- Robert Louis Stevenson
name = Robert Louis Stevenson
imagesize = 200px
caption = Portrait by Girolamo Nerli, 1892
birthdate = birth date|df=yes|1850|11|13
deathdate = death date and age|df=yes|1894|12|3|1850|11|13
occupation = Novelist, Poet, Travel writer
Edgar Allan Poe
influenced = H. Rider Haggard,
Jorge Luis Borges, Ernest Hemingway, Rudyard Kipling, Vladimir Nabokov, J. M. Barrie
Robert Louis Balfour Stevenson (13 November 1850–3 December 1894), was a Scottish novelist, poet and travel writer, and a representative of
neo-romanticismin English literature. He was the man who "seemed to pick the right word up on the point of his pen, like a man playing spillikins", as G. K. Chestertonput it. [cite book
last = Chesterton
first = Gilbert Keith
authorlink = G. K. Chesterton
title = The Victorian Age in Literature
publisher = Henry Holt and Co.
date = 1913
location = London
pages = 246
url = http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/The_Victorian_Age_in_Literature/Chapter_IV
isbn = ] Stevenson was greatly admired by many authors, including
Jorge Luis Borges, Ernest Hemingway, Rudyard Kipling, Vladimir Nabokov, [cite book
last = Dillard
first = R. H. W.
authorlink = R. H. W. Dillard
title = Introduction to Treasure Island
publisher = Signet Classics
date = 1998
location = New York
pages = xiii
url = http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0451527046&id=3f2ne_bk-xoC&pg=PR13&lpg=PR13&dq=%22Vladimir+Nabokov%22+%22robert+louis+stevenson%22&sig=Guky95m-5uoutxhVamKTOAReEe4
isbn = 0-451-52704-6] and
J. M. Barrie.cite book
last = Chaney
first = Lisa
title = Hide-and-seek with Angels: The Life of J. M. Barrie
publisher = Arrow Books
date = 2006
location = London
isbn = 0-099-45323-1]
Stevenson was born Robert Lewis Balfour Stevenson [At about 18, Stevenson changed the spelling of 'Lewis' to 'Louis', and in 1873 he dropped 'Balfour': Mehew (2004).] at 8 Howard Place,
Edinburgh, Scotland, on 13 November 1850 to Thomas Stevenson(1818-1887) and his wife Margaret, born Margaret Isabella Balfour (1829-1897). [Furnas (1952), 23-4; Mehew (2004).] Thomas was a leading lighthouse engineer, the family profession: his own father was the famous Robert Stevenson, and his maternal grandfather, Thomas Smith, and brothers Alan and David were also among those in the business. [Paxton (2004).] On Margaret's side, the family were gentry, tracing their name back to an Alexander Balfour, who held the lands of Inchrye in Fife in the fifteenth century. Her father, Lewis Balfour (1777-1860), was a minister of the Church of Scotlandat nearby Colinton, [Balfour (1901), 10-12; Furnas (1952), 24; Mehew (2004).] and Stevenson spent the greater part of his boyhood holidays in his house. "Now I often wonder", says Stevenson, "what I inherited from this old minister. I must suppose, indeed, that he was fond of preaching sermons, and so am I, though I never heard it maintained that either of us loved to hear them." [" Memories and Portraits" (1887), [http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/s/stevenson/robert_louis/s848mp/chapter7.html Chapter VII. The Manse] .] From his mother, Stevenson inherited weak lungs (contemporary views were that he had tuberculosis, but more recent views are that it was bronchiectasis[cite book | last =Holmes | first =Lowell | title =Treasured Islands: Cruising the South Seas with Robert Louis Stevenson| publisher =Sheridan House, Inc | date =2002 | isbn =1-574-09130-1] or even sarcoidosis[cite journal |author=Sharma OP |title=Murray Kornfeld, American College Of Chest Physician, and sarcoidosis: a historical footnote: 2004 Murray Kornfeld Memorial Founders Lecture |journal=Chest |volume=128 |issue=3 |pages=1830–5 |year=2005 |pmid=16162793 |doi=10.1378/chest.128.3.1830] ) that during the winter kept him constantly in "the land of the counterpane" (in the words of his own verse) [Poem from " A Child's Garden of Verses" (1885), available at [http://www.bartleby.com/188/117.html Bartleby] and elsewhere.] , where his nurse spent long hours by his bedside reading from the Bibleand lives of the old Covenanters. During the summer he was encouraged to play outside, where he proved to be a wild and carefree child, and by the age of 11 his health had improved so that his parents prepared him for the University of Edinburghby attending Edinburgh Academy, planning for him to follow his father as a lighthouse engineer. During this period he read widely and especially enjoyed Shakespeare, Walter Scott, John Bunyanand "The Arabian Nights". [cite web
last = The Academy of American Poets
authorlink = Academy of American Poets
title = Robert Louis Stevenson
work = Poets.org
url = http://www.poets.org/poet.php/prmPID/137
accessdate = 2008-07-28]
