- Walt Disney
name = Walt Disney
birthname = Walter Elias Disney
Alias = Walt Disney
birthdate = birth date|mf=yes|1901|12|5 [cite web|accessdate=2008-05-21|url=http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0000370/|title=Walt Disney|publisher=
deathdate = death date and age|mf=yes|1966|12|15|1901|12|5
Film producer, Co-founder of The Walt Disney Company, formerly known as Walt Disney Productions
spouse = Lillian Bounds (1925-1997)
Academy Honorary Award
1932 For the creation of
Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs"
Best Short Subject, Cartoon
Flowers and Trees"
Three Little Pigs"
The Tortoise and the Hare"
Three Orphan Kittens"
The Country Cousin"
The Old Mill"
Ferdinand the Bull"
Lend a Paw"
Der Fuehrer's Face"
Toot, Whistle, Plunk and Boom"
Best Short Subject, Two-reel
Nature's Half Acre"
Winnie the Pooh and the Blustery Day"
Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award
1942 Lifetime Achievement
Best Documentary, Short Subjects
The Alaskan Eskimo"
Men Against the Arctic"
Best Documentary, Features
The Living Desert"
The Vanishing Prairie"
Best Short Subject, Live Action Subjects
emmyawards = Best Producer - Film Series
goldenglobeawards = Special Award
The Living Desert"
Cecil B. DeMille Award
1953 Lifetime Achievement
Walter Elias Disney (December 5, 1901 – December 15, 1966) was a multiple
Academy Award-winning American film producer, director, screenwriter, voice actor, animator, entrepreneurand philanthropist. Disney is famous for his influence in the field of entertainment during the twentieth century. As the co-founder (with his brother Roy O. Disney) of Walt Disney Productions, Disney became one of the best-known motion pictureproducers in the world. The corporationhe co-founded, now known as The Walt Disney Company, today has annual revenues of approximately U.S. $35 billion.
Disney is particularly noted for being a film producer and a popular showman, as well as an innovator in
animationand theme parkdesign. He and his staff created a number of the world's most famous fictional characters, including the one many consider Disney's alter ego, Mickey Mouse.Fact|date=September 2008 He received fifty-nine Academy Awardnominations and won twenty-six Oscars, including a record four in one yearcite web|title=Walt Disney Academy awards | url=http://awardsdatabase.oscars.org/index.jsp | publisher= Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences|accessdate=2008-05-21 ] , and thus holds the record for the individual with the most awards and the most nominations. He also won seven Emmy Awards. He is the namesake for Disneyland and Walt Disney World Resorttheme parks in the United States, Japan, France, and China.
Disney died of
lung canceron December 15, 1966, a few years prior to the opening of his Walt Disney World Resortdream project in Florida.
1901–1937: The beginnings
Walt Disney was born to
Elias Disneyan Irish-Canadian, and his mother, Flora Call Disney, who was of German-Americandescent.cite web|title=Walt Disney biography|url=http://www.justdisney.com/WaltDisney100/biography01.html|publisher=Just Disney|accessdate=2008-05-21] Walt Disney's ancestors had emigrated from Gowran, County Kilkennyin Ireland. Arundel Elias Disney, great-grandfather of Walt Disney was born in Kilkenny, Ireland in 1801 and was a descendant of Hughes and his son Robert d'Isigny (France) who settled in England with William the Conquereor in 1066. [cite book|title=Disneyland Paris|publisher= Michelin|date= 2002-08-07|isbn=2060480027|page=38]
Elias Disneymoved from Huron County, Ontarioto the United States in 1878, seeking first for gold in Californiabut finally farming with his parents near Ellis, Kansasuntil 1884. He worked for Union Pacific Railroadand married Flora Call on January 1, 1888 in Acron, Florida. The family moved to Chicago, Illinoisin 1890,Neal Gabler, "Walt Disney:The Triumph of the American Imagination" (2006), p. 7.] where his brother Robert lived. For most of his early life, Robert helped Elias financially. In 1906, when Walt was four, Elias and his family moved to a farm in Marceline, Missouri,Neal Gabler, "Walt Disney:The Triumph of the American Imagination" (2006), p. 9-10.] where his brother Roy had recently purchased farmland. While in Marceline, Disney developed his love for drawing.Neal Gabler, "Walt Disney:The Triumph of the American Imagination" (2006), p. 15.] One of their neighbours, a retired doctor named "Doc" Sherwood, paid him to draw pictures of Sherwood's horse, Rupert. He also developed his love for trains in Marceline, which owed its existence to the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railwaywhich ran through town. Walt would put his ear to the tracks in anticipation of the coming train. Then he would look for his uncle, engineer Michael Martin, running the train.
The Disneys remained in Marceline for four years, [cite web|accessdate=2008-05-21|url=http://www.waltdisneymuseum.org/|title=Walt Disney Hometown Museum|publisher=Walt Disney Museum] before moving to Kansas City in 1911.Neal Gabler, "Walt Disney:The Triumph of the American Imagination" (2006), p. 18.] There, Walt and his sister Ruth attended the Benton Grammar School where he met Walter Pfeiffer. The Pfeiffers were theatre aficionados, and introduced Walt to the world of vaudeville and motion pictures. Soon, Walt was spending more time at the Pfeiffers' than at home. [harvnb|Thomas|1994|pp=33–41]
In 1917, Elias acquired shares in the O-Zell jelly factory in
Chicagoand moved his family back there.Neal Gabler, "Walt Disney:The Triumph of the American Imagination" (2006), p. 30.] In the fall, Disney began his freshman year at McKinley High Schooland began taking night courses at the Chicago Art Institute. [harvnb|Thomas|1994|pp= 42–43] Disney became the cartoonist for the school newspaper. His cartoons were very patriotic, focusing on World War I. Disney dropped out of high school at the age of sixteen to join the Army, but the army rejected him because he was underage.Neal Gabler, "Walt Disney:The Triumph of the American Imagination" (2006), p. 36.]
