Timor


Timor

Infobox Islands
name = Timor



image caption = Political Division of Timor
native name =
native name link =
locator
Location map|Indonesia|lat=-9.233333|long=124.933333
map_custom = yes
location = South East Asia
coordinates= coord|9|14|S|124|56|E|type:isle
archipelago = Lesser Sunda Islands
total islands =
major islands =
area = convert|11883|sqmi|km2|abbr=on
rank = 44th
highest mount = Ramelau
elevation = convert|9720|ft|m|abbr=on
country = East Timor
country admin divisions title =
country admin divisions =
country largest city =
country largest city population =
country 1 = Indonesia
country 1 admin divisions title = Province
country 1 admin divisions = East Nusa Tenggara
country 1 largest city =
country 1 largest city population =
population = 2,900,000
population as of = 2005
density = convert|244.2|/sqmi|/km2|1|abbr=on
ethnic groups =
Timor is an island at the south end of the Malay Archipelago, north of the Timor Sea. It is divided between the independent state of East Timor, and West Timor, belonging to the Indonesian province of East Nusa Tenggara.

The island's surface is 11,883 square miles (30,777 km²). The name is a variant of "timur", Malay for “east”; it is so called because it is at the east end of a chain of islands.

Language, ethnic groups, and religion

Similar to nearby islands, most Timorese are Melanesian [cite book |last=Schwarz |first=A. |year=1994 |title=A Nation in Waiting: Indonesia in the 1990s |pages=page 198|publisher=Westview Press |isbn=1-86373-635-2] and anthropologists identify eleven distinct ethno-linguistic groups in Timor. The largest are the Atoni of western Timor, and the Tetum of central and eastern Timor. [cite book |last=Taylor |first=Jean Gelman |title=Indonesia: Peoples and Histories |pages=page 378|publisher=Yale University Press |year=2003 |location= New Haven and London |isbn=0-300-10518-5] Most Timor indigenous Timorese languages belong to the Austronesian group of languages spoken through the Indonesian archipelago. The non-Austronesian languages are related to languages spoken in the Halmahera (in Maluku) and Western New Guinea. [cite book |last=Taylor |first=Jean Gelman |title=Indonesia: Peoples and Histories |pages=page 378|publisher=Yale University Press |year=2003 |location= New Haven and London |isbn=0-300-10518-5]

The official languages of East Timor are Tetum and Portuguese, while in West Timor it is Indonesian. Indonesian is also widely spoken and understood in East Timor.

Christianity is the dominant religion throughout the island of Timor, at about 90% of the population. Roman Catholics are the the majority on both halves of the island; Catholics outnumber Protestants in West Timor by about a 1.5:1 ratio. Muslims and animists are most of the remainder, at about 5% each.

Geography

To the south and southeast of Timor is Oceania. To its northwest is the island of Sulawesi, and to its west, the island of Sumba. To the west-northwest of Timor are the islands of Flores and Alor, and to its northeast are the Barat Daya Islands, including Wetar.

Timor has older geology and lacks the volcanic nature of the Lesser Sunda Islands. The orientation of the main axis of the island also differs from its neighbors. These features have been explained as the result of being on the northern edge of the Indo-Australian Plate as it pushes into the South East Asia.

Flora and fauna

Timor, together with the Lesser Sunda Islands to the northwest and the smaller islands to the northeast, is covered by tropical dry broadleaf forests. Many trees are deciduous or partly deciduous, dropping their leaves during the dry season. Timor, the Barat Daya Islands, and the smaller islands to the northeast of Timor constitute the Timor and Wetar deciduous forests ecoregion.

During the Pleistocene epoch, Timor was the abode of extinct giant monitor lizards similar to the Komodo dragon. Like Flores, Sumba and Sulawesi, Timor was also once a habitat of extinct dwarf stegodonts, relatives of elephants.

History

As the nearest island with a European settlement at the time, Timor was the destination of William Bligh and seamen loyal to him following the infamous mutiny on the "Bounty" in 1789. It was also where survivors of the wrecked "HMS Pandora", sent to arrest the "Bounty" mutineers, landed in 1791 after that ship sank in the Great Barrier Reef.

