- John Gould
name = John Gould
14 September 1804
Lyme Regis, Dorset
3 February 1881
nationality = English
John Gould (
14 September 1804– 3 February 1881) was an English ornithologist. The Gould Leaguein Australiawas named after him. His identification of the birds now nicknamed " Darwin's finches" was pivotal in the inception of Darwin's theoryof evolutionby natural selection, though they are barely mentioned in Charles Darwin's book, " On the Origin of Species".
Gould was born in
Lyme Regis, Dorset, the son of a gardener and the boy probably had a scanty education. Shortly afterwards his father obtained a position on an estate near Guildford, Surrey, and then in 1818 became foreman in the Royal Gardens of Windsor. The young Gould started training as a gardener, being employed under his father at Windsor from 1818 to 1824, and he was subsequently a gardener at Ripley Castle in Yorkshire. He became an expert in the art of taxidermyand in 1824 he set himself up in business in Londonas a taxidermist, and his skill led to him becoming the first Curator and Preserver at the museum of the Zoological Society of Londonin 1827.
Research and works published
Gould's position brought him into contact with the country's leading naturalists, and also meant that he was often the first to see new collections of birds given to the Society. In 1830 a collection of birds arrived from the
Himalayas, many not previously described. Gould published these birds in "A Century of Birds from the Himalaya Mountains" (1830–1832). The text was by Nicholas Aylward Vigorsand the illustrations were lithographed by Gould's wife Elizabeth. This work was followed by four more in the next seven years including "Birds of Europe" in five volumes – completed in 1837, with the text written by Gould himself, edited by his clerk Edwin Prince. Some of the illustrations were made by Edward Learas part of his "Illustrations of the Family of Psittacidae" in 1832. Lear however was in financial difficulty and he sold the entire set of lithographs to Gould. The books were published in a very large size, imperial folio, with magnificent coloured plates. Eventually 41 of these volumes were published with about 3000 plates. They appeared in parts at £3 3s. a number, subscribed for in advance, and in spite of the heavy expense of preparing the plates, Gould succeeded in making his ventures pay and in realizing a fortune.
Work with Darwin
Charles Darwinpresented his mammal and bird specimens collected during the second voyage of HMS "Beagle" to the Geological Society of Londonat their meeting on 4 January 1837, the bird specimens were given to Gould for identification. He set aside his paying work and at the next meeting on 10 Januaryreported that birds from the Galápagos Islandswhich Darwin had thought were blackbirds, "gross-bills" and finches were in fact "a series of ground Finches which are so peculiar" as to form "an entirely new group, containing 12 species." This story made the newspapers. In March, Darwin met Gould again, learning that his Galápagos "wren" was another species of finch and the mockingbirds he had labelled by island were separate species rather than just varieties, with relatives on the South American mainland. Subsequently Gould advised that the smaller southern Rhea specimen that been had rescued from a Christmas dinner was a separate species which he named "Rhea darwinii", whose territory overlapped with the northern rheas. Darwin had not bothered to label his finches by island, but others on the expedition had taken more care. He now sought specimens collected by captain Robert FitzRoyand crewmen. From them he was able to establish that the species were unique to islands, an important step on the inception of his theory of evolutionby natural selection. Gould's work on the birds was published between 1838 and 1842 in five numbers as Part 3 of " Zoology of the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle", edited by Charles Darwin.
Research in Australia
In 1838 the Goulds sailed to
Australiaintending to study the birds of that country and be the first to produce a major work on the subject. They took with them the collector John Gilbert. They arrived in Tasmaniain September, making the acquaintance of the governor Sir John Franklin and his wife. Gould and Gilbert collected on the island. In February 1839 Gould sailed to Sydney, leaving his pregnant wife with the Franklins. He travelled to his brother-in-law's station at Yarrundi, spending his time searching for bowerbirds in the Liverpool Range. In April he returned to Tasmania for the birth of his son. In May he sailed to Adelaideto meet Charles Sturt, who was preparing to lead an expedition to the Murray River. Gould collected in the Mount Loftyrange, the Murray Scrubs and Kangaroo Island, returning again to Hobartin July. He then travelled with his wife to Yarrundi. They returned home to England in May 1840. The result of the trip was " The Birds of Australia" (1840–1848) - [http://nla.gov.au/nla.aus-f4773 see selected digitised images from the published work] . It included a total of 600 plates in seven volumes, 328 of which were new to science and named by Gould. He also published "A Monograph of the Macropodidae, or Family of Kangaroos" (1841–1842) and "The Mammals of Australia" (1849–1861) - [http://nla.gov.au/nla.aus-f10032 see selected digitised images from the published work] .
