- Jodo Shinshu
nihongo|Jōdo Shinshū|浄土真宗|"True Pure Land School", also known as Shin Buddhism, is a school of
Pure Land Buddhism. It was founded by the former TendaiJapanese monk Shinran Shonin. Today, Shin Buddhism is considered the most widely practiced branch of Buddhism in Japan.
Shinran(1173-1263) lived during the late-Heian early- Kamakura period(1185-1333), a time of turmoil for Japanwhen the Emperor was stripped of political power by the Shoguns. Shinran's family had a high rank at the Imperial courtin Kyoto, but given the times many aristocratic families were sending sons off to be Buddhist monks instead of having them participate in the Imperial government. When Shinranwas nine (1181) he was sent by his uncle to Mt. Hiei, where he was ordained as a Tendaimonk. Over time Shinranbecame disillusioned with what Buddhismin Japan had become, foreseeing a decline in the potency and practicality of the teachings espoused. Shinranleft his role as a low-ranking doso("Practice-Hall Monk") at Mt. Hieiand undertook a 100-day retreat at Rokkakudotemple in Kyoto, where he had a dream on the 95th day. In this dream Prince Shotoku(in Japan he is sometimes regarded as an incarnation of Kannon Bosatsu) appeared to him, espousing a pathway to enlightenment through verse. Following the retreat, in 1201, Shinran left Mt. Hiei to study under Hōnenfor the next six years. Hōnen (1133-1212) another ex- Tendaimonk, left the tradition in 1175 to found his own sect, Jodo Shu("Pure Land School"). From that time on, Shinran considered himself, even after exile, a devout disciple of Hōnen rather than a founder establishing his own, distinct Pure Land school.
During this period, Hōnen taught the new
nembutsu-only practice to many people in Kyoto society and amassed a substantial following, but also increasingly came under criticism by the Buddhist establishment in Kyoto. Among the strongest critics was the monk, Myoe, and the temples of Enryakujiand Kofukuji. The latter continued to criticize Hōnen and his followers, even after they pledged to behave with good conduct, and to not slander other Buddhist [http://www.jodo.org/about_hs/ho_life.html JODO SHU English ] ] .
In 1207, Hōnen's critics at
Kofukujipersuaded Emperor Gotobato proscribe Hōnen and his teachings after two of his ladies-in-waiting converted to the new faith. Hōnen and his followers, among them Shinran, were forced into exile, and four of Hōnen's disciples were executed. Shinran was given a lay name, "Yoshizane Fujii" by the authorities but called himself "Gutoku" ("Stubble-headed One") instead and moved to Echigoprovince (today Niigata Prefecture)Popular Buddhism In Japan: Shin Buddhist Religion & Culture by Esben Andreasen / University of Hawaii Press 1998, ISBN 0-8248-2028-2] .
It was during this exile that Shinran cultivated a deeper understanding of his own beliefs, the Pure Land teachings of Hōnen. In 1210 he married
Eshinni, the daughter of an aristocrat of Echigo Province. Shinran and Eshinni had several children. His eldest son, Zenran, was alleged to have started a heretical sect of Pure LandBuddhism through claims that he received special teachings from his father. Zenran demanded control of local "monto" (lay follower groups), but after writing a stern letter of warning, Shinran disowned him in 1256, effectively ending Zenran's legitimacy.
In 1211 the
nembutsuban was lifted and Shinran was pardoned, but by 1212 Hōnen had died in Kyoto. Shinran never saw Hōnen following their exile. In the year of Hōnen's death, Shinran set out for the Kantō area of Japan, where he established a substantial following and began committing his ideas to writing. In 1224 he wrote his most significant book, the " Kyogyoshinsho" ("The True Teaching, Practice, Faith and Attainment of the Pure Land"), which contained excerpts from the Three Pure Land sutras and the Nirvana Sutraalong with his own commentaries and the writings of the Jodo Shinshu Patriarchswhom Shinran drew inspiration from.
