- United States presidential election, 1960
election_name = United States presidential election, 1960
country = United States
type = presidential
ongoing = no
previous_election = United States presidential election, 1956
previous_year = 1956
next_election = United States presidential election, 1964
next_year = 1964
election_date = November 8,1960
John F. Kennedy
party1 = Democratic Party (United States)
Lyndon B. Johnson
electoral_vote1 = 303
states_carried1 = 22
popular_vote1 = 34,220,984
percentage1 = 49.7%
party2 = Republican Party (United States)
Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr.
electoral_vote2 = 219
states_carried2 = 26
popular_vote2 = 34,108,157
percentage2 = 49.6%
map_size = 350px
map_caption = Presidential election results map. Blue denotes states won by Kennedy/Johnson, Red denotes those won by Nixon/Lodge. Orange denotes the electoral votes for
Harry F. Byrdby Alabamaand Mississippi unpledged electors, and an Oklahoma" faithless elector". Numbers indicate the number of electoral votes allotted to each state.
title = President
Dwight D. Eisenhower
before_party = Republican Party (United States)
John F. Kennedy
after_party = Democratic Party (United States)
The United States presidential election of 1960 marked the end of
Dwight D. Eisenhower's two terms as President. Eisenhower's Vice President, Richard M. Nixon, who had transformed his office into a national political base, was the Republican (GOP) candidate.
The Democrats nominated
MassachusettsSenator John F. Kennedy(JFK). He was only the second Roman Catholicto become a major-party presidential candidate (the previous one was Democrat Al Smithin 1928). During the campaign, Kennedy charged that under Eisenhower and the Republicans, America was falling behind the Soviet Unionin the Cold War, both militarily and economically, and that as President he would "get America moving again." Nixon responded that, if elected, he would continue the "peace and prosperity" Eisenhower had brought the nation, and that with the nation engaged in the Cold War, Kennedy was too young and inexperienced to be trusted with the Presidency. The electoral vote was the closest in any presidential election dating to 1916, and Kennedy's margin of victory in the popular vote is among the closest ever in American history. The 1960 election also remains a source of debate among some historians as to whether vote theft in selected states aided Kennedy's victory. This was also the first election in which Alaskaand Hawaiiwere included in the election, having been granted statehood on January 3 and August 21 of the previous year.
Democratic Party nomination
John F. Kennedy, U.S. senator from Massachusetts
Lyndon B. Johnson, U.S. Senate Majority Leader from Texas
Hubert H. Humphrey, U.S. senator from Minnesota
Adlai E. Stevenson, former U.S. governor of Illinois
Stuart Symington, U.S. senator from Missouri
A number of political leaders were candidates for the 1960 Democratic presidential nomination. However, with the exceptions of Kennedy, Senator Lyndon Johnson of
Texas, Senator Hubert Humphrey of Minnesota, Senator Stuart Symington of Missouriand former IllinoisGovernor Adlai Stevenson, [ [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,825719,00.html THE DEMOCRATIC GOVERNORS In 1960 Their Big Year - TIME ] ] the rest of the presidential hopefuls were regional " favorite son" candidates without any realistic chance of winning the nomination.
Kennedy was initially dogged by suggestions from some Democratic Party elders (such as former President
Harry Truman, who was supporting Symington) that he was too youthful and inexperienced to be president; these critics suggested that he agree to be the running mate for a "more experienced" Democrat. Realizing that this was a strategy touted by his opponents to keep the public from taking him seriously, Kennedy stated frankly, "I’m not running for vice president, I’m running for president." [ [http://www.nytimes.com/2008/03/11/us/politics/11clinton.html?_r=1&pagewanted=2&oref=slogin New York Times] ]
A more serious problem for Kennedy was his
Roman Catholicreligion. Recalling the experience of 1928 Catholic Democratic presidential nominee Al Smith, many wondered if anti-Catholicprejudice would hurt Kennedy's chances of winning the nomination and the election in November. To prove his vote-getting ability, Kennedy challenged MinnesotaSenator Hubert Humphrey, a liberal, in the Wisconsinprimary. Although Kennedy defeated Humphrey in Wisconsin, the fact that his margin of victory came mostly from heavily Catholic areas left many party bosses unconvinced of Kennedy's appeal to non-Catholic voters. Kennedy next faced Humphrey in the heavily Protestantstate of West Virginia, where anti-Catholic bigotry was said to be widespread. Humphrey's campaign was low on money and could not compete with the well-organized, well-financed Kennedy team. Kennedy's attractive sisters and brothers combed the state looking for votes, leading Humphrey to complain that he "felt like an independent merchant running against a chain store." Kennedy followed a strong performance in the first primary debate of 1960 [http://www.ourcampaigns.com/EventDetail.html?EventID=43] by soundly defeating Humphrey with over 60% of the vote. Humphrey withdrew from the race and Kennedy had gained the victory he needed to prove to the party's bosses that a Catholic could win in a non-Catholic state. In the months leading up to the Democratic Convention Kennedy traveled around the nation persuading delegates from various states to support him. However, as the Convention opened Kennedy was still a few dozen votes short of victory. Just before the convention, Kennedy held a debate with Lyndon Johnson; this second primary debate [http://www.ourcampaigns.com/EventDetail.html?EventID=44] was generally seen as a Kennedy victory which pushed other Northern Democrats out of contention.
