- Jewish refugees
In the course of history,
Jewish populations have been expelled or ostracised by various local authorities and have sought asylum from antisemitismnumerous times. The articles History of antisemitismand Timeline of antisemitismcontain more detailed chronology of anti-Jewish hostilities, while Jewish historyand Timeline of Jewish historyoutline the broader picture.
After its establishment in 1948, the
State of Israeladopted the 1950 Law of Returnmaking Israel a home not only for the inhabitants of the State, but also for all members of the Jewish people everywhere. This law also made Israel an ideal destination for voluntary Jewish immigration.
UN recognition of Refugee status
The status of
refugeeis defined by the 1951 UN convention, except for Palestinian refugeesdefined by the 1949 UNRWA convention. Since their creation, neither convention has recognized the status of refugee to Jewish displaced persons.
Partial list of events that prompted major streams of Jewish refugees
;722 BCE: The
Assyrians led by Shalmaneserconquered the (Northern) Kingdom of Israeland sent the Israelitesinto captivity at Khorasan. Ten of twelve Tribes of Israelare lost.
;70: The defeat of the
Great Jewish Revolt. Masses of Jews were sold to slavery across the Roman Empire, many fled.
;135: The Romans defeated
Bar Kokhba's revolt. Emperor Hadrianexpelled hundreds of thousands Jews from Judea, wiped the name off the maps, replaced it with Syria Palaestina, forbade Jews to set foot in Jerusalem.
Muhammadexpelled Jewish tribes Banu Qaynuqaand Banu Nadirfrom Medina, which was founded as a Jewish city. The Banu Qurayzatribe was slaughtered and the Jewish settlement of Khaybar was ransacked.
;1095 - mid-13th century: The waves of
Crusades destroyed hundreds of Jewish communities in Europe and in the Middle East, including Jerusalem.
;Mid-12th century: The invasion of
Almohadesbrought to end the Golden age of Jewish culture in Spain. Among other refugees was Maimonides, who fled to Morocco, then Egypt, then Eretz Israel.
France. The practice of expelling the Jews accompanied by confiscation of their property, followed by temporary readmissions for ransom, was used to enrich the crown: expulsions from Parisby Philip Augustus in 1182, from France by Louis IX in 1254, by Charles IV in 1322, by Charles V in 1359, by Charles VI in 1394.
Edward I of Englandissues the Edict of Expulsionfor all Jews from England. The policy was reversed after 350 years in 1655 by Oliver Cromwell.
;1348: European Jews were blamed for poisoning wells during the
Black Death. Many of those who survived the epidemicand pogroms were either expelled or fled.
;1492: Ferdinand II and Isabella issued the
Alhambra decree, General Edict on the Expulsion of the Jews from Spain(approx. 200,000), from Sicily(1493, approx. 37,000), from Portugal(1496).
;1654: The fall of the Dutch colony of
Recifein Brazilto the Portuguese prompted the first group of Jews to flee to North America.
Cossacks and peasants led by Bohdan Khmelnytskydestroyed hundreds of Jewish communities and committed mass atrocities. Ukraine was annexed by the Russian Empire, where officially no Jews were allowed.
;1881-1884, 1903-1906, 1914-1921: Repeated waves of
pogroms swept Russia, propelling mass Jewish emigration (more than 2 million Russian Jews emigrated in the period 1881-1920). During World War I, some 250,000 Jews were transferred from western Russia. "See also Pale of Settlement, May Laws, Russian Civil War."
;1935-1945: The Nazi persecution culminated in
the Holocaustof the European Jewry. The British Mandate of Palestineprohibited Jewish immigration to the Land of Israel. The Bermuda Conference, Evian Conferenceand other attempts failed to resolve the problem of Jewish refugees, a fact widely used in Nazi propaganda. "See also S.S. St. Louis"
Jewish exodus from Arab lands. The combined population of Jewish communities in the Greater Middle East(excluding Israel) was reduced from about 900,000 in 1948 to less than 8,000 today. Some of these communities were more than 2,500 years old. Israel absorbed approximately 600,000 of these refugees, many of whom were temporarily settled in tent cities called " Ma'abarot". They were eventually absorbed into Israeli society, and the last "Maabarah" was dismantled in 1958. The Jewish refugees had no assistance from the UNRWA. "See also Farhud."
;1960s-1989: State-sponsored persecution in the
Soviet Unionprompted more than 1 million Soviet Jews to emigrate to Israel, 250,000 to the United States with "refugee" status, and 100,000 to Germany. "See also rootless cosmopolitan, Doctors' plot, Jackson-Vanik amendment, refusenik, Zionology, Pamyat."
1929 Hebron massacre
*Evacuation of Jews in Gaza, 1929
Jewish exodus from Arab lands
*Jewish villages in West Bank depopulated in 1948
*Jewish villages in Gaza Strip depopulated in 1948
Christianity and antisemitism
Islam and antisemitism
Arabs and antisemitism
* [http://www.jewishtraces.org Ordinary exile] , the story of Austrian Jewish refugees in France and in Belgium
* [http://womennewsnetwork.net/2007/08/21/a-lifes-worth-of-living-witnessing-the-life-of-foreign-correspondent-ruth-gruber-in-her-new-book-witness/ A Lifes Worth of Living] by Lys Anzia. WNN - Women News Network
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
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