:"Sanyasi" redirects here. For the motion picture, see
Sanyasi (1975 film)"
Devanagari: संन्यास) "IAST|sannyāsa" is the "renounced order of life" within Hinduism. It is considered the topmost and final stage of the varna and ashram systems and is traditionally taken by men at or beyond the age of fifty years old or by young monks who wish to dedicate their entire life towards spiritual pursuits. One within the sannyasa order is known as a sannyasi or sannyasin.
Sanskritmeans "renunciation", "abandonment". It is a tripartite compound of IAST|saṃ- has "collective" meaning, "ni-" means "down" and "IAST|āsa" is from the root "IAST|as", meaning "to throw" or "to put", so a literal translation would be "laying it all down". In Dravidian languages, "sanyasi" is pronounced as "sannasi".
There are a number of types of sannyasi in accordance with socio-religious context. Traditionally there are four types of forest hermits [ [http://books.google.ie/books?id=fB8uneM7q1cC&pg=PA171&dq=types+of+sannyasi&sig=P6KLLIhkzqHKk0fR9HeLtT5xXdE The Samnyasa Upanisads: Hindu Scriptures on Asceticism and Renunciation, Patrick Olivelle, Oxford University Press, 1992] ] with different stages of dedication. In recent history two distinct orders are observed "ekadanda" (literally "single stick") and "tridanda' ("triple rod" or stick) saffron robed monks [ [http://books.google.com/books?id=lRhDAAAAIAAJ&q=are+narottamas+whereas+sannyasi&dq=are+narottamas+whereas+sannyasi&pgis=1 Srimad Bhagavatam 1.3.30 First Canto] By A. C. Bhaktivedanta
Prabhupada, Bhaktivedanta Book Trust, ISBN 0912776285] , first being part of Sankaracaryatradition [ [http://books.google.com/books?id=WBtDAAAAIAAJ&q=types+of+sannyasi&dq=types+of+sannyasi&pgis=1 Srimad Bhagavatam: Fourth Canto] By A. C. Bhaktivedanta Prabhupada, Bhaktivedanta Book Trust, ISBN 0912776382] second is sannyasa followed by various vaishnavatraditions and introduced to the west by followers of the reformer Siddhanta Sarasvati. Austerities and attributes associated with the order as well as expectations will differ in both.
Lifestyle and goals
The sannyasi lives a
celibatelife without possessions, practises yogameditation — or in other traditions, bhakti, or devotional meditation, with prayers to their chosen deityor God. The goal of the Hindu Sannsyasin is moksha(liberation), the conception of which also varies. For the devotion oriented traditions, liberation consists of union with the Divine, while for Yoga oriented traditions, liberation is the experience of the highest samadhi(enlightenment). For the Advaitatradition, liberation is the removal of all ignorance and realising oneself as one with the Supreme Brahman.
Bhagavad Gita, sannyasa is described by Krishnaas follows:
"The giving up of activities that are based on material desire is what great learned men call the renounced order of life [sannyasa] . And giving up the results of all activities is what the wise call renunciation [tyaga] ." (18.2) [ [http://bhagavadgitaasitis.com/18/2/en1 Bhagavad Gita 18.2] ]
The term is generally used to denote a particular phase of life. In this phase of life, the person develops "vairāgya," or a state of determination and detachment from material life. He renounces all worldly thoughts and desires, and spends the rest of his life in spiritual contemplation. It is the last in the four phases of a man, namely,
brahmacharya, grihastha, vanaprastha, and finally sannyasa, as prescribed by Manusmritifor the Dwijacastes, in the Hindu system of life. However, these four stages are not necessarily sequential, but on the other hand can not be reversed, in other sense they are progressive phases, one can skip one, two or three ashrams, but can never revert back to an earlier ashrama or phase. Various Hindu traditions allow for a man to renounce the material world from any of the first three stages of life.
Unlike monks in the Western world, whose lives are regulated by a monastery or an abbey and its rules, some Hindu sannyasin are loners and wanderers (parivrājaka). Hindu monasteries (
mathas) never have a huge number of monks living under one roof. The monasteries exist primarily for educational purposes and have become centers of pilgrimage for the lay population. Ordination into any Hindu monastic order is purely at the discretion of the individual guru, who should himself be an ordained sannyasi within that order. Most traditional Hindu orders do not have women sannyasis, but this situation is undergoing changes in recent times.fact|date=May 2008
Danda as spiritual attribute
In the Varnashrama System or Dharma of
Sanatana Dharma, the ' danda' (Sanskrit; Devanagari: दंड, lit. "stick") is a spiritual attribute and axis mundiof certain deities such as Bṛhaspati, and holy people such as sadhucarry the danda as an austerity and marker of their station as a mendicant renunciate or sannyasin.
Of the 108
Upanishads of the Muktika, 23 are considered Sannyasa Upanishads. [Patrick Olivelle, Oxford University Press, 1992] They are listed with their associated Veda – ṚV, SV, ŚYV, KYV, AV (as found in the Upanishad):
#IAST|Śvetāśvatara (KYV) "The Faces of God"
#IAST|Parivrāt (IAST|Nāradaparivrājaka) (AV)
Adi Shankara(approx 788 – 820)
Chaitanya Mahaprabhu(1486 - 1533)
Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura(1874 – 1937)
A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada(1896–1977)
* [http://www.atmajyoti.org/monastic.asp Articles on aspects of Sannyasa, Vairagya, and Brahmacharya]
* [http://www.ariseawake.com/poems/TheSongoftheSannyasin.html 'The Song of the Sannyasin', poem by Swami Vivekananda]
* [http://www.gosai.com/chaitanya/saranagati/html/vishnu_mjs/meaning_of_sannyasa/sannyasa.html The Internal Meaning of Sannyasa]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Sannyasa — Sannyâsa Sannyâsa (devanāgarī संन्यास) est un mot sanskrit qui signifie « renonciation » Le sannyâsa dans la Tradition du sanâtana dharma, c’est le renoncement au monde. Le véritable Sannyâsa est intérieur : c’est le renoncement au … Wikipédia en Français
sannyasa — (izg. saniàsa) ž DEFINICIJA u hinduizmu redovnički život ETIMOLOGIJA skr … Hrvatski jezični portal
Sannyâsa — La robe orange du Sannyasin Sannyāsa ou saṃnyāsa (devanāgarī : संन्यास), de sam = complet et nyasa = soumission ou abandon … Wikipédia en Français
Sannyasa — Dieser Artikel erläutert traditionelle indische Sannyasins. Auch die Schüler des spirituellen Lehrers Bhagwan / Osho (Indien/Poona) werden als „Sannyasins“ bezeichnet, siehe Osho. Sannyasin Sannyasin (auch Samnyasin, Sannyasi) kommt aus dem… … Deutsch Wikipedia
bhaktí-saṉnyāsa-nirṇaya-vivaraṇa — भक्तिसंन्यासनिर्णयविवरण … Indonesian dictionary
pratijñā-saṉnyāsa — प्रतिज्ञासंन्यास … Indonesian dictionary
prâ̱ṇá-saṉnyāsa — प्राणसंन्यास … Indonesian dictionary
sapta-sūtra-saṉnyāsa-paddhati — सप्तसूत्रसंन्यासपद्धति … Indonesian dictionary
veda-saṉnyāsa — वेदसंन्यास … Indonesian dictionary
vidvat-saṉnyāsa-lakshaṇa — विद्वत्संन्यासलक्षण … Indonesian dictionary