Republican Party nomination
Richard M. Nixon, U.S. vice president from California
Nelson Rockefeller, U.S. governor of New York
Barry Goldwater, U.S. senator from Arizona
With the ratification of the
22nd Amendmentin 1951 President Eisenhower could not run for the office of President again; he had been elected in 1952 and 1956. In 1960 he remained highly popular, and most historians believe that if he could have run for a third term he would have defeated any of the major Democratic candidates, including Kennedy. However, Eisenhower's health issues and desire to retire meant he likely would not have run again even if he could have done so.
In 1959 it looked as if Vice President
Richard Nixonmight face a serious challenge for the GOP nomination from New YorkGovernor Nelson Rockefeller, the leader of the GOP's moderate-liberal wing. However, Rockefeller announced that he would not be a candidate for president after a national tour revealed that the great majority of Republicans favored Nixon. After Rockefeller's withdrawal, Nixon faced no significant opposition for the Republican nomination. At the 1960 Republican National Conventionin Chicago, Nixon was the overwhelming choice of the delegates, with conservative Senator Barry Goldwaterof Arizonareceiving 10 votes from conservative delegates. Nixon then chose former Massachusetts Senator and United NationsAmbassador Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr.as his Vice Presidential candidate. Nixon chose Lodge because his foreign-policy credentials fit into Nixon's strategy to campaign more on foreign policy than domestic policy, which he believed favored the Democrats.
1960 Democratic National Conventionwas held in Los Angeles. In the week before the convention opened, Kennedy received two new challengers when Lyndon B. Johnson, the powerful Senate Majority Leaderfrom Texas, and Adlai Stevenson II, the party's nominee in 1952 and 1956, announced their candidacies. However, neither Johnson nor Stevenson was a match for the talented and highly efficient Kennedy campaign team led by Robert Kennedy. Johnson challenged Kennedy to a televised debate before a joint meeting of the Texasand Massachusettsdelegations; Kennedy accepted. Most observers felt that Kennedy won the debate, and Johnson was not able to expand his delegate support beyond the South. Stevenson was popular among many liberal delegates, especially in California, but his two landslide defeats in 1952 and 1956 led party leaders to search for a "fresh face" who had a better chance of winning. Kennedy won the nomination on the first ballot. Then, in a move which surprised many, Johnson was asked by Kennedy to be his running mate. To this day there is much debate regarding the details of Johnson's nomination - why it was offered and why he agreed to take it. Some historians speculate that Kennedy actually wanted someone else (such as Senators Stuart Symingtonor Henry M. Jackson) to be his running mate, and that he offered the nomination to Johnson first only as a courtesy to the powerful Senate Majority Leader. According to this theory, Kennedy was then surprised when Johnson accepted second place on the Democratic ticket. Another related story is that, after Johnson accepted the offer, Robert Kennedy went to Johnson's hotel suite to dissuade Johnson from becoming the vice-presidential nominee. Johnson was offended that "JFK's kid brother" would brashly urge him to stay off the ticket. In response to his blunt confrontation with Robert Kennedy, Johnson called JFK to confirm that the vice-presidential nomination was his; JFK clearly stated that he wanted Johnson as his running mate. Johnson and Robert Kennedy became so embittered by the experience that they began a fierce personal and political feud that would have grave implications for the Democratic Party in the 1960s. Despite the reservations Robert Kennedy had about Johnson's nomination, the move proved to be a masterstroke for his older brother. Johnson vigorously campaigned for JFK and was instrumental in helping the Democrats to carry several Southern states skeptical of Kennedy, especially Johnson's home state of Texas.
