United States Greenback Party


United States Greenback Party

Infobox Historical American Political Party
party name= Greenback Party
party
party articletitle=
active= 1874-1884
ideology= Populism, women's suffrage, labor rights
position= "Fiscal:" Left-wing
"Social:" Progressive
international= N/A
preceded by= N/A
succeeded by= Populist Party |
colors = Green

The Greenback Party (also known as the Independent Party, the National Party, and the Greenback-Labor Party) was an American political party that was active between 1874 and 1884. Its name referred to paper money, or "greenbacks," that had been issued during the American Civil War and afterward. The party opposed the shift from paper money back to a specie-based monetary system because it believed that privately owned banks and corporations would then reacquire the power to define the value of products and labor. Conversely, they believed that government control of the monetary system would allow it to keep more currency in circulation, as it had in the war. This would better foster business and assist farmers by raising prices and making debts easier to pay. It was established as a political party whose members were primarily farmers financially hurt by the Panic of 1873.

The Greenback Party was founded at a meeting in Indianapolis, Indiana, on November 25, 1874. It was originally called the Independent Party or the National Party. In 1878, it was the largest force involved in the election of 21 independents to the United States Congress. In 1880 the Greenback Party broadened its platform to include support for an income tax, an eight hour day, and allowing women the right to vote. The party's influence declined quickly, and after 1884 it was no longer a force in American politics. Many Greenback activists, including 1880 Presidential nominee James B. Weaver, later participated in the Populist Party.

Other than name, there is no continuity between this historic movement and the 1952 campaign of Seattle, Washington grocer Frederick C. Proehl (May 24, 1880-June 1970) and Edward J. Bedell [cite news | title = It's a Free Country | pages = | publisher = Time Magazine | date = 1952-09-01 | url = http://www.time.com/time/magazine/printout/0,8816,816859,00.html | accessdate = 2006-10-03 ] , nor that of Whitney Hart Slocomb and Edward Kirby Meador in 1960. [ [http://www.guide2womenleaders.com/Candidates1870.htm "Female presidential candidates 1870-1990"] , Guide To Women Leaders. Retrieved 1/11/08.]

National Conventions

11/25/1874 - Organizational Convention in Indianapolis, Indiana

5/16-18/1876 - Academy of Music, Indianapolis, Indiana. There were 239 delegates present from 17 states. Peter Cooper was nominated for President with 352 votes to 119 for three other contenders. Newton Booth was nominated for Vice President by a vote of 418 to 58 scattering. When Booth declined to run, the national committee substituted Samuel F. Cary.

6/9-11/1880 - Exposition Hall, Chicago, Illinois. There were 714 delegates present. James B. Weaver was nominated for President with 224.5 votes to Hendrick B. Wright with 126.5, Stephen D. Dillaye with 119, and 246 scattering. (After the roll call, all delegates who had supported other candidates shifted their votes to Weaver: New York Times 6/12/1880.) Benjamin J. Chambers was nominated for Vice President with 403 votes to 311 for Absolom M. West.

5/28-29/1884 - English's Opera House, Indianapolis, Indiana. All states were represented except Delaware and Mississippi. Benjamin F. Butler was nominated for President with 323 votes to 98 for Jesse Harper and five scattering. Absolom M. West was unanimously nominated for Vice President. Butler had been nominated for President two weeks earlier by the Anti-Monopoly Party's National Convention.

9/12/1888 - Cincinnati. Only eight delegates attended, and no candidates were nominated.

Elected officials

The following were Greenback members of the U.S. House of Representatives:

46th United States Congress, March 4, 1879 - March 3, 1881.

* William M. Lowe (1842-1882), Alabama's 8th congressional district
* Albert P. Forsythe (1830-1906), Illinois' 15th congressional district
* Gilbert De La Matyr (1825-1892), "National" Indiana's 7th congressional district
* James B. Weaver (1833-1912), Iowa's 6th congressional district
* Edward H. Gillette (1840-1918), Iowa's 7th congressional district
* George W. Ladd (1818-1892), Maine's 4th congressional district
* Thompson H. Murch (1838-1886), Maine's 5th congressional district
* Nicholas Ford (1833-1897), Missouri's 9th congressional district
* Daniel Lindsay Russell (1845-1908), North Carolina's 3rd congressional district
* Seth H. Yocum (1834-1895), Pennsylvania's 20th congressional district
* George Washington Jones (1828-1903), Texas's 5th congressional district
* Bradley Barlow (1814-1889), Vermont's 3rd congressional district

47th United States Congress, March 4, 1881 to March 3, 1883.

* William M. Lowe, Alabama's 8th congressional district. [seated June 3, 1882, subsequently died August 12, 1882. Seat filled by Democrat Joseph Wheeler after special election.]
* George W. Ladd, Maine's 4th congressional district
* Thompson H. Murch, Maine's 5th congressional district
* Ira S. Hazeltine Missouri's 6th congressional district
* Theron M. Rice Missouri's 7th congressional district
* Nicholas Ford, Missouri's 9th congressional district
* Joseph H. Burrows Missouri's 10th congressional district
* James Mosgrove, Pennsylvania's 25th congressional district
* George Washington Jones, Texas' 5th congressional district

48th United States Congress, March 4, 1883 to March 3, 1885.

* Benjamin F. Shively, Anti-Monopolist Indiana's 13th congressional district
* Luman Hamlin Weller, Iowa's 4th congressional district

49th United States Congress, March 4, 1885 to March 3, 1887.
* James B. Weaver, Iowa's 6th congressional district

50th United States Congress, March 4, 1887 to March 3, 1889.
* James B. Weaver, Iowa's 6th congressional district

ee also

* cite book
last = Lause
first = Mark
authorlink = Mark Lause
title = The Civil War’s Last Campaign: James B. Weaver, the National Greenback-Labor Party & the Politics of Race and Section
publisher = University Press of America
date = 2001
pages =
doi =
id =

* Producerism

* United States Note

* List of political parties in the United States

Notes

References

"Ohio Elects the President" (Mansfield OH: Bookmasters, 2000), pp. 50-59.


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