Parisand inner ring départements
canton=Chief town of 3 cantons
insee= 93066 (ex 75066)
cp= 93200, 93210 (La Plaine) |maire=
alt moy= |alt mini= |alt maxi=
85,832|date-sans=Jan. 1, 2005 estimate)
(March 8, 1999 census
Saint-Denis is a commune in the northern suburbs of
Paris, France. It is located 9.4 kilometres (5.8 miles) from the centre of Paris. Saint-Denis is a " sous-préfecture" of the Seine-Saint-Denis"département", being the seat of the Arrondissement of Saint-Denis.
Saint-Denis is home to the royal necropolis of
Saint Denis Basilicaand was also the location of the associated abbey. It is also home to France's national stadium, Stade de France, built for the 1998 Football World Cup.
Saint-Denis is a formerly industrial suburb currently reconverting its economic base.
Inhabitants of Saint-Denis are called "Dionysiens".
Until the 3rd century Saint-Denis was a small settlement called "Catolacus" or "Catulliacum", probably meaning "estate of Catullius", a
Gallo-Romanlandowner. About 250, the first bishop of Paris, Saint Denis, was martyred on Montmartrehill and buried in "Catolacus". Later his grave became a shrine and a pilgrimage center, with the building of the Abbey of Saint Denis, and the settlement was renamed Saint-Denis.
In 1793, during the
French Revolution, Saint-Denis was renamed "Franciade" in a gesture of rejection of religion. In 1803, however, under the Consulate of Napoléon Bonaparte, the city recovered its former name of Saint-Denis.
During its history, Saint-Denis has been closely associated with the French royal house; starting from
Dagobert I, almost every French king is buried in the Basilica.
However, Saint-Denis is older than that. In the 2nd century, there was a
Gallo-Romanvillage named "Catolacus" on the location that Saint-Denis occupies today. Saint Denis, the first bishop of Paris and patron saint of France, was martyred in about 250 and buried in the cemetery of Catolacus. Denis' tomb quickly became a place of worship.
Sainte Geneviève, around 475, had a small chapel erected on Denis' tomb, by then a popular destination for pilgrims.
It was this chapel that Dagobert I had rebuilt and turned into a royal monastery. Dagobert granted many privileges to the monastery: independence from the bishop of Paris, the right to hold a market, and, most importantly, he was interred in Saint-Denis; a tradition which was followed by almost all his successors.
Middle Ages, because of the privileges granted by Dagobert, Saint-Denis grew very important. Merchants from all over Europe(and indeed from the Byzantine Empire) came to visit its market.
Abbot Suger, counselor to the King, granted further privileges to the citizens of Saint-Denis. He also started the works of enlargement of the basilica that still exists today, often cited as the first example of Gothic Architecture. [Rolf, Toman (ed.) (2004). "Der Gothisch". Ullmann & Könemann // Swaan, Wim (1969). "The Gothic Cathedral" // Several others.]
Saint-Denis suffered heavily in the
Hundred Years' War; of its 10,000 citizens, only 3,000 remained after the war.
French Wars of Religion, the Battle of Saint-Denis was fought between Catholics and Protestants on November 10 1567. The Protestants were defeated, but the Catholic commander Anne de Montmorencywas killed. In 1590, the city surrendered to Henry IV, who converted to Catholicism in 1593in the abbey of Saint-Denis.
King Louis XIV started several industries in Saint-Denis: weaving and spinning mills and dyehouses. His successor, Louis XV, whose daughter was a nun in the
Carmelite convent, took a lively interest in the city: he added a chapel to the convent and also renovated the buildings of the royal abbey.
During the French Revolution, not only was the city renamed "Franciade" from
1793to 1803, but the royal necropoliswas looted and destroyed. The remains were removed from the tombs and thrown together; during the French Restoration, since they could not be sorted out anymore, they were reburied in a common ossuary.
January 1 1860, the city of Pariswas enlarged by annexing neighboring communes. On that occasion, the commune of La Chapelle-Saint-Deniswas disbanded and divided between the city of Paris, Saint-Denis, Saint-Ouen, and Aubervilliers. Saint-Denis received the northwestern part of La Chapelle-Saint-Denis.
During the 19th century, Saint-Denis became increasingly industrialized. Transport was much improved: in 1824 the
Canal Saint-Deniswas constructed, linking the Canal de l'Ourcqin the northeast of Paris to the River Seineat the level of L'Île-Saint-Denis, and in 1843 the first railwayreached Saint-Denis. By the end of the century, there were 80 factories in Saint-Denis.
The presence of so many industries also gave rise to an important
socialist movement. In 1892, Saint-Denis elected its first socialistadministration, and by the 1920s, the city had acquired the nickname of "la ville rouge", the red city. Until Jacques Doriotin 1934, all mayorsof Saint-Denis were members of the Communist Party.
Second World War, after the defeat of France, Saint-Denis was occupied by the Germans on June 13, 1940. There were several acts of sabotage and strikes, most notably on April 14, 1942at the Hotchkiss factory. After an insurgencywhich started on August 18, 1944, Saint-Denis was liberated by General Leclercon August 27.
After the war, the economic crisis of the 1970s and 1980s hit the city, which was dependent on its heavy industry, heavily.
During the 1990s, however, the city started to grow again. The 1998 Football World Cup provided an enormous impulse; the main stadium for the tournament, the
Stade de France, was built in Saint-Denis, along with many infrastructural improvements, such as the extension of the metro to Saint-Denis-Université.
2000, Saint-Denis works together with seven neighbouring "communes" ( Aubervilliers, Villetaneuse, Pierrefitte-sur-Seine, Épinay-sur-Seine, L'Île-Saint-Denis(since 2003), Stains(since 2003) and La Courneuve(since 2005) in Plaine Commune.
2003, together with Paris, Saint-Denis hosted the second European Social Forum.
Saint-Denis is served by four stations on
Paris Métro Line 13: Carrefour Pleyel, Saint-Denis - Porte de Paris, Basilique de Saint-Denis (in the center of town, near the Saint Denis Basilica), and Saint-Denis - Université.
Saint-Denis is also served by La Plaine – Stade de France station on Paris RER line B, which is the closest station to the
Stade de Francesports arena.
Finally, Saint-Denis is also served by two stations on Paris RER line D: Stade de France – Saint-Denis and Saint-Denis. This last station, historically the only rail station in Saint-Denis before the arrivals of the Métro and the RER, serves also as an interchange station for the
Transilien Paris – Nordsuburban rail line.
Saint Denis is infamous in France for its crime rate. It has 150.71 criminal incidents per 1000 inhabitants, far higher than national average (83/1000) and even higher than the crime rate of the Seine Saint Denis department (95.67/1000). Police efficiency has also been reported as very low with only 19.82 % of crime solved by the police. Despite this high crime rate, the city was relatively spared by the 2005 riots.
Pierre Degeyter, composer
Charles Dezobry, author
Paul Éluard, poet
Auguste Gillot, mayor
Albert Lebourg, painter
Claude Monet, painter
Grand Corps Malade, poet
Louis-Gabriel Moreau, painter
Francisque Poulbot, illustrator
Michael Raffaelli, painter
Paul Signac, painter
Maurice Utrillo, painter
Charles Dezobry, author
Points of interest
Saint Denis Basilica
Stade de France
North Lanarkshire, Scotland, United Kingdom
Porto Alegre, Brazil
Sesto San Giovanni, Italy
Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina
* [http://www.ville-saint-denis.fr City council website]
* [http://www.saint-denis.culture.fr/en Saint-Denis, a town in the Middle Ages]
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См. также в других словарях:
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