After his rejection from the army, Walt and one of his friends decided to join the
Red Cross.Neal Gabler, "Walt Disney:The Triumph of the American Imagination" (2006), p. 37.] Soon after he joined The Red Cross, Walt was sent to France for a year, where he drove an ambulance.Neal Gabler, "Walt Disney:The Triumph of the American Imagination" (2006), p. 38.] In 1919, Walt, hoping to find work outside the Chicago Ozell factory,Neal Gabler, "Walt Disney:The Triumph of the American Imagination" (2006), p. 42.] left home and moved back to Kansas City to begin his artistic career.Neal Gabler, "Walt Disney:The Triumph of the American Imagination" (2006), p. 44.] His brother Roy worked at a bank in the area and got a job for him, through a friend, at the Pesmen-Rubin Art Studio. At Pesmen-Rubin, Disney created ads for newspapers, magazines, and movie theaters.Neal Gabler, "Walt Disney:The Triumph of the American Imagination" (2006), p. 45.] It was here that he met a cartoonist named Ubbe Iwerks.Neal Gabler, "Walt Disney:The Triumph of the American Imagination" (2006), p. 46.] Both of them became close friends and decided to start their own art business.Neal Gabler, "Walt Disney:The Triumph of the American Imagination" (2006), p. 48.]
In January 1920, Disney and Iwerks formed a company called, "Iwerks-Disney Commercial Artists". However, following a rough start, Iwerks left temporarily to earn money at Kansas City Film Ad Company. Disney would soon join Iwerks at the Kansas City Film Ad Company.Neal Gabler, "Walt Disney:The Triumph of the American Imagination" (2006), p. 51.] While working for the Kansas City Film Ad Company, Disney took up an interest in the field of animation, and decided to become an animator.Neal Gabler, "Walt Disney:The Triumph of the American Imagination" (2006), p. 52.] Walt then decided to open his own animation business,Neal Gabler, "Walt Disney:The Triumph of the American Imagination" (2006), p. 56.] and recruited a fellow co-worker at the Kansas City Film Ad Company,
Fred Harman, as his first employee. Walt and Harman then secured a deal with local theater owner Frank L. Newman-arguably the most popular "showman" in the Kansas City area at the time-Neal Gabler, "Walt Disney:The Triumph of the American Imagination" (2006), p. 57.] to air their cartoons — which they titled "Laugh-O-Grams" — at his local theater.
Laugh O'Gram Studio
Presented as "Newman Laugh-O Grams," Disney's cartoons became widely popular in the Kansas City area.Neal Gabler, "Walt Disney:The Triumph of the American Imagination" (2006), p. 58.] Through the success of Laugh-O Grams, Disney was able to acquire his own studioNeal Gabler, "Walt Disney:The Triumph of the American Imagination" (2006), p. 64.] and hire a vast number of additional animators, including Fred Harman's brother
Hugh Harman, Rudolph Isling, and his close friend Ubbe Iwerks.Neal Gabler, "Walt Disney:The Triumph of the American Imagination" (2006), p. 64-71.] Unfortunately, with all his high employee salaries unable to make up for studio profits, Walt was unable successfully manage moneyNeal Gabler, "Walt Disney:The Triumph of the American Imagination" (2006), p. 68.] and as a result, the studio would become loaded with debt. The studio would eventually wind up bankrupt; Disney then set his sights on establishing a studio in the movie industry's capital city, Hollywood, CaliforniaNeal Gabler, "Walt Disney:The Triumph of the American Imagination" (2006), p. 75.]
Disney and his brother pooled their money to set up a cartoon studio in Hollywood.Neal Gabler, "Walt Disney:The Triumph of the American Imagination" (2006), p. 78.] Needing to find a distributor for his new
Alice Comedies-which he started making while in Kansas City,Neal Gabler, "Walt Disney:The Triumph of the American Imagination" (2006), p. 72.] but never got to distribute- Disney sent an unfinished print to New York distributor Margaret Winkler, who promptly wrote back to him. She was keen on a distribution deal with Disney for more live-action/animated shorts based upon "Alice's Wonderland".Neal Gabler, "Walt Disney:The Triumph of the American Imagination" (2006), p. 80.]
Virginia Davis(the live-action star of "Alice’s Wonderland") and her family were relocated at Disney's request from Kansas City to Hollywood, as were Iwerks and his family. This was the beginning of the Disney Brothers' Studio. It was located on Hyperion Avenue in the Silver Lake district, where the studio would remain until 1939. In 1925, Disney hired a young woman named Lillian Bounds to ink and paint celluloid. After a brief period of dating her, the two got married the same year.
The new series, "
Alice Comedies", was reasonably successful, and featured both Dawn O'Dayand Margie Gay as Alice. Lois Hardwick also briefly assumed the role of Alice. By the time the series ended in 1927, the focus was more on the animated characters, in particular a cat named Julius who resembled Felix the Cat, rather than the live-action Alice.
Oswald the Lucky Rabbit
Charles B. Mintzhad married Margaret Winkler and assumed control of her business, and ordered a new all-animated series to be put into production for distribution through Universal Pictures. The new series, " Oswald the Lucky Rabbit", was an almost instant success, and the character, Oswald—drawn and created by Iwerks—became a popular figure. The Disney studio expanded, and Walt hired back Harman, Rudolph Ising, Carman Maxwell, and Friz Frelengfrom Kansas City.
In February 1928, Disney went to
New Yorkto negotiate a higher fee per short from Mintz. Disney was shocked when Mintz announced that not only he wanted to reduce the fee he paid Disney per short but also that he had most of his main animators, including Harman, Ising, Maxwell, and Freleng (notably excepting Iwerks) under contract and would start his own studio if Disney did not accept the reduced production budgets. Universal, not Disney, owned the Oswald trademark, and could make the films without Disney. Disney declined Mintz's offer and lost most of his animation staff.
