Malmesbury, Wiltshire


Malmesbury, Wiltshire

infobox UK place
country = England
official_name= Malmesbury
shire_district= North Wiltshire
shire_county = Wiltshire
region= South West England
population=4631 (2001 census)
os_grid_reference=ST94058577
longitude= -2.0988
latitude= 51.5840
dial_code=01666|postcode_district = SN16
postcode_area= SN|post_town=Malmesbury
constituency_westminster=North Wiltshire
Ambulance= Great Western

Malmesbury is a south Cotswold town and civil parish in south west England in the county of Wiltshire. The town is close to Cirencester, Chippenham and Swindon and surrounded by rivers on three sides.

Geography and administration

Malmesbury is a hilltop town, shaped by the geography carved by two rivers. From the west, the infant Bristol Avon flows from Sherston, and from the north west, a tributary either known as the Tetbury Avon or, locally, as The Ingleburn. They flow within convert|100|yd of each other but are separated by a narrow and high isthmus, just a few yards across, which forces the Bristol Avon south and the Tetbury Avon east. This creates a rocky outcrop as a south-facing, gently sloping hilltop, until the two rivers meet on the southern edge of the town.

With very steep, and in places cliff-like sides, the town was described by Sir William Waller, as the best naturally-defended inland location he had seen. The hilltop contains several freshwater springs, which were regarded as holy wells from the 7th century. The clean water, almost island-like geography, hilltop position and south-facing land, would have made Malmesbury an ideal location for safe, defensive habitation for millennia.

Local government

Since 1974 Malmesbury has had three tiers of local government: parish, district and county.

At the most local level is Malmesbury Town Council, formed as successor to the municipal borough. The town council is made up of sixteen councillors, who elect annually a town mayor and deputy town mayor from their number.

Malmesbury forms part of North Wiltshire District, administered by an elected district council. The parish of Malmesbury forms one of thirty-five wards for district council elections, and returns two councillors. [ [http://www.opsi.gov.uk/si/si2007/20070143.htm The District of North Wiltshire (Electoral Changes) Order 2007 (www.opsi.gov.uk)] ]

For elections to Wiltshire County Council, Malmesbury forms an electoral division, returning a single county councillor. [ [http://www.wiltshire.gov.uk/council-and-democracy/councillors-general-information/councillor-by-division/div-malmesbury.htm Malmesbury Electoral Division (Wiltshire County Council)] ] From May 2009, Wiltshire will become a unitary authority. [cite web | url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/wiltshire/7232682.stm | title = Commons agrees unitary authority | date = 7 February 2008 | accessdate = 2008-07-04]

History

Malmesbury was the oldest borough in England (although Barnstaple has a counter claim: both were given royal borough status around 880AD). Recent archaeological excavations have revealed stone town wall defences, which have been dated to the Iron Age between 800 and 500BC, making Malmesbury arguably the oldest continually inhabited town in England.

The town is famous for its 12th century Abbey which once had a spire taller than that of Salisbury Cathedral. From early Saxon times through to the 14th century AD, the Benedictine abbey was a centre of learning and a place of pilgrimage.

The present day abbey is the third built on or near the same spot at the north end of the hilltop. A third of this building remains, as much was destroyed, reputedly by a storm in the late 15th century. Henry VIII sold the remainder to a local clothier called William Stumpe. The extant part of the Abbey is now the parish church. The remains contain a parvise which still holds some fine examples of books from the Abbey library.

The town was of strategic importance during the English Civil War, being a strong defensive position on the road between Oxford and Bristol. It was fiercely fought over and is said to have changed hands seven times. The south face of Malmesbury Abbey still bears pock-marks from cannon and gunshot. Although once the centre of the lace-making industry, the industrial revolution had little effect on the town. The railway station, built in 1877, was closed down in 1960. The Malmesbury Branch, built by the Great Western Railway split from the main London-Bristol line at Dauntsey, although a later connection with the northern GWR 'mainline' to the Severn Tunnel and Wales was made at Somerford. Just short of its terminus, the line ran through a short tunnel: the only tunnel on the line between Malmesbury and Paddington. The tunnel has one portal in the grounds of The Retreat.