In 1234, at the age of sixty, Shinran left Kantō for Kyoto (Eshinni stayed in Echigo and she may have outlived Shinran by several years), where he dedicated the rest of his years to writing. It was during this time he wrote the
Wasan, a collection of verses summarizing his teachings for his followers to recite. Shinran's daughter, Kakushinni, came to Kyoto with Shinran, and cared for him in his final years and his mausoleum later became Hongwanji('The Temple of the Original Vow'). Kakushinni was instrumental in preserving Shinran's teachings after his death, and the letters she received and saved from her mother, Eshinni, provide critical biographical information regarding Shinran's earlier life. These letters are currently preserved in the Nishi Hongwanjitemple in Kyoto. Shinran died at the age of 90 in 1263.
Revival and Formalization
Following Shinran's death, the lay Shin "monto" slowly spread through the Kantō and the northeastern seaboard. Shinran's descendents maintained themselves as caretakers of Shinran's gravesite and as Shin teachers, although they continued to be ordained in the Tendai School. Some of Shinran's disciples founded their own schools of Shin Buddhism, such as the Bukko-ji and Kosho-ji, in Kyoto. Early Shin Buddhism did not truly flourish until the time of
Rennyo(1415-1499), who was 8th in descent from Shinran Shonin. Through his charisma and prostelytizing, Shin Buddhism was able to amass a greater following and grow in strength. In the 16th-century, during Japan's SengokuPeriod the political power of Hongwanji led to several conflicts between the Hongwanji and the warlord Oda Nobunaga, culminating in a 10-year conflict over the location of the Osaka Hongwanji, which Oda Nobunaga coveted because of its strategic value. So strong did the sect become that in 1602, through mandate of the Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu, the main temple Hongwanji in Kyotowas broken off into two sects to curb the Hongwanji's power. These two sects, the Nishi (Western) Hongwanji, and the Higashi (Eastern) Hongwanji, exist separate to this day.
During the time of Shinran Shonin, followers would gather in informal meeting houses called "dojo", and had an informal liturgical structure. However, as time went on, as this lack of cohesion and structure caused Jodo Shinshu to gradually lose its identity as a distinct sect, as people began mixing other Buddhist practices with Shin ritual. One common example was the
Mantra of Lightpopularized by Myoeand Shingon Buddhism. Other Pure Land Buddhist practices, such as the nembutsu odori or "dancing nembutsu" as practiced by the followers of Ippenand the Ji School, may have also been adopted by early Shin Buddhists. Rennyoended these practices by formalizing much of the Jodo Shinshu ritual and liturgy, and revived the thinning community at the Hongwanji temple while asserting newfound political power. Rennyo also prosleytized widely among other Pure Land sects, and consolidated most of the smaller Shin sects. Today, there are still 10 distinct sects of Jodo Shinshu, Nishi and Higashi Hongwanji being the two largest. RennyoShonin is generally credited by Shin Buddhists for reversing the stagnation of the early Jodo Shinshu community, and is considered the "Second Founder" of Jodo Shinshu. His portrait picture, along with Shinran Shonin's, are present on the "onaijin" (altar area) of most Jodo Shinshu temples. However, Rennyo Shonin has also been criticized by some Shin scholars for his engagement in medieval politics and his alleged divergences from Shinran's original thought.
Following the unification of Japan during the
Edo Period, Jodo Shinshu Buddhism adapted, along with the other Japanese Buddhist schools, into providing memorial and funeral services for its registered members ("danka seido"), which was legally required by the Tokugawa shogunatein order to prevent the spread of Christianity in Japan. The "danka seido" system continues to exist today, although not as strictly as in the premodern period, causing Japanese Buddhism to also be labeled as "Funeral Buddhism" since it became the primary function of Buddhist temples. The Hongwanji also created an impressive academic tradition, which led to the founding of Ryukoku Universityin Kyoto, Japan, and formalized many of the Jodo Shinshu traditions which are still followed today. Following the Meiji Restorationand the subsequent persecution of Buddhism (" haibutsu kishaku") of the late 1800s due to a revived nationalismand modernization, Jodo Shinshu managed to survive intact due to the devotion of its "monto". During World War II, the Hongwanji, as with the other Japanese Buddhist schools, was compelled to support the policies of the military government and the cult of State Shinto. It subsequently apologized for its wartime actionsFact|date=February 2008.