With most of his staff gone Disney now found himself on his own again.Neal Gabler, "Walt Disney:The Triumph of the American Imagination" (2006), p. 109.] It took Disney's company 78 years to get back the rights to the Oswald character. The
Walt Disney Companyreacquired the rights to Oswald the Lucky Rabbit from NBC Universalin 2006, through a trade for longtime ABC sports commentator Al Michaels.
After losing the rights to Oswald, Disney felt the need to develop a new character to replace him. He based the character on a mouse he had adopted as a pet while working in a Kansas City studio.cite web|accessdate=2008-05-21|url=http://disney.go.com/disneyatoz/familymuseum/exhibits/articles/mickeymousegoldenage/index.html|title=The Golden Age of Mickey Mouse|publisher=
Disney|author=Solomon, Charles] Ub Iwerks reworked on the sketches made by Disney so that it was easier to animate it. However, Mickey's voice and personality was provided by Disney. As many of the old animators have commented, "Ub designed Mickey's physical appearance, but Walt gave him his soul." Besides Oswald and Mickey, a similar mouse-character is seen in "Alice Comedies" which featured a mouse named Ike the Mouse, and the first Flip the Frogcartoon called Fiddlesticks, which showed a Mickey Mouse-look alike playing fiddle. The initial films were animated by Iwerks, his name was prominently featured on the title cards. The mouse was originally named "Mortimer", but later christened "Mickey Mouse" by Lillian Disney who thought that the name Mortimer did not fit. Mortimer later became the name of Mickey's rival for Minnie, who was taller than his renowned adversary and had a Brooklyn accent.
The first animated short with Mickey in it was titled, "
Plane Crazy", which was, like all of Disney's previous works, a silent film. After failing to find a distributor for "Plane Crazy" or its follow-up, " The Gallopin' Gaucho", Disney created a Mickey cartoon with sound called " Steamboat Willie". A businessman named Pat Powersprovided Disney with both distribution and Cinephone, a sound- synchronizationprocess. "Steamboat Willie" became an instant success,Neal Gabler, "Walt Disney:The Triumph of the American Imagination" (2006), p. 128.] and "Plane Crazy", "The Galloping Gaucho", and all future Mickey cartoons were released with soundtracks. Disney himself provided the vocal effects for the earliest cartoons and performed as the voice of Mickey Mouse until 1946. After the release of "Steamboat Willie", Walt Disney would continue to successfully use sound in all of his future cartoons, and Cinephone became the new distributor for Disney's early sound cartoons as well.Neal Gabler, "Walt Disney:The Triumph of the American Imagination" (2006), p. 129.] Mickey soon eclipsed Felix the Cat as the world's most popular cartoon character. By 1930, Felix, now in sound, had faded from the screen, as his sound cartoons failed to gain attention. [cite web|accessdate=2008-05-21|url=http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_g1epc/is_tov/ai_2419100434|title= Felix the Cat |publisher=St. James Encyclopedia of Pop Culture |author=Gordon, Ian] Mickey's popularity would now skyrocket in the early 1930s.
Following the footsteps of "Mickey Mouse series", a series of musical shorts titled, "
Silly Symphonies" was released in 1929. The first of these was entitled " The Skeleton Dance" and was entirely drawn and animated by Iwerks, who was also responsible for drawing the majority of cartoons released by Disney in 1928 and 1929. Although both series were successful, the Disney studio was not seeing its rightful share of profits from Pat Powers,Neal Gabler, "Walt Disney:The Triumph of the American Imagination" (2006), p. 142.] and in 1930, Disney signed a new distribution deal with Columbia Pictures. The original basis of the cartoons were musical novelty, and Carl Stalling wrote the score for the first Silly Symphony cartoons as well.cite web|accessdate=2008-05-21|url=http://disney.go.com/disneyatoz/familymuseum/exhibits/articles/sillysymphonies/index.html|title=THE BIRTH OF THE SILLY SYMPHONIES |publisher= Disney|author=Merritt, Russell]
Iwerks was soon lured by Powers into opening his own studio with an exclusive contract. Later, Carl Stalling would also leave Disney to join Iwerks' new studio.cite web|accessdate=2008-05-21|url=http://www.islandnet.com/~kpolsson/disnehis/disn1930.htm|title=Chronology of the Walt Disney Company|publisher=Island Net] Iwerks launched his "
Flip the Frog" series with first voice cartoon in color, "Fiddlesticks," filmed in two-strip Technicolor. Iwerks also created two other series of cartoons, the " Willie Whopper" and the " Comicolor". In 1936, Iwerks shut his studio to work on various projects dealing with animation technology. He would return to Disney in 1940 and, would go on to pioneer a number of film processes and specialized animation technologies in the studio's research and development department.