See also: [http://nla.gov.au/nla.pic-an6803903 Digitised album held by the National Library of Australia]
After his wife's death in 1841 Gould's books used illustrations by a number of artists, including
Henry Constantine Richterand Joseph Wolf.
tudy of hummingbirds
Throughout his professional life Gould had a strong interest in
hummingbirds. He accumulated a collection of 320 species, which he exhibited at the Great Exhibitionof 1851. Despite his interest Gould had never seen a live hummingbird. In May 1857 he travelled to the United Stateswith his second son Charles. He arrived in New Yorktoo early in the season to see hummingbirds in that city, but on 21 May 1857in Bartram's Gardens in Philadelphiahe finally saw his first live bird, a Ruby-throated Hummingbird. He then continued to Washington D.C.where he saw large numbers in the gardens of the Capitol. Gould attempted to return to England with live specimens, but not being aware of the conditions necessary to keep them they only lived for two months at most. Gould published: "A Monograph of the Trochilidae or Humming Birds" with 360 plates (1849–61); "The Mammals of Australia" (1845–63), "Handbook to the Birds of Australia" (1865), The Birds of Asia (1850–83), "The Birds of Great Britain" (1862–73) and "The Birds of New Guinea and the adjacent Papuan Islands" (1875–88).
Gould League, founded in Australia in 1909, was named after him. This organisation gave many Australians their first introduction to birds, along with more general environmental and ecological education. One of its major sponsors was the Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union, also known as Birds Australia.
Charles Gouldwas notable as geological surveyor.
:"Source: [http://www.austmus.gov.au/research_library/bibliog.htm Australian Museum Research Library] "
*John Gould [1804-81] , The birds of Asia; 1850-83 7 vols. 530 plates, Artists: J. Gould, H. C. Richter, W. Hart and J. Wolf; Lithographers: H. C. Richter and W. Hart; Parts 33-55 completed after Gould's death by R. Bowdler Sharpe; Vol VI :Artist and lithographer: W. Hart
*John Gould [1804-81] ; The birds of Australia; 1840-48. 7 vols. 600 plates; Artists: J. Gould and E. Gould; Lithographer: E. Gould
*John Gould [1804-81] ; The birds of Australia; Supplement 1851-69. 1 vol. 81 plates; Artists: J. Gould and H. C. Richter; Lithographer: H. C. Richter
*John Gould [1804-81] ; The Birds of Great Britain; 1862-73. 5 vols. 367 plates; Artists: J. Gould, J. Wolf, H.C. Richter and W. Hart; Lithographers: H. C. Richter and W. Hart
*John Gould [1804-81] ; The Birds of Great Britain; 1862-73. 5 vols. 367 plates; Artist: J. Wolf; Lithographer: H. C. Richter
*John Gould [1804-81] ; The birds of New Guinea and the adjacent Papuan Islands, including many new species recently discovered in Australia; 1875-88. 5 vols. 300 plates; Parts 13-25 completed after Gould's death by R. Bowdler Sharpe; Artists: J. Gould and W. Hart; Lithographer: W. Hart
*John Gould [1804-81] ; A monograph of the Odontophorinae, or partridges of America; 1844-50 1 vol. 32 plates; Artists: J. Gould and H. C. Richter; Lithographer: H. C. Richter
*John Gould [1804-81] ; A monograph of the Ramphastidae, or family of toucans;1833-35. 1 vol. 34 plates; Artists: J. Gould, E. Gould, E. Lear and G. Scharf; Lithographers: E. Gould and E. Lear; This edition 1854. All plates attributed to Gould and Richter
*John Gould [1804-81] ; A monograph of the Trochilidae, or family of humming-birds Supplement, completed after Gould's death by R. Bowdler Sharpe; 1880-87. 5 parts. 58 plates; Artists: J. Gould and W. Hart; Lithographer: W. Hart
*John Gould [1804-81] ; A synopsis of the birds of Australia, and the adjacent islands; 1837-38 1 vol. 73 plates; Artist and lithographer: E. Gould
*"The Ruling Passion of John Gould" by Isabella Tree ISBN 0-7126-2158-X
*"Darwin", Adrian Desmond and James Moore, Michael Joseph, the Penguin Group, London 1991 ISBN 0-7181-3430-3
* " [http://nla.gov.au/nla.aus-f4773 The Birds of Australia: in seven volumes by John Gould] " - all volumes fully digitised
* "The Bird Man - The Extraordinary Story of John Gould" - Isabella Tree, 1991. ISBN 0-09-189579-0
* "Portraits of the Honorary Members of the Ipswich Museum" (Portfolio of 60 lithographs by T.H. Maguire) (Publisher: George Ransome, Ipswich, 1846-1852).