The fall campaign
Both Kennedy and Nixon drew large and enthusiastic crowds throughout the campaign. [
E. Thomas Wood, cite news|url=http://www.nashvillepost.com/news/2007/10/5/nashville_now_and_then_5oct2007 |title=Nashville now and then: Nixon paints the town red|NashvillePost.com|accessdate=2007-10-06|date=2007-10-05] In August 1960 most polls gave Vice-President Nixon a slim lead over Kennedy, and many political punditsregarded Nixon as the favorite to win. However, Nixon was plagued by bad luck throughout the fall campaign. In August President Eisenhower, who had long been ambivalent about Nixon, held a televised press conference in which a reporter mentioned Nixon's claims that he had been a valuable administration insider and advisor. The reporter asked Eisenhower if he could think of any Nixon advice or suggestions that he had heeded. Eisenhower responded with the flip comment that "if you give me a week I might think of one." Although both Eisenhower and Nixon later claimed that Ike was merely joking with the reporter, the remark hurt Nixon, as it undercut his claims of having greater decision-making experience than Kennedy. The remark proved so damaging to Nixon that the Democrats turned Eisenhower's statement into a television commercial criticizing Nixon. At the Republican Convention Nixon had pledged to campaign in all fifty states. This pledge backfired when, in August, Nixon injured his knee on a car door while campaigning in North Carolina; the knee became infected and Nixon had to cease campaigning for two weeks while the infected knee was injected with antibiotics. When he left Walter Reed HospitalNixon refused to abandon his pledge to visit every state; he thus wound up wasting valuable time visiting states that he had no chance to win, or which had few electoral votes and would be of little help in the election. For example, in his effort to visit all fifty states Nixon spent the vital weekend before the election campaigning in Alaska, which had only three electoral votes, while Kennedy campaigned in large states such as New Jersey, Ohio, Michigan, and Pennsylvania.
The key turning point of the campaign were the four Kennedy-Nixon debates; they were the first presidential debates held on television. Nixon insisted on campaigning until just a few hours before the first debate started; he had not completely recovered from his hospital stay and thus looked pale, sickly, underweight, and tired. He also refused makeup for the first debate, claiming it was not masculine enough, and as a result his beard stubble showed prominently on the era's black-and-white TV screens. Nixon's poor appearance on television in the first debate is reflected by the fact that his mother called him immediately following the debate to ask if he was sick. Kennedy, by contrast, rested before the first debate and appeared tanned, confident, and relaxed during the debate. An estimated 80 million viewers watched the first debate. Most people who watched the debate on TV believed Kennedy had won while radio listeners (a smaller audience) believed Nixon had won. After it had ended polls showed Kennedy moving from a slight deficit into a slight lead over Nixon. For the remaining three debates Nixon regained his lost weight, wore television makeup, and appeared more forceful than his initial appearance. However, up to 20 million fewer viewers watched the three remaining debates than the first debate. Political observers at the time believed that Kennedy won the first debate, [http://www.ourcampaigns.com/EventDetail.html?EventID=10] Nixon won the second [http://www.ourcampaigns.com/EventDetail.html?EventID=11] and third debates, [http://www.ourcampaigns.com/EventDetail.html?EventID=12] and that the fourth debate, [http://www.ourcampaigns.com/EventDetail.html?EventID=13] which was seen as the strongest performance by both men, was a draw.