The island has been politically divided in two parts for centuries: West Timor, which was known as Dutch Timor from the 1800s until 1949 when it became Indonesian Timor, a part of the nation of Indonesia which was formed from the old Netherlands East Indies; and East Timor which was known as Portuguese Timor, a Portuguese colony until 1975. It includes the enclave of Oecussi-Ambeno in West Timor. The Netherlands and Portugal did not formally resolve the matter of the boundary until 1912.

Japanese forces occupied the whole island from 1942 to 1945. They were resisted in a guerrilla campaign led initially by Australian commandos. (See Battle of Timor.)

Following the withdrawal of the Portuguese, internal unrest, and an Indonesian invasion in 1975, East Timor was annexed by Indonesia and became known as "Timor Timur" or 'Tim-Tim' for short. It was regarded by Indonesia as the country's 27th province, but this was never recognised by the United Nations or Portugal. The people of East Timor resisted Indonesian forces in a prolonged guerilla campaign. (See: Indonesian occupation of East Timor). Following a referendum held in 1999, under a UN sponsored agreement between Indonesia and Portugal, in which its people rejected the offer of autonomy within Indonesia, East Timor achieved independence in 2002 and is now officially known as Timor-Leste. A group of people on the Indonesian side of Timor have been reported active since 2001 trying to establish a Great Timor State. [ [http://www.etan.org/et2005/february/20/26ofical.htm etan.org] ]

References


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Look at other dictionaries:

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  • TIMOR — inter Inferorum idola, Virgilio, Martisque asleclas, Aen. l. 9. v. 719. ubi de Marre, Immisitquve fugam Teucris, atrumque Timorem. Etiam apud Romanos in veneratione, uti et Pallor, quem timore efficit. Utrumque, ne quid obessent, neve aliquid… …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

  • Timor — île indonésienne située à l extrémité orientale de l archipel de la Sonde, proche de l Australie, dont la mer de Timor la sépare; 34 000 km²; v. princ. Kupang (à l O.) et Dili (à l E.). L économie de cette île montagneuse au climat tropical est… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Timor — [tē′môr΄, tē môr′] island in SE Asia, in the Malay Archipelago: the W part of the island (WEST TIMOR) is part of Indonesia; the E part (EAST TIMOR) is an independent nation Timorese adj., n …   English World dictionary

  • timor — |ô| adj. 2 g. s. 2 g. O mesmo que timorense.   ‣ Etimologia: Timor, topônimo …   Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa

  • Timor — Timor, 1) Inselgruppe im Indischen Ocean, zu den Kleinen Sundainseln gehörig. Zu ihr gehören außer der Folgenden die Inseln Rottie, Kambing (Harteneiland), Simao Noessa Nessing, Dao, Sabul u. Simao; 2) Hauptinsel der Gruppe, 60 Ml. Länge, 8–12 Ml …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Timor — Timor, die östlichste und größte der Kleinen Sundainseln im Indischen Ozean (s. Karte »Hinterindien«), zwischen 8°20 –10°22 südl. Br., 500 km lang, bis 100 km breit, 32,617 qkm und mit den Nebeninseln Rom (1691), Kambing (142), Samao (326) und… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Timor — Timor, größte der Kleinen Sundainseln, 32.617, mit Nebeninseln 34.907 qkm, (1895) ca. 500.000 E. (meist Papua, sonst Malaien, Chinesen, Portugiesen, Niederländer), gebirgig (an der Südküste bis 3100 m); der südwestl. Teil gehört den Niederländern …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Timor — Timor, Hauptinsel in der Gruppe der kleinen Sundainseln, 572 QM. groß mit 800000 E., meistens Malayen, hat tropische Fruchtbarkeit (die größten Boas), gehört theilweise den Holländern, theilweise den Portugiesen oder unabhängigen Häuptlingen …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • Timor — TIMOR, óris, (⇒ Tab. I.) Furcht, des Aethers und der Erde Sohn. Hygin. Præf. p. 2. Er wurde insonderheit von den Lacedämoniern göttlich verehret, und hatte selbst seinen Tempel in der Stadt, nahe bey dem Gerichte der Ephoren; weil die Furcht viel …   Gründliches mythologisches Lexikon


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