He entered the University of Edinburgh at 17, but soon discovered he had neither the scientific mind nor physical endurance to succeed as an engineer. When his father took him for a voyage he found—instead of being interested in lighthouse construction—that his mind was teeming with wonderful romances about the coast and islands which they visited. In 1871, he announced to his father his decision to pursue a life of letters. Though the elder Stevenson was naturally disappointed, Stevenson's mother eventually reported that he was "wonderfully resigned" to his son's choice. [Balfour, Graham. The Life of Robert Louis Stevenson. 12th ed. London: Metheun, 1913.] Wisely, young Robert decided he should take a law degree at the University of Edinburgh so that he would have a career to fall back on if he were not able to support himself financially through the sale of novels. In a poem he later wrote for Underwood's Magazine, he commented on his family's response to his decision, writing:
Say not of me that weakly I declined
The labours of my sires, and fled the sea,
The towers we founded and the lamps we lit,
But rather say: In the afternoon of time
A strenuous family dusted from its hands
The sand of granite, and beholding far
Along the sounding coast its pyramids
And tall memorials catch the dying sun,
Smiled well content, and to this childish task
Around the fire addressed its evening hours.
[Stevenson, Robert Louis. The Works of Robert Louis Stevenson. Eds. Charles Curtis Bigelow and Temple Scott. Vol. VIII. New York: Davos, 1906.]
Marriage and travels
The next four years were spent mostly in travel and in search of a climate that would be more beneficial for his health. He made long and frequent trips to
Fontainebleau, Barbizon, Grez, and Nemours, becoming a member of the artists' colonies there, as well as to Paris to visit galleries and the theatres. It was during this period he made most of his lasting friendships and met his future wife, Fanny Vandegrift Osbourne, an American who was 10 years his senior and married at the time. Among his friends were Sidney Colvin, his biographer and literary agent; William Ernest Henley, a collaborator in dramatic composition; Mrs. Sitwell, who helped him through a religious crisis; and Andrew Lang, Edmund Gosse, and Leslie Stephen, all writers and critics. He also made the journeys described in " An Inland Voyage" and " Travels with a Donkey in the Cévennes". In addition, he wrote 20 or more articles and essays for various magazines. Although it seemed to his parents that he was wasting his time and being idle, in reality he was constantly studying to perfect his style of writing and broaden his knowledge of life, emerging as a man of letters.
Stevenson and Fanny Vandegrift Osbourne met in France in 1876. A few months later, when she returned to her home in
San Francisco, California, Stevenson determined to follow. His friends advised against the journey, knowing his father's temper, but he sailed without notifying his parents. He took steerage passage on the " Devonian", in part to save money, but also to learn how others travelled and to increase the adventure of the journey. From New York City he travelled overland by train to California. He later wrote about the experience in " An Amateur Emigrant" and " Across the Plains". Although it was good experience for his literature, it broke his health, and he was near death when he arrived in Monterey. He was nursed back to health by some ranchers there.
By December of 1879 he had recovered his health enough to continue to San Francisco, where for several months he struggled "all alone on forty-five cents a day, and sometimes less, with quantities of hard work and many heavy thoughts," ["
The Amateur Emigrant"] in an effort to support himself through his writing, but by the end of the winter his health was broken again, and he found himself at death's door. Vandegrift — now divorced and recovered from her own illness — came to Stevenson's bedside and nursed him to recovery. "After a while," he wrote, "my spirit got up again in a divine frenzy, and has since kicked and spurred my vile body forward with great emphasis and success." ["To Edmund Gosse, Monterey, Monterey Co., California, 8th October 1879," "The Letters of Robert Louis Stevenson", Volume 1, .] When his father heard of his condition he cabled him money to help him through this period.
In May, 1880, Stevenson married Fanny although, as he said, he was "a mere complication of cough and bones, much fitter for an emblem of mortality than a bridegroom." ["To P. G. Hamerton, Kinnaird Cottage, Pitlochry [July 1881] ," "The Letters of Robert Louis Stevenson", Volume 1, .] With his new wife and her son, Lloyd, he travelled north of San Francisco to Napa Valley, and spent a summer
honeymoonat an abandoned mining camp on Mount Saint Helena. He wrote about this experience in " The Silverado Squatters". He met Charles Warren Stoddard, co-editor of the " Overland Monthly" and author of "South Sea Idylls," who urged Stevenson to travel to the south Pacific, an idea which would return to him many years later. In August 1880 he sailed with his family from New York back to Britain, and found his parents and his friend Sidney Colvinon the wharf at Liverpool, happy to see him return home. Gradually his new wife was able to patch up differences between father and son and make herself a part of the new family through her charm and wit.