A key factor which hurt Kennedy in the campaign was the widespread prejudice against his
Roman Catholicreligion; some Protestantsbelieved that, if he were elected President, Kennedy would have to take orders from the Popein Rome. In September 1960 Kennedy gave a well-received speech before a meeting of Protestant ministers in Houston, Texas; in the speech Kennedy promised to obey the separation of church and state and to not allow Catholic officials to dictate public policy to him. Even so, it was widely believed after the election that Kennedy lost some heavily Protestant states because of his Catholicism. However, Kennedy's campaign did take advantage of an opening when the Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr., the civil-rights leader, was arrested in Georgia while leading a civil rights march. Nixon refused to become involved in the incident, but Kennedy placed calls to local political authorities to get King released from jail, and he also called King's father and wife. As a result, King's father endorsed Kennedy and he received much favorable publicity in the black community. On election day Kennedy won the black vote in most areas by wide margins, and this may have provided his margin of victory in states such as New Jersey, South Carolina, Illinois, and Missouri. As the campaign moved into the final two weeks the polls and most political punditspredicted a Kennedy victory. However, President Eisenhower, who had largely sat out the campaign, made a vigorous campaign tour for Nixon over the last ten days before the election. Eisenhower's support gave Nixon a badly needed boost, and by election day the polls showed a virtual tie.
The election on November 8 remains one of the most famous election nights in American history. As the early returns poured in from large Northern and Midwestern cities such as
Boston, New York City, Buffalo, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Baltimore, Detroit, and Chicago, Kennedy opened a large lead in the popular and electoral vote, and appeared headed for victory. However, as later returns came in from the Western states and ruraland suburbanareas in the Midwest, Nixon began to steadily close the gap with Kennedy. It was not until the afternoon of Wednesday, November 9 that Nixon finally conceded the election and Kennedy claimed victory. A sample of how close the election was can be seen in California; Kennedy appeared to have carried the state by 37,000 votes when all of the voting precincts reported, but when the absentee ballotswere counted a week later, Nixon came from behind to win the state by 36,000 votes. In the national popular vote Kennedy beat Nixon by just one tenth of one percentage point (0.1%) - the closest popular-vote margin of the twentieth century. In the electoral college Kennedy's victory was larger, as he took 303 electoral votes to Nixon's 219 (269 were needed to win). Kennedy carried 11 states by three percentage points or less, while Nixon won 5 states by the same margin. Kennedy carried all but three states in the populous Northeastern US, and he also carried the large states of Michigan, Illinois, and Missouriin the Midwest. With Lyndon Johnson's help he also carried most of the South, including the large states of North Carolina, Georgia, and Texas. Nixon carried all but three of the Western states, and he ran strong in the farm belt states, where his biggest victory was Ohio. " The New York Times", summarizing the discussion late in November, spoke of a “narrow consensus” among the experts that Kennedy had won more than he lost as a result of his Catholicism, [New York Times, November 20, 1960, Section 4, p. E5] as Northern Catholics flocked to Kennedy because of attacks on his religion. Interviewing people who voted in both 1956 and 1960, a University of Michiganteam analyzing the election returns discovered that people who voted Democratic in 1956 split 33–6 for Kennedy, while the Republican voters of 1956 split 44–17 for Nixon. That is, Nixon lost 28% (17/61) of the Eisenhower voters, while Kennedy lost only 15% of the Stevenson voters. The Democrats, in other words, did a better job of holding their 1956 supporters. [cite book| first=Angus| last=Campbell| coauthors="et al."| title=Elections and the Political Order| year=1966| pages=83]
Notably, Kennedy was the last candidate to win the presidency without carrying
Ohioand was the only non-incumbent in the 20th century to do so.
Some Republicans and historians have alleged that Kennedy benefited from
vote fraud, especially in Texasand Illinois, and that Nixon actually won the national popular vote despite the fact that Republicans tried and failed to overturn the results in both these states at the time--as well as in nine other states. These two states are important because if Nixon had carried both, he would have won the election in the electoral college.
Kennedy won Illinois by less than 9,000 votes out of 4.75 million cast, even though Nixon carried 92 of the state's 101 counties. Kennedy's victory in Illinois came from the city of
Chicago, where Mayor Richard J. Daleyheld back much of Chicago's vote until the late morning hours of November 9. The efforts of Daley and the powerful Chicago Democratic organization gave Kennedy an extraordinary Cook County victory margin of 450,000 votes --- more than 10% of Chicago's 1960 population of 3.55 million [ [http://www.chipublib.org/004chicago/timeline/population.html] ] -- thus (barely) overcoming the heavy Republican vote in the rest of Illinois. Earl Mazo, a reporter for the pro-Nixon " New York Herald Tribune", investigated the voting in Chicago and claimed to have discovered sufficient evidence of vote fraud to prove that the state was stolen for Kennedy.