By 1932, Mickey Mouse had become quite a popular cinema character, but "Silly Symphonies" was not as successful. The same year also saw competition for Disney grow worse as
Max Fleischer's flapper cartoon character, Betty Boopwould gain more popularity among theater audiences. [cite journal|accessdate=2008-05-21|url=http://www.awn.com/mag/issue2.4/AWNMag2.4.pdf|author= Langer, Mark|title=Popeye From Strip To Screen|publisher= Animation Magazine|date=July 1997|volume=2|issue=4|pp=17–19|format= Encyclopædia Britannica] and was also the father of Richard Fleischer, whom Disney would later hire to direct his 1954 film "20,000 Leagues Under the Sea". Meanwhile, Columbia Pictures dropped the distribution of Disney cartoons and was replaced by United Artists. [cite web|accessdate=2008-05-21|url=http://www.islandnet.com/~kpolsson/disnehis/disn1932.htm|title=Chronology of the Walt Disney Company|publisher=Island Net] In late 1932, Herbert Kalmus, who had just completed work on the first three-strip technicolor camera, [cite web|accessdate=2008-05-21|url=http://www.widescreenmuseum.com/oldcolor/technicolor4.htm|title=System 4|publisher=Widescreen Museum] approached Walt and convinced him to redo " Flowers and Trees", which was originally done in black and white, with three-strip Technicolor.cite web|accessdate=2008-05-21|url=http://www.widescreenmuseum.com/oldcolor/technicolor5.htm|title=System 4|publisher=Widescreen Museum] "Flowers and Trees" would go on to be a phenomenal success and would also win the first for 1932. After "Flowers and Trees" was released, all future "Silly Symphony" cartoons were done in color as well. Disney was also able to negotiate a two-year deal with Technicolor, giving him the sole right to use three-strip Technicolor, [cite web|accessdate=2008-05-21|url=http://www.mbam.qc.ca/disney/index_en.html|title=Walt Disney at the Museum?|publisher= Montreal Museum of Fine Arts] [cite web|accessdate=2008-05-21|url=http://www.fpsmagazine.com/review/070312onceupon.php|title=Once Upon a Time: Walt Disney: The Sources of Inspiration for the Disney Studios|publisher= fps magazine] which would also eventually be extended to five years as well. Through "Silly Symphonies", Disney would also create his most successful cartoon short of all time, " The Three Little Pigs", in 1933. [cite web|accessdate=2008-05-21|url=http://www.sensesofcinema.com/contents/cteq/03/29/3_little_pigs.html|title=Huffing and Puffingabout Three Little Pigs|publisher=Senses of Cinema|author=Danks, Adrian] The cartoon ran in theaters for many months, and also featured the hit song that became the anthem of the Great Depression, "Who's Afraid of the Big Bad Wolf". [cite web|accessdate=2008-05-21|url=http://disney.go.com/vault/archives/movies/pigs/pigs.html|title=Three Little Pigs|publisher= Disney]
First Academy Award
In 1932, Disney received a special Academy Award for the creation of "Mickey Mouse", whose series was made into color in 1935 and soon launched
spin-offseries for supporting characters such as Donald Duck, Goofy, and Pluto; Pluto and Donald would immediately get their individual cartoons in 1937, [cite web|accessdate=2008-05-21|url=http://www.islandnet.com/~kpolsson/disnehis/disn1937.htm|title=Chronology of the Walt Disney Company|publisher=Island Net] and Goofy would get solo cartoons in 1939 as well. [cite web|accessdate=2008-05-21|url=http://members.tripod.com/~kariv/bio.html|title=GOOFY BIOGRAPHY|publisher= Tripod.com] Of all of Mickey's partners, Donald Duck–who first teamed with Mickey in the 1934 cartoon, " Orphan's Benefit"–was arguably the most popular, and went on to become Disney's second most successful cartoon character of all time. [cite web|accessdate=2008-05-21|url=http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9096160/Donald-Duck|title=Donald Duck|publisher= Encyclopædia Britannica]
Disney's first attempt at pregnancy ended up in Lilly having a miscarriage. When Lilly Disney became pregnant again, she gave birth to a daughter,
Diane Marie Disney, on December 18, 1933. A few years later, the Disneys adopted Sharon Mae Disney, (born December 21, 1934) as their second child.
1937–1941: The Golden Age of Animation
"Disney's Folly": "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs"
After the creation of two cartoon series, Disney soon began plans for a full-length feature in 1934. In 1935, opinion polls showed that another cartoon series, "
Popeye the Sailor", produced by Max Fleischer, was more popular than Mickey Mouse. [cite web|accessdate=2008-05-21|url=http://forums.goldenagecartoons.com/showthread.php?t=2907|title=Popeye's Popularity - Article from 1935 |publisher=Golden Age Cartoons] Disney was, however, able to put Mickey back on top, and also increase Mickey's popularity further by colorizing him and partially redesigning him into what was considered to be his most appealing design up to this point in time. When the film industry came to know about Disney's plans to produce an "animated" feature-length version of " Snow White", they dubbed the project as "Disney's Folly" and were certain that the project would destroy the Disney studio. Both Lillian and Roy tried to talk Disney out of the project, but he continued plans for the feature. He employed Chouinard Art Instituteprofessor Don Graham to start a training operation for the studio staff, and used the "Silly Symphonies" as a platform for experiments in realistic human animation, distinctive character animation, special effects, and the use of specialized processes and apparatus such as the multiplane camera; Disney would first use this new technique in the 1937 "Silly Symphonies" short " The Old Mill". [cite web|accessdate=2008-05-21|url=http://web.archive.org/web/20070710012642/http://www.justdisney.com/walt_disney/biography/long_bio.html|title=Walt Disney, Biography|publisher=Just Disney]
All of this development and training was used to elevate the quality of the studio so that it would be able to give the feature film the quality Disney desired. "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs", as the feature was named, was in full production from 1934 until mid-1937, when the studio ran out of money. To acquire the funding to complete "Snow White", Disney had to show a rough cut of the motion picture to loan officers at the
Bank of America, who gave the studio the money to finish the picture. The finished film premiered at the Carthay Circle Theater on December 21, 1937; at the conclusion of the film, the audience gave "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs" a standing ovation. "Snow White", the first animated feature in English and Technicolor, was released in February 1938 under a new distribution deal with RKO Radio Pictures; RKO had previously been the distributor for Disney cartoons in 1936, after it closed down the Van Beuren Studios in exchange for distribution. [cite web|accessdate=2008-05-21|url=http://www.imagesjournal.com/issue08/reviews/vanbeuren/|title=Cartoons that Time Forgot|publisher=Images Journal] The film became the most successful motion picture of 1938 and earned over $8 million in its original theatrical release. The success of "Snow White", (for which Disney received one full-size, and seven miniature Oscar statuettes) allowed Disney to build a new campus for the Walt Disney Studios in Burbank, which opened for business on December 24, 1939; "Snow White" was not only the peak of Disney's success, but it also ushered into what was known as the Golden Age of Animation for Disney. [cite web|accessdate=2008-05-21|url=http://www.animationusa.com/resources/aboutdisney.html|title=Walt Disney Studio Biography |publisher=Animation USA] [cite web|accessdate=2008-05-21|url=http://disney.go.com/disneyatoz/familymuseum/exhibits/articles/goldenage/index.html|title=The Golden Age of Animation |publisher= Disney] The feature animation staff, having just completed "Pinocchio", continued work on "Fantasia" and " Bambi", while the shorts staff continued work on the "Mickey Mouse", "Donald Duck", "Goofy", and "Pluto" cartoon series, ending the "Silly Symphonies" at this time. Animator Fred Moore had redesigned Mickey Mouse in the late 1930s, when Donald Duck began to gain more popularity among theater audiences than Mickey Mouse. [cite web|accessdate=2008-05-21|url=http://www.bcdb.com/bcdb/cartoon.cgi?film=15&m=r|title=Fantasia Review|publisher=The Big Cartoon Database]
During World War II
"Pinocchio" and "Fantasia" followed "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs" into the movie theaters in 1940, but both were financial disappointments. The inexpensive "
Dumbo" was planned as an income generator, but during production of the new film, most of the animation staff went on strike, permanently straining the relationship between Disney and his artists.