In contemporary times, Jodo Shinshu is one of the most widely followed forms of
Buddhism in Japan, although like other Japanese Buddhismit faces challenges from many popular New Religious Movements(known in Japan as "shin shinkyo" religions, which emerged following World War II), and the growing secularizationand materialismof Japanese society
All ten schools of Jodo Shinshu Buddhism will commemorate the 750th memorial of their founder,
Shinran Shonin, in 2011 in Kyoto, Japan.
Shinran's thought was strongly influenced by the doctrine of "Mappō," a largely Mahayana
eschatologywhich claims humanity's ability to listen to and practice the Buddha-Dharma (the Buddhist teachings) deteriorates over time and loses effectiveness in bringing individual practitioners closer to Buddhahood. This belief was particularly widespread in early medieval China, and in Japan at the end of the Heian Period. Shinran, like his mentor Hōnen, saw the age he was living in as being a degenerate one where beings cannot hope to be able to extricate themselves from the cycle of birth and death through their own power, or "jiriki" (自力). For both Hōnen and Shinran, all conscious efforts towards achieving enlightenment and realizing the Bodhisattva ideal were contrived and rooted in selfish ignorance; for humans of this age are so deeply rooted in karmic evil as to be incapable of developing the truly altruistic compassion that is requisite to becoming a Bodhisattva.
Due to his awareness of human limitations, Shinran advocates reliance on "tariki", or "other power" (他力) -- the power of Amida Buddha's made manifest in Amida Buddha's
Primal Vow-- in order to attain liberation. Shin Buddhism can therefore be understood as a "practiceless practice," for there are no specific acts to be performed such as there are in the "Path of Sages" (the other Buddhist schools of the time that advocated 'jiriki' ('self-power'). In Shinran's own words, Shin Buddhism is considered the "Easy Path" because one is not compelled to perform many difficult, and often esoteric, practices in order to attain higher and higher mental states.
The basis for Shinran's thought comes from his mentor, Hōnen, who founded the related
Jodo Shusect, but in some ways Shinran diverged. For example Hōnen, like many medieval Japanese, considered AmidaBuddha to be a SamboghakayaBuddha, while Shinran considered Amida to be the Dharmakayaitself, manifested as compassion. [ [http://www.shinranworks.com/commentaries/essentialnotes1.htm The Collected Works of Shinran Commentaries Notes on the Essentials of Faith Alone 1 ] ]
As in other
Pure LandBuddhist schools, Amida is a central focus of the Buddhist practice, and Jodo Shinshu expresses this devotion through a chanting practice called the nembutsu, or "Mindfulness of the Buddha [Amida] . The nembutsuis simply reciting the phrase "Namu Amida Butsu" ("I take refuge in Amida Buddha"). Jodo Shinshu is not the first school of Buddhism to practice the nembutsubut it is interpreted in a new way according to Shinran Shonin. The "nembutsu" becomes understood as an act that expresses gratitude to Amida Buddha -- furthermore, it is evoked in the practitioner through the power of Amida's unobstructed compassion. Therefore in Shin Buddhism, the "nembutsu" is not considered a practice, nor does it generate karmic merit. It is simply an affirmation of one's gratitude.
Note that this is in contrast to the related
Jodo Shuschool which promoted a combination of repetition of the nembutsuand devotion to Amida as a means to birth in the Pure Land. It also contrasts with other Buddhist schools in China and Japan, where the nembutsuwas part of a more elaborate ritual.
The Pure Land
In another departure from more traditional
Pure Landschools of Buddhism, Shinran Shonin advocated that birth in the Pure Land was settled in the midst of life rather than at death. When one entrusts oneselves to Amida Buddhabirth there is settled at that moment. This is equivalent to the stage of non-retrogression along the bodhisattvapath, a characteristic of Mahayana Buddhism, or "shinjin".
