- Dong Fang Hong I
Dong Fang Hong I (simplified Chinese: 东方红一号; traditional Chinese: 東方紅一號; pinyin: Dōng Fāng Hóng Yīhào), also known as China 1, was the People's Republic of China's first space satellite, launched successfully on April 24, 1970 (after one fail attempt on November 16, 1969) as part of the PRC's Dong Fang Hong space satellite program. At 173 kg (381 lb), it was heavier than the first satellites of other countries. The satellite carried a radio transmitter. It broadcast the song of the same name, Dōng Fāng Hóng or The East Is Red, which lasted for 26 days while in orbit.
Dong Fang Hong I (Red East 1) is China's first man-made satellite. It was developed under the direction of Qian Xuesen (Tsien Hsue-shen), dean at the Chinese Academy of Space Technology. At the time, a total of five identical satellites were created. The first satellite launched successfully. The academy formulated a "Three Satellite Plan" consisting of Dong Fang Hong I, re-entry satellites, and geosynchronous orbit communications satellites. Sun Jia-Dong was responsible for the Dong Fang Hong I technology. In 1967 Dang Hongxin chose a copper antenna membrane that resolved the difficulties of broadcasting on an ultra-short wave antenna between 100°C and −100°C. Engineers installed a music player playing The East is Red on the satellite.
While Dong Fang Hong I was transported to the launch site by train, armed guards were placed between every two electricity poles. On April 24, 1970 at 9:35 pm a Long March I rocket (CZ-1) lifted off from the China's Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center placing the Dong Fang Hong I satellite in orbit at 9:48 pm.
The primary purpose of the Dong Fang I satellite was to perform tests of satellite technology and take readings of the ionosphere and atmosphere. The satellite is similar in shape to a symmetrical 72 faced polyhedron, had a mass of 173 kg (381 lb), and had a diameter of approximately one meter (39 in). It spun 120 times per minute for stabilization. The outer surface was coated with a processed aluminum alloy for temperature control. The main body of the sphere had four ultrashortwave whip antennas of at least two meters (6½ ft) in length. The lower section was connected to a stage containing a rocket motor. The perigee of its orbit was 441 kilometers and apogee was 2,386 kilometers (274 by 1,483 mi) and had an inclination of 68.55 degrees. This near-earth elliptical orbit was 114.09 minutes per orbit.
"Dong Fang Hong I" had a design life of 20 days (in actuality, it lived for 28 days). During this time, it transmitted telemetry data and space readings to the earth. On May 14 its signal stopped.
With the successful launch of "Dong Fang I", China became the fifth country after the Soviet Union, United States, France, and Japan to independently launch a satellite. Although Dong Fang I was launched 13 years after Sputnik I, its mass exceeded the combined masses of the first satellites of the other four countries. With this successful launch, China became a member of the "Space Club". After this successful launch, Qian Xuesen proposed to the Chinese government that China should develop a manned space program and submitted a manned space undertaking report. Mao Zedong himself signed "approved" to the report.
On April 21, 2005, the Chinese Academy of Space Technology gathered the science and technology personnel who participated in the design, manufacture, production, and supervision of Dong Fang Hong I. The birthplace of Dong Fang Hong I, the Beijing Satellite Manufacturing Plant was used as a monument. The manufacturing plant, in coordination with the Shenzhou 5 manned spacecraft anniversary, created a 1:1 scale replica of the Dong Fang Hong I satellite. It was exhibited in the Beijing Planetarium.
Dong Fang Hong I has a shiny metallic ring added to the bottom, with brightness magnitude from +5 to +8. It is still in space at a higher, safer orbit at 431 to 2,124 km, as object 4392 in the log of US Space Command.
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Dong Fang Hong — (Abkürzung DFH; chinesisch 東方紅 / 东方红 dōngfāng hóng ‚Der Osten ist rot‘) bezeichnet einen Typ chinesischer Kommunikationssatelliten. Das Programm startete im Jahr 1970. Satelliten dieser Serie wurden sowohl in eine niedrige… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Dong Fang Hong I — (chinois simplifié : 东方红一号 ; chinois traditionnel : 東方紅一號 ; pinyin : Dōng Fāng Hóng Yīhào ; littéralement : « L Orient est rouge »), également connu sous l appellation China 1, est le premier… … Wikipédia en Français
Dong Fang Hong 1 — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Dong Fang Hong 1 (DFH 1) Organización Agencia Espacial China Estado Inactivo Satélite de Tierra Fecha de lanzamiento … Wikipedia Español
Dong Fang Hong 4 — ó DFH 4 (en chino simplificado: 东方红一号, en chino tradicional: 東方紅一號, significando el este es rojo) es un modelo de satélite de comunicaciones chino que además lleva en parte tecnología europea. El desarrollo del modelo DFH 4 fue anunciado en julio … Wikipedia Español
Dong Fang Hong 2 — ó DFH 2 (en chino simplificado: 东方红一号, en chino tradicional: 東方紅一號, significando el este es rojo) fue un modelo de satélite de comunicaciones militar chino. Eran lanzados a órbita geoestacionaria mediante cohetes Larga Marcha 3 desde el centro… … Wikipedia Español
Dong Fang Hong 3 — ó DFH 3 (en chino simplificado: 东方红一号, en chino tradicional: 東方紅一號, significando el este es rojo) fue un modelo de satélite de comunicaciones militar chino. Eran lanzados a órbita geoestacionaria mediante cohetes Larga Marcha 3A desde el centro… … Wikipedia Español
Dong Fang Hong 02 — was a primary television satellite used by China during the later part of the 20th century. It was developed at the Chinese Academy of Space Technology and had a design life 4.5 years. The first satellite in this group was launched into a… … Wikipedia
Dong Fang Hong — For other uses of the phrase Dong Fang Hong see Dong Fang Hong (disambiguation) Dong Fang Hong (东方红), meaning The East is Red, is a space satellite program for the People s Republic of China, which started in 1970. Satellites in this series were… … Wikipedia
Dong Fang Hong I — DFH 1 Dong Fang Hong I, auch bekannt als „China 1“, war der erste erfolgreiche chinesische Satellit, der am 24. April 1970 mit einer Trägerrakete des Typs „CZ 1“ (Chang Zheng 1) gestartet wurde. Er war Teil des so genannten „Dong Fang Hong“… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Dong Fang Hong (disambiguation) — Dong Fang Hong meaning the east is red can refer to: Dong Fang Hong, chinese space satellite program Dong Fang Hong I, china s first satellite Dong Fang Hong 02, a geostationary television satellite The East is Red, both films and the de facto… … Wikipedia