* [http://www.amonline.net.au/exhibitions/gould/ John Gould Inc.] - Exhibition at the Australian Museum
* [http://www.amonline.net.au/research_library/johngould.htm Research Library – John Gould and the bird illustrators]
* [http://darwin-online.org.uk/EditorialIntroductions/Freeman_ZoologyOfBeagle.html "The Zoology of the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle" – bibliography by Freeman, R. B. (1977)]
* [http://www.abc.net.au/rn/ockhamsrazor/stories/2004/1130006.htm John Gould's place in Australian culture] , Ockham's Razor
* [http://www.nla.gov.au/pub/nlanews/2005/apr05/article2.html Patterns of Nature: The Art of John Gould] at the National Library of Australia
*A. H. Chisholm, ' [http://www.adb.online.anu.edu.au/biogs/A010427b.htm Gould, John (1804 - 1881)] ',
Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 1, MUP, 1966, pp 465-467.
* [http://gallica.bnf.fr/scripts/catalog.php?Mod=i&Auteur=John+Gould Scanned books from Gallica]
* [http://www.mirroroftheworld.com.au/exploration/terra_australis/mammals_australia.php The Mammals of Australia] - Series of high resolution images taken from the 1845 edition.
List of wildlife artists
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
John Gould — im Alter von 45 Jahren. Darwin Nandu (Pterocnemia pennata) … Deutsch Wikipedia
John Gould — John Gould. John Gould (14 de septiembre de 1804 – 3 de febrero de 1881), fue un naturalista y ornitólogo inglés. La Gould League en Australia lleva su nombre en honor a sus contribuciones a la ornitología. Su identificación de los pinzones de… … Wikipedia Español
John Gould — (14 de septiembre de 1804 – 3 de febrero de 1881), fue un ornitólogo inglés. La Gould League en Australia lleva su nombre en honor a sus contribuciones a la ornitología. Su identificación de los pinzones de Charles Darwin fue básica para el… … Enciclopedia Universal
John Gould — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Gould. John Gould … Wikipédia en Français
John Gould (columnist) — John Thomas Gould (October 22, 1908 – September 1, 2003) was an American humorist, essayist, and columnist who wrote a column for the Christian Science Monitor for over sixty years from a farm in Lisbon Falls, Maine. He was published in most… … Wikipedia
John Gould Veitch — (* April 1839 in Exeter; † 13. August 1870 in Combe Wood, Surrey) war ein britischer Gärtner, Botaniker und Pflanzensammler. Sein offizielles botanisches Autorenkürzel lautet „Veitch“. Er war Urenkel des Schotten John Veitch (1752–1839), der die… … Deutsch Wikipedia
John Gould (disambiguation) — John Gould most likely refers to John Gould (1804–1881) the English ornithologist, or may refer to:*John Gould (Canadian writer), Canadian short story writer and University of Victoria faculty member *John Gould (columnist) (1908–2003), United… … Wikipedia
John Gould (Mormon) — John Gould (11 May 1808 – 9 May 1851) was an early leader in the Latter Day Saint movement and is recognized by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter day Saints (LDS Church) as the first non American person to serve as a general… … Wikipedia
John Gould Fletcher — (January 3 1886 ndash; May 20 1950) was a Pulitzer Prize winning Imagist poet and author. He was born in Little Rock, Arkansas to a socially prominent family. After attending Phillips Academy, Andover Fletcher went on to Harvard University from… … Wikipedia
John Gould Veitch — (April 1839 – 13 August 1870) was a horticulturist and traveller, one of the first Victorian plant hunters to visit Japan. A great grandson of John Veitch, the founder of the Veitch horticulture dynasty, he also visited the Philippines, Australia … Wikipedia