Many Pure Land Buddhist schools in the time of Shinran felt that birth in the
Pure Landwas a literal rebirth that occurred only upon death, and only after certain preliminary rituals. Elaborate rituals were used to guaranteed rebirth in the Pure Land, including a common practice where one's fingers were tied by strings to a painting or image of Amida Buddha. From the perspective of Jodo Shinshu such rituals actually betrayed a lack of trust in Amida Buddha, and relied on "jiriki" ("self-power"), rather than the "tariki" or "other-power" of Amida Buddha. Such rituals also favored those who could afford the time and energy to practice them or possess the necessary ritual objects, which was another obstacle for lower-class individuals. For Shinran Shonin, who closely followed the thought of the Chinese monk T'an-Luan, the Pure Land is synonymous with nirvana.
The goal of the Shin path, or at least the practicer's present life, is the attainment of
shinjin(信心) in the Other Power of Amida. "Shinjin" is sometimes translated as faithbut this does not capture the nuances of the term and it is more often simply left untranslated. The receipt of "shinjin" comes about through the renunciation of self effort in attaining enlightenment; 'taking refuge' in Other Power( Tariki). It should be noted, however, that "Shinjin" arises from jinen(自然 naturalness, spontaneous working of the Vow) and cannot be achieved solely through conscious effort. One is letting go of conscious effort in a sense, and simply trusting AmidaBuddha, and the nembutsu.
For Jodo Shinshu practitioners, shinjin develops over time through "deep hearing" (monpo) of Amida's call of the "nembutsu". "Jinen" also describes the way of naturalness whereby Amida's infinite light illumines and transforms the deeply rooted karmic evil of countless rebirths into good karma. It is of note that such evil karma is not destroyed but rather transformed: Shin stays within the Mahayana tradition's understanding of "
sunyata", or non-duality / emptiness, and understands that samsara and Nirvanaare not separate. Once the practicer's mind is united with Amida and Buddha naturegifted to the practicer through "shinjin", the practicer attains the state of non-retrogression, whereupon after his death it is claimed he will achieve instantaneous and effortless enlightenment. He will then return to the world as a Bodhisattva, that he may work towards the salvation of all beings.
Tannishois a 13th century book of recorded sayings attributed to Shinran, transcribed with commentary by Yuien-bo. a disciple of Shinran. The word Tannisho is a phrase which means "A record [of the words of Shinran] set down in lamentation over departures from his [Shinran's] teaching". While it is a short text, it is one of the most popular because practitioners see Shinran in a more informal setting.
For centuries, the text was almost unknown to the majority of Shin Buddhists. In the 15th century
RennyoShonin, Shinran's descendent, wrote of it, "This writing is an important one in our tradition. It should not be indiscriminately shown to anyone who lacks the past karmic good". Rennyo Shonin's personal copy of the "Tannisho" is the earliest extant copy. Kiyozawa Manshi(1863-1903) revitalized interest in the Tannisho, which indirectly helped to spawn the Dobokai Movementof 1962.
In the context of Japanese culture
Earlier schools of Buddhism that came to Japan, including the
Tendaiand Shingonsects, gained acceptance because of the way they meshed the Buddhist pantheon with the native Japanese Shintopantheon. For example, a Shintogod could be seen as a manifestation of a bodhisattva. It is common even to this day to have Shinto shrines within the grounds of some traditional Buddhist temples.
Jōdo Shinshū, on the other hand, intentionally separated itself from the
Shintoreligion, and left out many superstitious practices of the day as they contradict the notion of reliance on Amida's Other-power, and are also explicitly prohibited in sutrassuch as the Mahayana Nirvana Sutraand Pratyutpanna Sutra. Other practices such as accepting donations for special blessings and prayers were similarly omitted from Jodo Shinshu.
