- Church of the Annunciation
Infobox religious building
building_name=Church of the Annunciation
caption=Church seen from the street
materials=: "This article refers to the basilica in Nazareth. For information on the church associated with the Blagoveschenskaya Tower in Russia, see
Kremlin towersor Cathedral of the Annunciation."The Church of the Annunciation ( _he. כנסיית הבשורה, _ar. كنيسة البشارة, _el. Εκκλησία του Ευαγγελισμού της Θεοτόκου), sometimes also referred to as the Basilica of the Annunciation is a church in Nazareth, in modern-day northern Israel. The church was established at the site where, according to Roman Catholictradition, the Annunciationtook place. In other words, it is believed to be the location where Mary, the mother of Jesus, as a virgin, was visited by the Archangel Gabrieland told that she had been selected to be the mother of Jesus. Greek Orthodoxtradition holds that this event occurred while Mary was drawing water from a local spring in Nazareth, and St. Gabriel's Church was erected at that alternate site.
The current church is a two-story building constructed in 1967 over the site of an earlier
Byzantine-era and then Crusader-era church. Inside, the lower level contains the Grotto of the Annunciation, believed by many Christians to be the remains of the original childhood home of Mary.
Under Roman Catholic canon law, the church enjoys the status of a
A historically significant site, considered
sacredwithin some circles of Christianity, particularly Catholicism, the basilica attracts many Catholic, Anglican, and Eastern OrthodoxChristian visitors every year.
The first shrine was probably built sometime in the middle of the 4th century, comprising an altar in the cave in which Mary had lived. A larger structure was commissioned by Emperor
Constantine I, who had directed his mother, Saint Helena, to found churches commemorating important events in Jesus Christ's life. The Church of the Annunciation was founded around the same time as the Church of the Nativity(the birthplace) and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre(the tomb). Some version of it was known to have still been in existence around 570 AD, but it was destroyed in the 7th century after the Muslim conquest of Palestine.
The second church was built over the ruins of the Byzantine era church during the
Crusades, following the conquest of Nazareth by Tancredin 1102.Emmett, 1995, p. 100.] The Crusader era church was never fully completed. Five Romanesque capitals carved by artists from northern France, and discovered during excavations in 1909, had not yet been installed in 1187 when news of Saladin's victory in the Battle of Hittinreached the city. Saladin granted permission to Franciscan priests to remain in Nazareth to oversee services at the church. In 1260, Baybarsand his Mamlukarmy destroyed the church during their attack on Nazareth. A small number of Franciscans managed to stay in Nazareth until the fall of Acrein 1291. In the three centuries that followed, the Franciscans were in and out of Nazareth, depending on the local political situation, which was constantly in flux. Franciscan accounts of this period document their expulsion in 1363, their return in 1468 and a massacre of some of their members in 1542. Local Christian families with Franciscan support helped take care of the church as well during this period.Emmett, 1995, p. 101.]
Emir Fakr ad-Din granted the Franciscans permission to return in 1620, at which time they constructed a small structure to enclose the holy grotto that is venerated as the house of Mary. In 1730,
Dhaher al-Omarpermitted construction of a new church, which became a central gathering place for Nazareth Latin community. The church was enlarged in 1877, and then completely demolished in 1954 to allow for the construction of a new basilica, which was completed in 1969. Used by the Latin parish, it remains under the control of the Franciscans. It is the largest Christian sanctuary in the Middle East, and was dedicated in 1964 by Pope Paul VI.
The church is a source of pride for inhabitants of Nazareth regardless of religious affiliation, and many civic events not connected with its religious function take place in its vicinity.In 2001 all the churches in Nazareth and the country were closed to protest the planned mega mosque and shrine to a relative of the Prophet Mohammed Shahab al Din to be built along side the Church of the Annunciation Then Prime Minister Netanyahu nixed the plan and instead turned the proposed area into a public plaza.In March 2006,
Lenten prayer services were disrupted by a mentally disturbed Israeli Jewand his Christian wife and daughter, who set off firecrackers inside the church to protest a child custody suit against the government which had taken their children into custody. cite web | title=Thousands of Israeli Arabs protest attack | date= 2006-03-04 | publisher=USA Today | url=http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2006-03-04-israeli-arabs_x.htm?csp=34 ] The attack caused only minor damage, but sparked a riot that injured two dozen people, including 13 police officers. The following day, thousands of Arab citizens of Israelmarched through the streets of Nazareth to demand better protection for holy sites, accusing the government of failing to prevent the attack, and rejecting the official claim that the attack was driven by personal distress, and not politically motivated. At a judicial hearing for the couple, the father, Haim Eliahu Habibi apologized for the incident saying that they had meant no harm and held no hate towards Muslims or Christians, but had merely sought to draw attention to a child custody issue, as their three children had recently been placed in foster careby the state.cite web|title=Israel church attackers 'sorry'|publisher= BBC|date= 5 March 2006|accessdate=2007-12-19|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/4775670.stm] Mr. Habibi and his wife first achieved notoriety in 2003 when they threatened to blow themselves up inside the Church of the Nativityin Bethlehem. The Israeli government has poured millions of dollars into rehabilitating ofthe old part of the city in order to encourage tourism there.
*Emmett, Chad F (1995). " [http://books.google.ca/books?id=4CePgqIVGeIC&pg=PA101&dq=%22church+of+the+annunciation%22+nazareth&lr=&as_brr=3&sig=v8Chu3gbojfGCjuRs03Jj6ksFko#PPA100,M1 Beyond the Basilica: Christians and Muslims in Nazareth] ".
University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226207110
* "Day of Discovery: Three Marys Jesus Loved", 2006
* [http://www.inisrael.com/tour/nazareth/places.htm Nazareth places of interest]
* "The Catholic Encyclopedia", Nazareth [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/10725a.htm]
* [http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/MFAArchive/2000_2009/2000/3/Nazareth-%20The%20Basilica%20of%20the%20Annunciation Nazareth - The Basilica of the Annunciation] , from the Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs
* [http://www.mirezo.com/ Mirezo: Holy Land Services for Christians Worldwide]
* [http://18.104.22.168/www1/ofm/san/TSnzmn.html The Basilica of the Annunciation]
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