Francis I of the Two Sicilies


Francis I of the Two Sicilies

Infobox Two Sicilies Royalty|majesty
name =Francis I
title =King of the Two Sicilies


caption =Francis I of the Two Sicilies
reign =4 January 1825 - 8 November 1830
coronation =
predecessor =Ferdinand I
successor =Ferdinand II
succession = King of the Two Sicilies
suc-type =
heir =
spouse =Maria Clementina of Austria
Maria Isabella of Spain
issue =Caroline Ferdinande Louise, Duchess of Berry
Prince Ferdinand
Princess Luisa Carlotta
Maria Christina, Queen of Spain
Ferdinand II
Charles Ferdinand, Prince of Capua
Prince Leopold, Count of Siracusa
Marie Antoinette, Grand Duchess of Tuscany
Prince Antonio, Count of Lecce
Princess Maria Amelia
Princess Maria Carolina, Countess of Montemolin
Teresa, Empress of Brazil
Prince Louis, Count of Aquila
Prince Francis, Count of Trapani
royal house =House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies
royal anthem =
father =Ferdinand I
mother =Marie Caroline of Austria
date of birth =birth date|1777|8|14|df=y
place of birth = Naples
date of death =death date and age|1830|11|8|1777|8|14|df=y
place of death =
place of burial =|

Francis I ("Francesco Gennaro Giuseppe", August 14, 1777 – November 8, 1830) was King of the Two Sicilies from 1825 to 1830.

Biography

Francis was born in Naples, the son of Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies and his wife Archduchess Maria Carolina of Austria. He was also the nephew of Marie Antoinette and Louis XVI the last King and Queen of France before the first French Republic.

In 1796 Francis married Archduchess Maria Clementina of Austria, daughter of the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II. When she died, he married his first cousin María Isabel, daughter of King Charles IV of Spain.

After the Bourbon family fled from Naples to Sicily in 1806, and Lord William Bentinck, the British resident, had established a constitution and deprived Ferdinand of all power, Francis was appointed regent (1812).

On the fall of Napoleon his father returned to Naples and suppressed the Sicilian constitution and autonomy, incorporating his two kingdoms into that of the Two Sicilies (1816); Francis then assumed the revived title of duke of Calabria. While still heir apparent he professed liberal ideas, and on the outbreak of the revolution of 1820 he accepted the regency apparently in a friendly spirit towards the new constitution. But he was probably more conservatively inclined than that.

Hence, on succeeding to the throne in 1825, he followed more conservative principles as well. He took little part in the government, which he left in the hands of favourites and police officials, and lived with his mistresses, surrounded by soldiers, ever in dread of assassination. During his reign the only revolutionary movement was the outbreak on the Cilento (1828), repressed by the marquis Delcarretto, an ex-Liberal. He was, however successful in having the Austrian occupation force withdrawn (1827) therefore relieving a large financial burden on the Treasury.

During his reign, the Royal Order of Francis I was founded to reward civil merit.

Issue

With Maria Clementina of Austria:

* Carolina Ferdinanda Luisa (1798-1870), who married 1st Charles Ferdinand, duc de Berry, the second son of King Charles X of France, and 2nd Ettore Count Lucchesi Palli, Prince di Campofranco, Duke della Grazia.
* Ferdinando (1800-1801).

With Isabella of Spain:

* Luisa Carlotta (1804-1844), who married her mother's younger brother Infante Francisco de Paula of Spain.
* María Cristina (1806-1878), who married 1st her uncle Ferdinand VII of Spain (her mother's older brother) and 2nd Ferdinand Muñoz, Duke of Rianzares.
* Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies (1810-1859) who became Francis I's successor and married twice.
* Carlo Ferdinando, Prince of Capua (1811-1862). Married morganatically to Penelope Smyth and had issue.
* Leopoldo, Count di Siracusa (1813-1860). Married Maria Princess of Savoy-Carignano. No issue.
* Maria Antonietta (1814-1898). Married Leopold II, Grand Duke of Tuscany.
* Antonio, Count of Lecce (1816-1843).
* Marie Amalie (1818-1857), who married Sebastian de Bourbon, Infante of Spain.
* Maria Carolina (1820-1861). Married Carlos, Conde de Montemolin of Spain and Carlist pretender to the throne of Spain.
* Teresa (1822-1889). Married Pedro II of Brazil.
* Luigi, Count di Aquila (1824-1897). Married Januária Maria, Princess Imperial of Brazil (sister of Pedro II of Brazil and Maria II of Portugal). Had issue.
* Francesco, Count of Trapani (1827-1892). Married Archduchess Maria Isabella of Austria, Princess of Tuscany and had issue.

Also had illegitimate children with his mistresses.

Ancestry

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boxstyle_5=background-color: #9fe;
1= 1. Francis I of the Two Sicilies
2= 2. Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies
3= 3. Maria Carolina of Austria
4= 4. Charles III of Spain
5= 5. Maria Amalia of Saxony
6= 6. Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor
7= 7. Maria Theresa of Austria
8= 8. Philip V of Spain
9= 9. Elisabeth of Parma
10= 10. Augustus III of Poland
11= 11. Maria Josepha of Austria
12= 12. Leopold, Duke of Lorraine
13= 13. Élisabeth Charlotte of Orléans
14= 14. Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor
15= 15. Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
16= 16. Louis, Dauphin of France
17= 17. Duchess Maria Anna of Bavaria
18= 18. Odoardo II Farnese
19= 19. Dorothea Sophie of Neuburg
20= 20. Augustus II of Poland
21= 21. Christiane Eberhardine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth
22= 22. Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor
23= 23. Wilhelmina Amalia of Brunswick
24= 24. Charles V, Duke of Lorraine
25= 25. Eleonora Maria Josefa of Austria
26= 26. Philippe I, Duke of Orléans
27= 27. Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate
28= 28. Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor
29= 29. Eleonor Magdalene of the Palatinate
30= 30. Louis Rudolph, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
31= 31. Princess Christine Louise of Oettingen-Oettingen

References

###@@@KEY@@@###
-
width="30%" align="center" | Preceded by:
Ferdinand I
width="40%" align="center" | King of the Two Sicilies
4 January 1825 - 8 November 1830
width="30%" align="center" | Succeeded by:
Ferdinand II


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