Jōdo Shinshū traditionally had an uneasy relationship with other Buddhist schools because it discouraged virtually all traditional Buddhist practices except the "nembutsu", and discouraged "kami" veneration. Relations were particularly hostile between the Jodo Shinshu and
Nichirenshu, also known as "Hokkeshu". On the other hand, newer Buddhist schools in Japan, such as Zen, tended to have a more positive relationship and occasionally shared practices, although this is still controversial. In popular lore, RennyoShonin (the 8th Head Priest of the Honganjisub-sect) was good friends with the famous Zen master Ikkyu.
Jōdo Shinshū drew much of its support from lower social classes in Japan who could not devote the time or education to other esoteric Buddhist practices or merit-making activities. Famous figures such as the "myokonin" ("Wonderful people" - lay followers who are considered models of piety) came from the largely illiterate peasant society, yet left their mark on Japanese literature and spirituality.Fact|date=September 2008
Jodo Shinshu outside Japan
During the 19th century, Japanese immigrants began arriving in Hawaii, the United States, Canada, Mexico and South America (especially in
Brazil). Many immigrants to North America came from regions in which Jodo Shinshu was predominant, and maintained their religious identity in their new country. The Honpa Hongwanji Mission of Hawai'i, the Buddhist Churches of America, and the Buddhist Churches of Canada are several of the oldest Buddhist organizations outside of Asia. Jodo Shinshu continues to remain relatively unknown outside the ethnic community because of the history of internmentduring World War II, which caused many Shin temples to focus on rebuilding the Japanese-American Shin "sangha" rather than encourage outreach to non-Japanese. Today, many Shinshu temples outside Japan continue to have predominantly ethnic Japanese members, although interest in Buddhism and intermarriage contribute to a more diverse community. There are also active Jodo Shinshu sanghas in the UKFact|date=September 2008, Europe, Australia, and Africa, with members of diverse ethnicities.
The practice of Jodo Shinshu ritual and liturgy may be very different outside of Japan, as many temples, like ones in Hawai'i and the U.S., now use English as the primary language for Dharma talks, and there are attempts to create an English-language chanting liturgy. In the United States, Jodo Shinshu temples have also served as refuges from
racial discrimination, and as places to learn about and celebrate Japanese language and culture, in addition to Buddhism.
Vasubandhu(ca. 4th century)
Major Holidays of Observance
The following holidays are typically observed in Jodo Shinshu temples: [ [http://www2.hongwanji.or.jp/english/calendar.html Calendar of Observances ] ]
Major Modern Shin Figures
Hozen Seki(? - 1991)
Taitetsu Unno(? - present)
*Alfred Bloom (1926 - present)
Jitsuen Kakehashi(? - present)
* [http://www.terakoya.com/link/index_e.htm List of Jodo Shinshu Organisations] with Links
* [http://www.buddhistchurchesofamerica.com/ Buddhist Churches of America] Includes basic information, shopping for Shin Buddhist ritual implements, and links to various Shin churches in America.
* [http://www.shin-ibs.edu/ Institute of Buddhist Studies:] Seminary and Graduate School
* [http://www.shinranworks.com Shinran Works] The collected works of Shinran, including the Kyōgōshinshō.
* [http://www.shindharmanet.com Shin Dharma Net] A major resource for Shin Buddhism in English
* [http://www12.canvas.ne.jp/horai/shoshinge.htm Shoshinge, "Hymn of True Faith and the Nembutsu"] An excerpt of verse from the Kyogyoshinsho that also serves as a summary of Shin Buddhism and its history. Also present is the original Japanese script and its romanization.
* [http://www.nembutsu.info/ nembutsu.info:] Journal of Shin Buddhism
* [http://www.gatenby.id.au/notes/ Notes on the Nembutsu:] Essays based on the Sanjo Wasan of Shinran
* [http://www.trueshinbuddhism.com/ Eiken Kobai's Shin Buddhism Study Center:] English website of a Professor of Shinshu Studies at Soai University in the city of Osaka.
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