Shortly after the release of "Dumbo" in October 1941, the United States entered
World War II. The U.S. Armycontracted most of the Disney studio's facilities and had the staff create training and instructional films for the military, home-front morale-boosting shorts such as " Der Fuehrer's Face" and the feature film " Victory Through Air Power" in 1943. However, the military films did not generate income, and the feature film "Bambi" underperformed when it was released in April 1942. Disney successfully re-issued "Snow White" in 1944, establishing a 7-year re-release tradition for Disney features.
The Disney studios also created inexpensive package films, containing collections of cartoon shorts, and issued them to theaters during this period. The most notable and successful of these were "
Saludos Amigos" (1942), its sequel " The Three Caballeros" (1945), " Fun and Fancy Free" (1947), and " The Adventures of Ichabod and Mr. Toad" (1949). The latter had only two sections: the first based on " The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" by Washington Irving, and the second based on " The Wind in the Willows" by Kenneth Grahame. During this period, Disney also ventured into full-length dramatic films that mixed live action and animated scenes, including " Song of the South" and " So Dear to My Heart". After the war ended, Mickey's popularity would also fade as well. [cite web|accessdate=2008-05-21|url=http://disney.go.com/disneyatoz/familymuseum/exhibits/articles/mickeymousepostwar/index.html|title=Mickey in the Post-War Era|publisher= Disney|author=Solomon, Charles]
By the late 1940s, the studio had recovered enough to continue production on the full-length features, "Alice in Wonderland" and "Peter Pan", which had been shelved during the war years, and began work on "Cinderella", which became Disney's most successful film since "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs". The studio also began a series of live-action nature films, entitled "True-Life Adventures", in 1948 with "On Seal Island". Despite rebounding success through feature films, Disney's animation shorts were no longer as popular as they used to be, and people began to instead draw attention to Warner Bros and their animation star
Bugs Bunny; by 1942, Warner Bros' Termite Terraceofficially became the most popular animation studio. [cite web|accessdate=2008-05-21|url=http://www.animationusa.com/resources/aboutwb.html|title=Warner Bros. Studio Biography |publisher=Animation USA] However, while Bugs Bunny's popularity rose in the 1940s, so did Donald Duck's; [cite web|accessdate=2008-05-21|url=http://www.sandcastlevi.com/movies/disneyh5.htm|title=Disney's Animated Classics|publisher=Sandcastle VI] Donald would also replace Mickey Mouse as Disney's star character in 1949. [cite web|accessdate=2008-05-21|url=http://petcaretips.net/donald-duck.html|title=Donald Duck|publisher=Pet Care Tips]
Testimony before Congress
In 1947, during the early years of the
Cold War,cite web|accessdate=2008-05-21|url=http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/episodes/06/documents/huac/disney.html|title=Testimony of Walter E. Disney before HUAC|publisher= CNN|date= 1947-10-24] Disney testified before the House Un-American Activities Committee, where he branded Herbert Sorrell, David Hilberman and William Pomerance, former animators and labor union organizers, as Communistagitators. All three men denied the allegations. Disney implicated the Screen Actors Guildas a Communist front, and charged that the 1941 strike was part of an organized Communist effort to gain influence in Hollywood. However, no evidence has been discovered to support this.
1955–1966: Theme parks and beyond
Carolwood Pacific Railroad
During 1949, Disney and his family moved to a new home on a large piece of property in the
Holmby Hillsdistrict of Los Angeles, California. With the help of his friends Ward and Betty Kimball, owners of their own backyard railroad, Disney developed blueprints and immediately set to work on creating a miniature live steamrailroad for his backyard. The name of the railroad, Carolwood Pacific Railroad, originated from the address of his home that was located on Carolwood Drive. The railroad's half-mile long layout included a convert|46|ft|m|sing=on-long trestle, loops, overpasses, gradients, an elevated berm, and a convert|90|ft|m|sing=on tunnel underneath Mrs. Disney's flowerbed. He named the miniature working steam locomotive built by Roger E. Broggieof the Disney Studios "Lilly Belle" in his wife's honor. He had his attorney draw up right-of-way papers giving the railroad a permanent, legal easement through the garden areas, which his wife dutifully signed; However, there is no evidence of the documents ever recorded as a restriction on the property's title.
On a business trip to Chicago in the late-1940s, Disney drew sketches of his ideas for an
amusement parkwhere he envisioned his employees spending time with their children. He got his idea for a children's theme park after visiting Children's Fairylandin Oakland, California. This plan was originally meant for a plot located south of the Studio, across the street. The original ideas developed into a concept for a larger enterprise that was to become Disneyland. Disney spent five years of his life developing Disneyland and created a new subsidiary of his company, called WED Enterprises, to carry out the planning and production of the park. A small group of Disney studio employees joined the Disneyland development project as engineers and planners, and were dubbed Imagineers.