In Texas, Kennedy defeated Nixon by a narrow 51% to 49% margin. Some Republicans argued that the formidable political machine of
Lyndon B. Johnsonhad stolen enough votes in counties along the Mexican border to give Kennedy the victory there.
Certain Republican party leaders were said to have urged Nixon to pursue recounts and challenge the validity of some votes for Kennedy, especially in the pivotal states of Illinois, Missouri and New Jersey, where large majorities in Catholic precincts handed Kennedy the election. Nixon publicly refused to call for a recount, saying it would cause a
constitutional crisis; he also convinced Mazo and the "Herald Tribune" to not print any stories suggesting that the election had been stolen by the Democrats. Privately, however, Nixon encouraged Republican National Chairman Thruston Morton to push for a recount, which Morton did in 11 states, keeping challenges in the courts into the summer of 1961; the only result was the loss of the State of Hawaiito Kennedy on a recount petitioned by the Kennedy campaign.
Kennedy's defenders, such as historian
Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., have argued that Kennedy's margin in Texas (46,000 votes) was simply too large for vote fraud to have been a decisive factor; in Illinois Schlesinger and others have pointed out that even if Nixon carried Illinois, the state alone would not have given him the victory, as Kennedy would still have won 276 electoral votes to Nixon's 246 (with 269 needed to win). More to the point, Illinois was the site of the most extensive challenge process, which fell short despite repeated efforts spearheaded by Cook County state's attorney, Benjamin Adamowski, a Republican, who also lost his re-election bid. Despite demonstrating net errors favoring both Nixon and Adamowski (some precincts--40% in Nixon's case--showed errors favoring them, a factor suggesting error, rather than fraud), the totals found fell short of reversing the results for either candidate. The Republican-dominated State Board of Elections unanimously rejected the challenge to the results. Furthermore, there were signs of possible irregularities in downstate areas controlled by Republicans, which Democrats never seriously pressed, since the Republican challenges went nowhere. [Slate, October 16, 2000, [http://www.slate.com/id/91350/ "Was Nixon Robbed? The legend of the stolen 1960 presidential election"] by David Greenberg]
Alabama popular vote
The actual number of popular votes received by Kennedy in
Alabamais difficult to determine because of the unusual situation in that state. The first minor issue is that, instead of having the voters choose from slates of electors, the Alabama ballot had voters choose the electors individually. Traditionally, in such a situation, a given candidate is assigned the popular vote of the elector who received the most votes. For instance, candidates pledged to Nixon received anywhere from 230,951 votes (for George Witcher) to 237,981 votes (for Cecil Durham); Nixon is therefore assigned 237,981 popular votes from Alabama.
The more important issue is that the statewide Democratic primary had chosen eleven candidates for the
Electoral College, five of whom were pledged to vote for Kennedy, and six of whom were free to vote for anyone they chose. All of these candidates won, and the six unpledged electors voted against Kennedy. The actual number of popular votes received by Kennedy is therefore difficult to allocate. Traditionally, Kennedy is assigned either 318,303 votes (the votes won by the most popular Kennedy elector) or 324,050 votes (the votes won by the most popular Democratic elector); indeed, the results table below is based on Kennedy winning 318,303 votes in Alabama.
Even taking the Alabama totals alone and the vote counts for the other 49 states, Nixon has a 58,181-vote plurality, edging out Kennedy 34,108,157 votes to 34,049,976. Using this calculation without even taking into consideration the alleged occurrences of vote fraud, the 1960 election was even closer than previously thought. [ [http://www.opinionjournal.com/diary/?id=110004320 The Wall Street Journal Online - John Fund on the Trail ] ]
Georgia popular vote
The actual number of popular votes received by Kennedy and Nixon in Georgia is also difficult to determine because voters voted for 12 separate electors. The vote totals of 458,638 votes for Kennedy and 274,472 votes for Nixon reflect the number of votes for the Kennedy and Nixon electors who received the highest number of votes. However, the Republican and Democratic electors receiving the highest number of votes were outliers from the other 11 electors from their party. The average vote totals for the 12 electors were 455,629 votes for the Democratic electors and 273,110 votes for the Republican electors. This shrinks Kennedy's election margin in Georgia by 1,647 votes to 182,519. [cite journal| last=Gaines| first=Brian J.| year=2001| month=March| title=Popular Myths About Popular Vote–Electoral College Splits| journal=PS: Political Science & Politics| pages=74| url=http://www.apsanet.org/imgtest/PopularMythsPopularVote-Gaines.pdf]
Unpledged Democratic electors
Many Democrats were opposed to the national Democratic Party's platform on supporting
civil rightsand voting rights for African-Americansliving in the South. Both before and after the convention, they attempted to put unpledged Democratic electors on their states' ballots in the hopes of influencing the race: the existence of such electors might influence which candidate would be chosen by the national convention, and, in a close race, such electors might be in a position to extract concessions from either the Democratic or Republican presidential candidates in return for their electoral votes.