People

* Saint Aldhelm - Saxon scholar, bishop, poet, musician and patron saint of Wessex and the abbey's first abbot.
* King Athelstan - first king of all England.
* Eilmer - an 11th century monk who flew from the top of the abbey with a pair of wings.
* William of Malmesbury - Father of medieval English history.
* Thomas Hobbes - Father of modern English philosophy.
* Hannah Twynnoy - barmaid reputedly the first person killed by a tiger in England.
* Walter Powell MP - Victorian politician and balloonist.
* James Grout - actor.
* Hugh Pym - TV presenter and journalist.
* Kris Marshall - actor.
* James Dyson - inventor.
* Kate Charman - TV presenter and model.
* Jamie Cullum - musician.
* James Castle - Artist.
* Julian Pettifer - TV journalist and president of the RSPB.
* James Constable - footballer.
* Charlie Griffin - footballer.
* Ian and Barbara Pollard - 'The Naked Gardeners' from Abbey House Gardens

Malmesbury Commoners

At the Battle of Brunanburh in 937, King Athelstan of Wessex defeated an army of northern English and Scots and made a claim to become the first 'King of All England'. He was helped by many men from Malmesbury, and in gratitude is said to have given the townsfolk their freedom, along with 600 hides of land to the south of the town.

The status of freemen of Malmesbury was passed down through the generations and remains to this day. It is likely, however, that the title of freeman, or commoner, was given to tradesmen and craftsmen coming into the town during the early Middle Ages, so the claim of direct lineage from the men who fought with King Athelstan to the present day commoners is unlikely, though possible. Since at least the 17th century, however, the right has been only handed down from father to son or son-in-law. There is a maximum of 280 commoners. The organisation is said to be the 'most exclusive club' in the world, as to enter it one has to be born to a freeman or marry the daughter of one.

However, it is now impossible to marry into it. Since 2000, and with the possibility of falling numbers, women were admitted for the first time - the daughters of freemen. The organisation, The Warden and Freemen of Malmesbury, still owns the land to the south of the town, along with dozens of properties, pubs and shops within the town itself, providing affordable housing to townsfolk.

Education

Malmesbury has two primary schools, Malmesbury Church of England Primary School and St. Joseph's Catholic School and one secondary school called Malmesbury School.

Places of interest

Old Bell Hotel

On the other side of Abbey from Abbey House Gardens is the Old Bell Hotel, which dates back to the 12th century, when it housed the VIP guests making pilgrimages to the Abbey.

Market Cross

In the centre of the town stands the Market Cross, built in c1490, possibly using stone salvaged from the recently-ruined part of the abbey. It was described by John Leland writing in the 1540s as a 'right costly piece of work', which was built to shelter the 'poore market folke' when 'rain cometh'. An elaborately carved octagonal structure, it is recognised as one of the best preserved of its kind in England. It still serves its purpose today, nicknamed 'The Birdcage', because of its appearance, it shelters market traders by day and as a meeting point at night.

Tower House

A large building of medieval origins, now a private home, Tower House stands at the end of Oxford Street. It contains a high-roofed main hall where it is said Henry VIII dined after hunting in nearby Bradon Forest. In the 1840s, a doctor living in the house, with a passion for astronomy, built a narrow tower protruding high from the roof. It dominates the skyline of the east of the town.

Daniel's Well

A part of the River Avon (Sherston branch) to the west of the town centre, named after the monk Daniel, who lived at the abbey in the 9th century. He is said to have submerged himself in the cold water every day for decades to quell fiery passions.