When describing one of his earliest plans to Herb Ryman (who created the first aerial drawing of Disneyland which was presented to the
Bank of Americawhile requesting for funds), Disney said, "Herbie, I just want it to look like nothing else in the world. And it should be surrounded by a train." [cite web|accessdate=2008-05-21|url=http://disneyspace.tripod.com/id1.html|title=Walt Disney Quotes|publisher= Tripod.com] Entertaining his daughters and their friends in his backyard and taking them for rides on his Carolwood Pacific Railroadhad inspired Disney to include a railroad in the plans for Disneyland.
Expanding into new areas
As Walt Disney Productions began work on Disneyland, it also began expanding its other entertainment operations. In 1950, "
Treasure Island" became the studio's first all-live-action feature, and was soon followed by "20,000 Leagues Under the Sea" (in CinemaScope, 1954), "The Shaggy Dog" (1959), and "The Parent Trap" (1961). The Walt Disney Studio produced its first TV special, " One Hour in Wonderland", in 1950. Disney began hosting a weekly anthology series on ABC named "Disneyland" after the park, where he showed clips of past Disney productions, gave tours of his studio, and familiarized the public with Disneyland as it was being constructed in Anaheim, California. The show also featured a Davy Crockett miniseries, which started a craze among the American youth known as the Davy Crockett craze, in which millions of coonskin caps and other Crockett memorabilia were sold across the country. [cite web|accessdate=2008-05-21|url=http://disney.go.com/disneyatoz/familymuseum/exhibits/articles/tvworldsofdisney/index.html|title=The Television Worlds of Disney - PART II|publisher= Disney|author=Cotter, Bill] In 1955, the studio's first daily television show, " Mickey Mouse Club" debuted, which would continue in many various incarnations into the 1990s.As the studio expanded and diversified into other media, Disney devoted less of his attention to the animation department, entrusting most of its operations to his key animators, whom he dubbed the Nine Old Men. During Disney's lifetime, the animation department created the successful " Lady and the Tramp" (in CinemaScope, 1955), " One Hundred and One Dalmatians" (1961), "Sleeping Beauty" (in Super Technirama 70mm, 1959) and "The Sword in the Stone" (1963).
Production on the short cartoons had kept pace until 1956, when Disney shut down the shorts division. Special shorts projects would continue to be made for the rest of the studio's duration on an irregular basis. These productions were all distributed by Disney's new subsidiary,
Buena Vista Distribution, which had assumed all distribution duties for Disney films from RKOby 1955. Disneyland, one of the world's first theme parks, finally opened on July 17, 1955, and was immediately successful. Visitors from around the world came to visit Disneyland, which contained attractions based upon a number of successful Disney properties and films. After 1955, the show, "Disneyland" came to be known as "Walt Disney Presents". The show transformed from black-and-white to color in 1961 and changed its name to "Walt Disney's Wonderful World of Color", moving from ABC to NBC, [cite web|accessdate=2008-05-21|url=http://www.islandnet.com/~kpolsson/disnehis/disn1961.htm|title=Chronology of the Walt Disney Company|publisher=Island Net] and eventually evolving into its current form as "The Wonderful World of Disney". It continued to air on NBC until 1981, when CBS picked it up. [cite web|accessdate=2008-05-21|url=http://www.islandnet.com/~kpolsson/disnehis/disn1981.htm|title=Chronology of the Walt Disney Company|publisher=Island Net] Since then, it has aired on ABC, NBC, Hallmark Channel and Cartoon Network via separate broadcast rights deals.
During the mid-1950s, Disney produced a number of
educational films on the space program in collaboration with NASArocket designer Wernher von Braun: "Man in Space" and "Man and the Moon" in 1955, and "Mars and Beyond" in 1957.
Early 1960s successes
By the early 1960s, the Disney empire was a major success, and Walt Disney Productions had established itself as the world's leading producer of family entertainment. Walt Disney was the Head of Pageantry for the
1960 Winter Olympics. After decades of pursuing, Disney finally procured the rights to P.L. Travers' books about a magical nanny. "Mary Poppins", released in 1964, was the most successful Disney film of the 1960s and featured a memorable song score written by Disney favorites, the Sherman Brothers. The same year, Disney debuted a number of exhibits at the 1964 New York World's Fair, including Audio- Animatronicfigures, all of which were later integrated into attractions at Disneyland and a new theme park project which was to be established on the East Coast.
Plans for Disney World and EPCOT
Disney World was to include a larger, more elaborate version of Disneyland which was to be called the Magic Kingdom. It would also feature a number of golf courses and resort hotels. The heart of Disney World, however, was to be the Experimental Prototype City (or Community) of Tomorrow, or EPCOT for short.
Disney's involvement in Disney World ended in late 1966; after many years of
chain smokingcigarettes, he was diagnosed with lung cancer. He was admitted to Providence St. Joseph Medical Centeracross the street from the Disney Studio, where his health began to deteriorate, causing him to suffer cardiac arrest. Just before he was hospitalized, Disney was scheduled to undergo a neck surgery for an old polo injury;cite web|accessdate=2008-05-21|url=http://disney.go.com/disneyatoz/familymuseum/exhibits/articles/waltspassing/index.html|title=The Day Walt Died |publisher= Disney] Disney was a frequent polo player at The Riveria Club in Hollywood, California for many years. [cite web|accessdate=2008-05-21|url=http://www.mouseplanet.com/articles.php?art=ww070711ws|title=Horsing Around With Walt and Polo|publisher=Mouse Planet] On November 2, 1966, during pre-surgery X-rays, doctors at St. Joseph's Hospital in Los Angeles discovered that Disney had an enormous tumor on his left lung.cite web|accessdate=2008-05-21|url=http://www.islandnet.com/~kpolsson/disnehis/disn1966.htm|title=Chronology of the Walt Disney Company|publisher=Island Net] Five days later, Disney went back to hospital for surgery, but the tumor had spread to such great extent that doctors had to remove his entire left lung. The doctors then told Disney that he only had six months to a year to live. After several chemotherapysessions, Disney and his wife spent a short amount of time in Palm Springs, Californiabefore returning home. On November 30, 1966, Disney collapsed in his home, but was revived by paramedics, and was taken back to the hospital, where he died on December 15, 1966 at 9:30 a.m., ten days after his sixty-fifth birthday. He was cremated on December 17, 1966 and his ashes reside at the Forest Lawn Memorial Park in Glendale, California. Roy O. Disneycontinued to carry out the Florida project, insisting that the name be changed to Walt Disney World in honor of his brother.