Most of these attempts failed. Alabama put up a mixed slate of five loyal electors and six unpledged electors. Mississippi put up two distinct slates, one of loyalists and one of unpledged electors. Louisiana also put up two distinct slates, although the unpledged slate did not receive the “Democratic” label. Georgia freed its Democratic electors from pledges to vote for Kennedy, but popular Governor
Ernest Vandiver, a candidate for elector himself, publicly backed Kennedy.
In total, fourteen unpledged Democratic electors won election from the voters. Because electors pledged to Kennedy had won a clear majority of the Electoral College, the unpledged electors could not influence the results. Nonetheless, they refused to vote for Kennedy. Instead they voted for
VirginiaSenator Harry F. Byrd, a conservative Democrat, even though Byrd was not an announced candidate and did not seek their votes (Byrd also received 1 electoral vote from Oklahoma, for a total of 15).
There were 537 electoral votes, up from 531 in 1956, because of the addition of 2 U.S. Senators and 1 U.S. Representative from the new states of Alaska and Hawaii (The House of Representatives was temporarily expanded from 435 members to 437 to accommodate this, and would go back to 435 when reapportioned according to the 1960 census).
Source (Popular Vote): Leip PV source 2| year=1960| as of= February 7, 2008 Note: Sullivan / Curtis run only in
Texas. In Washington, Constitution Party run Curtis for President and B. N. Millerfor vice-president, receiving 1,401 votes.
Source (Electoral Vote): National Archives EV source| year=1960| as of=August 2, 2005
#New Jersey, 0.80%
#New Mexico, 0.74%
#South Carolina, 2.48%
#North Carolina, 4.22%
#New York, 5.26%
#West Virginia, 5.47%
#New Hampshire, 6.84%
(a) "This figure is problematic; see Alabama popular vote above."
(b) "Byrd was not directly on the ballot. Instead, his electoral votes came from unpledged Democratic electors and a faithless elector."
faithless elector Henry D. Irwin, though pledged to vote for Richard Nixon and Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., instead voted for non-candidate Harry F. Byrd. However, unlike other electors who voted for Byrd and Strom Thurmondas Vice President, Irwin voted for Barry Goldwateras Vice President."
(d) "In Mississippi, the slate of unpledged Democratic electors won. They cast their 8 votes for Byrd and Thurmond."
Canada and the 1960 United States presidential election
History of the United States (1945–1964)
United States Senate election, 1960
* Campbell, Angus; et al. (1966). "Elections and the Political Order", statistical studies of poll data
* Divine, Robert A. "Foreign Policy and U.S. Presidential Elections, 1952-1960" 1974.
* Gallup, George H., ed. "The Gallup Poll: Public Opinion, 1935-1971". 3 vols. Random House, 1972. press releases
* Ingle, H. Larry, "Billy Graham: The Evangelical in Politics, 1960s-Style," in Peter Bien and Chuck Fager, In Stillness there is Fullness: A Peacemaker's Harvest, Kimo Press.
* [http://geoelections.free.fr/USA/elec_comtes/1960.htm 1960 popular vote by counties]
* [http://psephos.adam-carr.net/countries/u/usa/pres/1960.txt 1960 popular vote by states]
* [http://uselectionatlas.org/RESULTS/datagraph.php?year=1960&fips=0&f=1&off=0&elect=0 1960 popular vote by states (with bar graphs)]
* [http://www.singularfilms.com/singular/gallery2/jfkbuttons/default.asp Gallery of 1960 Election Posters/Buttons]
* [http://www.msu.edu/~sheppa28/elections.html#1960 How close was the 1960 election?] - Michael Sheppard, Michigan State University
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