- Population exchange between Greece and Turkey
The 1923 population exchange between Greece and Turkey is the first large-scale population exchange, or agreed mutual expulsion in the 20th century. It involved some two million people, most of them forcibly made refugees and "de jure" denaturalized from homelands of centuries or millennia, in a treaty promoted and overseen by the international community as part of the
Treaty of LausanneFact|date=October 2008. The document about the population exchange was signed at Lausanne, Switzerlandin 1923, between the governments of Greeceand Turkey. The exchange took place between Turkish citizens of the Greek Orthodox religion established in Turkish territory, and of Greek citizens of the Muslim religion established in Greek territory.
In Greece this was called the "Asia Minor Catastrophe" ( _el. Μικρασιατική καταστροφή).Significant refugee displacement and movement occurred in the upheaval following the
dissolution of the Ottoman Empireand its evolution into modern Turkey, especially following the Balkan Wars, World War I, and the Greco-Turkish war (1919-1922), which was part of the Turkish War for Independence. These included exchanges and expulsion of about 100,000 Slavs and BulgariansFact|date=October 2008 and 500,000 Turks from Greece.
The Treaty of Lausanne affected the populations as follows Fact|date=October 2008: almost all Greek Orthodox Christians (Greek- or Turkish-speaking) of Asia Minor including a Turkish-speaking
Greek Orthodoxpopulation from middle Anatolia ( Karamanlides), the Ionia region (e.g. Smyrna, Aivali), the Pontus region (e.g. Trapezunda, Sampsunta), Prusa (Bursa), the Bithyniaregion (e.g., Nicomedia( İzmit), Chalcedon( Kadıköy), East Thrace, and other regions were either expelled or formally denaturalized from Turkish territory, numbering up to 1.2 million people. About 500,000 people were expelled from Greece, predominantly Turks, but including other Muslims, Muslim Roma, Pomaks, Cham Albanians, and Megleno-Romanians.
The Turks and other Muslims of Western Thrace were exempted from this transfer as well as the Greeks of
Istanbuland the Aegean Islandsof Imbros(Gökçeada) and Tenedos(Bozcaada). Due to punitive measures carried out by the Republic of Turkey, such as the 1932 parliamentary law which barred Greek citizens in Turkey from a series of 30 trades and professions from tailorand carpenterto medicine, law, and real estate,cite book | first=Speros | last=Vryonis | title=The Mechanism of Catastrophe: The Turkish Pogrom of September 6–7, 1955, and the Destruction of the Greek Community of Istanbul | publisher= [http://www.greekworks.com Greekworks.com, Inc.] | location=New York | year=2005 | isbn= 0-97476-603-8 ] the Greek population of Istanbul began to decline, as evidenced by demographic statistics. The Varlık Vergisicapital gains tax imposed in 1942 on wealthy non-Muslims in Turkey also served to reduce the economic potential of ethnic Greek businesspeople in Turkey. Furthermore, violent incidents as the Istanbul Pogrom(1955) directed against the ethnic Greek community greatly accelerated emigrationof Greeks, reducing the 200,000-strong Greek minority in 1924 to just over 5,000 in 2005 [ According to figures presented by Prof. Vyron Kotzamanis to a conference of unions and federations representing the ethnic Greeks of Istanbul. [http://www.hri.org/news/greek/apeen/2006/06-07-02.apeen.html#03 "Ethnic Greeks of Istanbul convene"] , "Athens News Agency," 2 July 2006.] .
The expelled populations suffered greatly. According to Bruce Clark, leaders of both Greece and Turkey, as well as some circles in the international community, saw the resulting ethnic homogenization of their respective states as positive and stabilizing since it helped strengthen the nation-state natures of these two states. [cite book | first=Bruce | last=Clark | title= | publisher=Granta | location=London | year=2006 | pages=18 | isbn=1-86207-752-5]
At the same time, forced deportation has obvious challenges: social, such as forcibly being removed from one's place of living, and more practical such as abandoning a well-developed family business. Countries also face other practical challenges: for example, even decades after, one could notice certain hastily developed parts of Athens, residential areas that had been quickly erected on a budget while receiving the fleeing Asia Minor population.
Greeks in Turkey
Turks of Western Thrace
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Economic history of Greece and the Greek world — The economic history of the Greek World spans several millennia and encompasses many modern day nation states. Since the focal point of the center of the Greek World often changed it is necessary to enlarge upon all these areas as relevant to the … Wikipedia
Convention Concerning the Exchange of Greek and Turkish Populations — The Convention Concerning the Exchange of Greek and Turkish Populations was an agreement between the Greek and Turkish governments signed in Lausanne on January 30, 1923, in the aftermath of the Greco Turkish War of 1919–1922. The agreement… … Wikipedia
Greece — /grees/, n. 1. Ancient Greek, Hellas. Modern Greek, Ellas. a republic in S Europe at the S end of the Balkan Peninsula. 10,583,126; 50,147 sq. mi. (129,880 sq. km). Cap.: Athens. 2. a city in W New York. 16,177. * * * Greece Introduction Greece… … Universalium
Greece, history of — ▪ Byzantine to modern Introduction history of the area from the Byzantine (Byzantine Empire) period, beginning about AD 300, to the present. For earlier periods, see Aegean civilizations; ancient Greek civilization; and Hellenistic Age.… … Universalium
Population transfer — is the movement of a large group of people from one region to another by state policy or international authority, most frequently on the basis of ethnicity or religion. Banishment or exile is a similar process, but is forcibly applied to… … Wikipedia
turkey — /terr kee/, n., pl. turkeys, (esp. collectively) turkey. 1. a large, gallinaceous bird of the family Meleagrididae, esp. Meleagris gallopavo, of America, that typically has green, reddish brown, and yellowish brown plumage of a metallic luster… … Universalium
Turkey — /terr kee/, n. a republic in W Asia and SE Europe. 63,528,225; 296,184 sq. mi. (767,120 sq. km). (286,928 sq. mi. (743,145 sq. km) in Asia; 9257 sq. mi. (23,975 sq. km) in Europe). Cap.: Ankara. Cf. Ottoman Empire. * * * Turkey Introduction… … Universalium
Greece — <p></p> <p></p> Introduction ::Greece <p></p> Background: <p></p> Greece achieved independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1830. During the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the… … The World Factbook
Turkey — <p></p> <p></p> Introduction ::Turkey <p></p> Background: <p></p> Modern Turkey was founded in 1923 from the Anatolian remnants of the defeated Ottoman Empire by national hero Mustafa KEMAL, who was … The World Factbook
Greece — Infobox Country native name = Ελληνική Δημοκρατία Ellīnikī Dīmokratía conventional long name = Hellenic Republic common name = Greece symbol type = Coat of arms image coat caption = Coat of arms map caption = map caption |location color=dark… … Wikipedia