Robert B. Shermansaid about the last time he saw Disney:
urban legendmaintains that Disney was cryonically frozen, and his frozen corpse was stored underneath the Pirates of the Caribbeanride at Disneyland.cite web|title= Suspended Animation | publisher = Snopes.com|url= http://www.snopes.com/disney/waltdisn/frozen.asp|accessdate=2008-05-21 | date = 2007-08-24 | last = Mikkelson | first = B & DP] However, this was discredited due to the fact that Disney was cremated, and the first known instance of Cryonic Freezing of a corpse (of Dr. James Bedford) occurred a month later in January.
The final productions in which Disney had an active role were the animated feature, "The Jungle Book" and the live-action musical comedy "
The Happiest Millionaire", both released in 1967.
Continuing the vision
After Walt Disney's death, Roy Disney returned from retirement to take full control of Walt Disney Productions and WED Enterprises. In October that year, their families met in front of
Cinderella Castleat the Magic Kingdom to officially open the Walt Disney World Resort.
After giving his dedication for Walt Disney World, he then asked Lillian Disney to join him. As the orchestra played "
When You Wish Upon a Star", she stepped up to the podium accompanied by Mickey Mouse. He then said, "Lilly, you knew all of Walt's ideas and hopes as well as anybody; what would Walt think of it [Walt Disney World] ?". "I think Walt would have approved," she replied. [cite web|author= Griffiths, Bill|title=Grand opening of Walt Disney world|url=http://www.startedbyamouse.com/archives/GrandOpeningWDW01.shtml|accessdate=2008-05-21] Roy died from a cerebral hemorrhage on December 20, 1971, the day he was due to open the Disneyland Christmas parade.During the second phase of the "Walt Disney World" theme park, EPCOT was translated by Disney's successors into EPCOT Center, which opened in 1982. As it currently exists, EPCOT is essentially a living world's fair, different from the actual functional city that Disney had envisioned. In 1992, Walt Disney Imagineering took the step closer to Walt's vision and dedicated Celebration, Florida, a town built by the Walt Disney Company adjacent to Walt Disney World, that hearkens back to the spirit of EPCOT. EPCOT was also originally intended to be devoid of Disney characters which initially limited the appeal of the park to young children but the company later changed this policy.
The Disney entertainment empire
Today, Walt Disney's animation/motion picture studios and theme parks have developed into a multi-billion dollar television, motion picture, vacation destination and media corporation that carry his name.
The Walt Disney Companytoday owns, among other assets, five vacation resorts, eleven theme parks, two water parks, thirty-nine hotels, eight motion picture studios, six record labels, eleven cable television networks, and one terrestrial television network. As of 2007, the company has an annual revenue of over U.S. $35 billion. [cite web|title= Walt Disney corporate website|url= http://corporate.disney.go.com/investors/index.html|accessdate=2008-05-21|publisher= Disney]
Disney Animation today
Traditional hand-drawn animation, with which Walt Disney started his company, no longer continues at the
Walt Disney Feature Animationstudio. After a stream of financially unsuccessful traditionally-animated features in the early 2000s, the two satellite studios in Paris and Orlando were closed, and the main studio in Burbank was converted to a computer animation production facility. In 2004, Disney released what was announced as their final "traditionally animated" feature film, "Home on the Range". However, since the 2006 acquisition of Pixarand the resulting rise of John Lasseterto Chief Creative Officer, that position has changed, and the upcoming 2009 film " The Princess and the Frog" will mark Disney's return to traditional cel animation.
In his later years, Disney devoted substantial time towards funding
The California Institute of the Arts(CalArts). It was formed in 1961 through a merger of the Los Angeles Conservatory of Music and the Chouinard Art Institute, which had helped in the training of the animation staff during the 1930s. When Disney died, one-fourth of his estate went towards CalArts, which helped in building its campus. In his will, Disney paved the way for creation of several charitable trusts which included one for the California Institute of the Arts and other for the Disney Foundation. [cite web|title= Walt Disney's will|url= http://www.doyourownwill.com/disney.asp|accessdate=2008-01-03|publisher=Do Your Own Will] He also donated convert|38|acre|sqmi km²|3|abbr=on of the Golden Oaks ranch in Valencia for the school to be built on. CalArts moved onto the Valencia campus in 1971.
In an early admissions bulletin, Disney explained:
Walt Disney holds the records for number of Academy Award nominations (with fifty-nine) and number of awarded Oscars (twenty-six, below). Four of his Oscars were special awards, and one, his last, was granted posthumously.