Bremilham Church

Near the town lies Bremilham Church, on a farm at Foxley-cum-Bremilham, which measures just 4 m by 3.6 m. Its single pew has space for four people and there is standing room for six more. The church, which is listed in the Guinness Book of Records as the smallest church in use in Britain, holds one service to mark Rogationtide.

Present day industry

Traditionally a market town serving the rural area of north west Wiltshire, farming has been the main industry.Now, Malmesbury's main employer is Dyson who have their headquarters on the edge of the town, and employ around 1,600 people. The HQ is now mainly a design organisation, with manufacturing carried out in Malaysia.The town also has a thriving High Street with numerous independent shops and a regular market. It is increasingly a tourist centre, popularised initially by John Betjeman and visitors to Malmesbury Abbey have always numbered tens of thousands a year.In recent years, the town has experienced a new tourism boom, mainly because of the national renown of Abbey House Gardens, a five acre garden attraction based around the medieval Abbott's House next to the Abbey. The gardens, which stretch from close to the town centre down to the River Avon below, were created by Ian and Barbara Pollard, also known as 'The Naked Gardeners' and opened to the public in the late 1990s.

The EKCO Factory

At the beginning of the World War II, the electronics company EKCO moved part of its operations from Southend-on-Sea to Cowbridge House, Malmesbury to avoid the danger of bombing and established a shadow factory to produce radar equipment. The factory continued production after the war and eventually became part of AT&T. The site existed until 2004 when the owners, Lucent Technologies moved their operations to Swindon.

Miscellaneous

*Malmesbury natives are known as Jackdaws. This originates from the colony of jackdaws that inhabit the abbey walls and roof.
*Malmesbury has a thriving carnival which takes place in the last two weeks of August, with the finale a procession through the town held on the first Saturday in September. It has grown in recent years to now include more than 30 events, ranging from music events to an attempt on the world record for the largest pillow fight.
*Malmesbury had a nine-day wonder in January 1998, when two Tamworth pigs (the Tamworth Two) escaped from the town's abattoir. They swam the Tetbury branch of the River Avon, across a few fields and lived in an orchard for a week. The story made international headlines with tabloid newspapers and TV news stations fighting each other to sight and then capture the pigs. They now live a comfortable life at the South of England Rare Breeds Centre, near Ashford in Kent where they can be visited.
*Malmesbury is twinned with the German town of Niebüll and partnered with Gien in France.
*Malmesbury is known as the ancestral home of the Hanks family.
*The Malmesbury Singers are a choir that practices every Monday during term time in Malmesbury Abbey. They put on two concerts a year.
*The world music festival Womad Charlton Park was held in Charlton Park in Malmesbury in 2007 and 2008.
*Malmesbury has its own Morris Dancing side - named Malmesbury Morris - which was founded in 2004. They meet on Thursdays at the Reading Room in Corston, Wiltshire - just South of Malmesbury itself.

ee also

*Malmesbury Abbey
*William of Malmesbury — Famous historian
*Eilmer of Malmesbury — Made an early attempt at flight using mechanical wings

References

External links

* [http://www.malmesbury-memories.co.uk Malmesbury Photographs]
* [http://www.bbc.co.uk/wiltshire/content/image_galleries/historic_malmesbury_photos_gallery1.shtml Historic Malmesbury photos] at [http://www.bbc.co.uk/wiltshire BBC Wiltshire]
* [http://www.users.zetnet.co.uk/chippenham/malmesbury/mwalk.html Town Tour of Malmesbury]
* [http://www.malmesburymorris.org.uk Malmesbury's Morris Dancers]
* [http://www.malmesbury-pri.wilts.sch.uk/ Malmesbury Church of England Primary School]
* [http://malmesbury.play-cricket.com/ Malmesbury Cricket Club]
* [http://www.ekco-radar.co.uk Malmesbury's EKCO History]
* [http://www.athelstan-museum.org.uk Malmesbury's Athelstan Museum]


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