English World dictionary


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