*1932: Best Short Subject, Cartoons for:
Flowers and Trees(1932)
*1932: Honorary Award for: creation of
*1934: Best Short Subject, Cartoons for:
Three Little Pigs(1933)
*1935: Best Short Subject, Cartoons for:
The Tortoise and the Hare(1934)
*1936: Best Short Subject, Cartoons for: Three Orphan Kittens (1935)
*1937: Best Short Subject, Cartoons for: The Country Cousin (1936)
*1938: Best Short Subject, Cartoons for: The Old Mill (1937)
*1939: Best Short Subject, Cartoons for: Ferdinand the Bull (1938)
*1938: Honorary Award for "
Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs" (1938) The citation read: "For Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, recognized as a significant screen innovation which has charmed millions and pioneered a great new entertainment field" (the award was one statuette and seven miniature statuettes)
*1940: Best Short Subject, Cartoons for: Ugly Duckling(1939)
*1941: Honorary Award for: Fantasia (1941), shared with: William E. Garity and J.N.A. Hawkins. The citation for the certificate of merit read: "For their outstanding contribution to the advancement of the use of sound in motion pictures through the production of "Fantasia"
*1942: Best Short Subject, Cartoons for: Lend a Paw (1941)
*1943: Best Short Subject, Cartoons for: Der Fuehrer's Face (1942)
*1949: Best Short Subject, Two-reel for: Seal Island (1948)
Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award
*1951: Best Short Subject, Two-reel for: Beaver Valley (1950)
*1952: Best Short Subject, Two-reel for: Nature's Half Acre (1951)
*1953: Best Short Subject, Two-reel for: Water Birds (1952)
*1954: Best Documentary, Features for: The Living Desert (1953)
*1954: Best Documentary, Short Subjects for: The Alaskan Eskimo (1953)
*1954: Best Short Subject, Cartoons for: Toot Whistle Plunk and Boom (1953)
*1954: Best Short Subject, Two-reel for: Bear Country (1953)
*1955: Best Documentary, Features for: The Vanishing Prairie (1954)
*1956: Best Documentary, Short Subjects for: Men Against the Arctic
*1959: Best Short Subject, Live Action Subjects for: Grand Canyon
*1969: Best Short Subject, Cartoons for: Winnie the Pooh and the Blustery Day
Walt Disney was the inaugural recipient of a star on the
Anaheim walk of stars. The star was awarded in honor of Disney's significant contributions to the city of Anaheim, California, specifically, Disneyland, which is now the Disneyland Resort. The star is located at the pedestrian entrance to the Disneyland Resort on Harbor Boulevard.
Walt Disney received the
Congressional Gold Medalon May 24, 1968 (P.L. 90-316, 82 Stat. 130-131) and the Légion d'Honneurin France in 1935. [cite web|accessdate=2008-05-21|url=http://www.bedetheque.com/auteur-6857-BD-Disney-Walt.html|title=Disney, Walt|publisher=Bedetheque|language=French] In 1935, Walt received a special medal from the League of Nations for creation of Mickey Mouse. [cite web|accessdate=2008-05-21|url=http://hometown.aol.com/seramary/myhomepage/movies.html|title=Minnie's Cheat Sheet to my Website|publisher= AOL] He also received the Presidential Medal of Freedomon September 14, 1964. [cite web|accessdate=2008-05-21|url=http://www.medaloffreedom.com/WaltDisney.htm|title=Medal of Freedom |publisher= Presidential Medal of Freedom] On December 6, 2006, California Governor Arnold Schwarzeneggerand First Lady Maria Shriverinducted Walt Disney into the California Hall of Famelocated at The California Museum for History, Women, and the Arts.
minor planet 4017 Disneyadiscovered in 1980 by Soviet astronomer Lyudmila Georgievna Karachkinais named after him. [cite book | last = Schmadel | first = Lutz D.|title = Dictionary of Minor Planet Names | page = 342 | year = 2003 | publisher = Springer Science+Business Media| location = New York| url = http://books.google.com/books?q=4017+Disneya | isbn=3540002383]
Walt Disney Concert Hallin Los Angeles, California, opened in 2003, was named in his honor.
Mickey Mouse Club
* Barrier, Michael (1999). "Hollywood Cartoons: American Animation in Its Golden Age". Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-516729-5.
* Broggie, Michael (1997, 1998, 2005). "Walt Disney's Railroad Story". Virginia Beach, Virginia. Donning Publishers. ISBN 1-56342-009-0
* Eliot, Marc (1993). "Walt Disney: Hollywood's Dark Prince". Carol. ISBN 1-55972-174-X
* Mosley, Leonard. "Disney's World: A Biography" (1985, 2002). Chelsea, MI: Scarborough House. ISBN 0-8128-8514-7.
* Gabler, Neal. "Walt Disney: The Triumph of American Imagination" (2006). New York, NY. Random House. ISBN 0-679-43822-X
* Schickel, Richard, and Dee, Ivan R. (1967, 1985, 1997). "The Disney Version: The Life, Times, Art and Commerce of Walt Disney". Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, Publisher. ISBN 1-56663-158-0.
* Sherman, Robert B. and Sherman, Richard M. (1998) "Walt's Time: From Before to Beyond" ISBN 0-9646059-3-7.
* Thomas, Bob (1991). "Disney's Art of Animation: From Mickey Mouse to Beauty and the Beast". New York: Hyperion. ISBN 1-56282-899-1
* Watts, Steven, "The Magic Kingdom: Walt Disney and the American Way of Life", University of Missouri Press, 2001, ISBN 0826213790
*Inducks author|Walt+Disney|Walt Disney
month =May 12
title =The Hollywood Blacklist
journal =Talk of the Nation
url =http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=1010644 Discusses Walt Disney's attitude towards unions and communism.
* [http://disney.go.com/disneyatoz/waltdisney/ Walt Disney Family Museum]
* [http://wiredforbooks.org/leonardmosley/ 1985 audio interview with Leonard Mosley, author of "Disney's World", a biography about Walt Disney] by
* [http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=6405745 Neal Gabler, Inside Walt Disney]
* [http://disney.go.com/disneyatoz/familymuseum/exhibits/familyfriends/robertstack/index.html Interview with Robert Stack About Walt Disney's Involvement in Polo]
* [http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=284 Walt Disney Gravesite]
* [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,35518,00.html Disney's Fantastic Voyage]
NAME =Disney, Walter Elias
SHORT DESCRIPTION=Producer, director, and animator
DATE OF BIRTH=December 5, 1901
PLACE OF BIRTH=
Chicago, Illinois, United States
DATE OF DEATH=December 15, 1966
PLACE OF DEATH=
Los Angeles, California, United States
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