- Gerry Fitt
Gerard "Gerry" Fitt, Baron Fitt (
9 April 1926– 26 August 2005) was a Northern Irish politician. He was the founder leader of the Social Democratic and Labour Party(SDLP), a social democratic and Irish nationalist party.
Fitt was born in
Belfastand educated a local Christian BrothersSchool. Between 1941 and 1953 he served in the Merchant Navy. Living in the nationalist Beechmount neighborhood of the Falls, he stood for the Falls as a candidate for the 'Dock Labour Party' in a city council byelection in 1956 but lost to Paddy Devlin, later his close ally, of the Irish Labour Party. In 1958 he was elected to Belfast City Council as a member of the Irish Labour Party.
In 1962 he won a Stormont seat from the
Ulster Unionist Party, becoming the only Irish Labour member. Two years later he left Irish Labour and joined with Harry Diamond, the sole Socialist Republican Party Stormont MP, to form the Republican Labour Party. At the 1966 general election Fitt won the Belfast West seat in the Westminster parliament.
He used Westminster as a platform to interest British Members of Parliament (MPs) in the problems and issues of
Northern Ireland. Many sympathetic MPs were present at the civil rights march in Derryon October 5, 1968when Fitt and others were beaten by the Royal Ulster Constabulary. RTÉ's film, in which Fitt featured prominently, of the police baton chargeon the peaceful, but illegal, demonstration drew world attention to the claims of the Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association. The following year, Fitt announced at a press conference subsequent to the August 1969 rioting in Belfast that disturbance were created by a decision to "take some action to try to draw off the forces engaged in the Bogsidearea."
Fitt also supported the 1969 candidacy of
Bernadette Devlinin the Mid Ulster by-election who ran as an anti-abstenstionist 'Unity' candidate. Devlin's success greatly increased the authority of Fitt in the eyes of many British commentators, particularly as it produced a second voice on the floor of the British House of Commonswho challenged the Unionist viewpoint at a time when Harold Wilsonand other British ministers were beginning to take notice. In his maiden speech, he called for an inquiry into the unionist government of Northern Ireland.
Fitt was elected as a socialist republican and was proud to unveil a plaque at the house on the Falls Road where James Connolly, the socialist leader of the Irish
Easter Risinghad lived. He was anxious to build a broader movement that would challenge Unionist hegemony. At the same time a new generation of Catholics, many with secondary education and university degrees for the first time as a consequence of the post-War creation of the welfare state, were determined to make their voices heard.
In August 1970 Fitt became the first leader of a coalition of civil rights and nationalist leaders who created the
Social Democratic and Labour Party(SDLP). The party was founded on high hopes - rejecting abstensionismand containing a number of prominent Protestants and without the stigma of conservatism and impotency that surrounded the old nationalist party. But already by then Northern Ireland was charging headlong towards near-civil war and the majority of unionists remained hostile.
After the collapse of Stormont in 1972 and the establishment of the Northern Ireland Assembly in 1973 he became deputy chief executive of the short-lived Power-Sharing Executive created by the
Sunningdale Agreement. Arguments still rage over the extent to which Fitt, as opposed to John Hume, helped shape the agreement. Fitt certainly was becoming less engaged with the nationalist concerns of the majority of the SDLP.
Fitt became increasingly detached from both his own party and also became more outspoken in his condemnation of the
Provisional Irish Republican Army. He became a target for republican sympathisers in 1976 when they attacked his home. He became disillusioned with the handling of Northern Ireland by the British government. In 1979 he abstained from a crucial vote in the House of Commons which brought down the Labour government, citing the way that the government had failed to help the nationalist population and tried to form a deal with the Ulster Unionist Party.
In 1980 he was replaced by
John Humeas leader of the SDLP and he left the party altogether after he had agreed to constitutional talks with British Secretary of State Humphrey Atkinswithout any provision for an 'Irish dimension' and had then seen his decision overturned by the SDLP party conference. Like Paddy Devlin before him, he claimed the SDLP had ceased to be a socialist force.
In 1981 he opposed the hunger strikes in the
Maze prisonin Belfast. His seat in Westminster was targeted by Sinn Féinas well as by the SDLP. In June 1983 he lost his seat in Belfast West to Gerry Adams, in part due to competition from an SDLP candidate. The following month he was made a UK life peeras Baron Fitt, of Bell's Hill in the County of Down. His Belfast home was firebombed a month after the election and he moved to live in London.
In his later life he was an active member of the
House of Lordswhere he was strongly critical of some aspects of the political developments of Northern Ireland, including concessions to Irish republicanism and the disbandment of the Royal Ulster Constabulary. He was unique in that he was the only nationalist/republican from Northern Ireland ever to be elevated to the House of Lords.
Although Fitt was initially considered a Nationalist politician, his career defies the traditional terms used for the discussion of Northern Irish politics. It would perhaps be most fair to say that he was first and foremost a socialist politician rather than a Nationalist. For example, on
October 11, 1974he stated:
In Northern Ireland it is very difficult to be a socialist without being labelled a Unionist socialist or an anti-partitionist socialist, but I am a socialist....
Lord Fitt died on
August 26, 2005, at the age of 79, after a long history of heart disease, a widower survived by his five daughters. When his daughters had campaigned for him in elections, they were nicknamed 'the Miss Fitts'.
List of Northern Ireland Members of the House of Lords
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/1673279.stm BBC Obituary]
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