Attempted settlement in Europe
For the next seven years between 1880 and 1887 Stevenson searched in vain for a place of residence suitable to his state of health. He spent his summers at various places in Scotland and England, including
Westbourne, Dorset, a residential area in Bournemouth. There he lived in a dwelling he renamed Skerryvoreafter a lighthouse, the tallest in Scotland, built by his uncle Alan Stevensonmany years earlier. For his winters, he escaped to sunny France, and lived at Davos-Platzand the Chalet de Solitude at Hyeres, where, for a time, he enjoyed almost complete happiness. "I have so many things to make life sweet for me," he wrote, "it seems a pity I cannot have that other one thing — health. But though you will be angry to hear it, I believe, for myself at least, what is is best. I believed it all through my worst days, and I am not ashamed to profess it now." ["To Sidney Colvin, Pitlochry, August 1881," "The Letters of Robert Louis Stevenson", Volume 1, .] In spite of his ill health he produced the bulk of his best known work: " Treasure Island", his first widely popular book; "Kidnapped"; " The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde", the story which established his wider reputation; and two volumes of verse, " A Child's Garden of Verses" and " Underwoods". At Skerryvore he gave a copy of "Kidnapped" to his dear friend and frequent visitor, Henry James. [References to Skerryvore come from Leon Edel's "Henry James: A Life", c. 1985, p. 309 - 310. ]
Journey to the Pacific
On the death of his father in 1887, Stevenson felt free to follow the advice of his physician to try a complete change of climate. He started with his mother and family for
Colorado; but after landing in New York they decided to spend the winter at Saranac Lake, in the Adirondacks. During the intensely cold winter Stevenson wrote a number of his best essays, including " Pulvis et Umbra", he began " The Master of Ballantrae", and lightheartedly planned, for the following summer, a cruise to the southern Pacific Ocean. "The proudest moments of my life," he wrote, "have been passed in the stern-sheets of a boat with that romantic garment over my shoulders." ["To W.E. Henley, Pitlochry, if you please, [August] 1881," "The Letters of Robert Louis Stevenson", Volume 1, .]
In June 1888, Stevenson chartered the yacht "Casco" and set sail with his family from San Francisco. The vessel "plowed her path of snow across the empty deep, far from all track of commerce, far from any hand of help." [Quoted from Stevenson's diary in Overton, Jacqueline M. " [http://www.gutenberg.org/files/15547/15547-h/15547-h.htm The Life of Robert Louis Stevenson for Boys and Girls] ". New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1933.] The salt sea air and thrill of adventure for a time restored his health; and for nearly three years he wandered the eastern and central Pacific, visiting important island groups, stopping for extended stays at the Hawaiian Islands where he became a good friend of King
David Kalakaua, with whom Stevenson spent much time. Furthermore, Stevenson befriended the king's niece Princess Victoria Kaiulani, who was of Scottish heritage. He also spent time at the Gilbert Islands, Tahitiand the Samoan Islands. During this period he completed " The Master of Ballantrae", composed two ballads based on the legends of the islanders, and wrote " The Bottle Imp". The experience of these years is preserved in his various letters and in " The South Seas". A second voyage on the "Equator" followed in 1889 with Lloyd Osbourneaccompanying them.
It was also from this period that one particular open letter stands as testimony to his activism and indignation at the pettiness of such 'powers that be' as a Presbyterian minister in Honolulu named Rev. Dr. Hyde. During his time in the Hawaiian Islands, Stevenson had visited Molokai and the leper colony there, shortly after the demise of Father Damien. When Dr. Hyde wrote a letter to a fellow clergyman speaking ill of Father Damien, Stevenson wrote a [http://www.worldwideschool.org/library/books/hst/biography/FatherDamien/Chap1.html scathing open letter] of rebuke to Dr. Hyde. Soon afterwards in April 1890 Stevenson left Sydney on the "Janet Nicoll" and went on his third and final voyage among the South Seas islands."The Cruise of the Janet Nichol Among the South Sea Islands", Mrs Robert Louis Stevenson,
Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1914.]
In 1890 he purchased four hundred acres (about 1.6 square kilometres) of land in
Upolu, one of the Samoan islands. Here, after two aborted attempts to visit Scotland, he established himself, after much work, upon his estate, which he named Vailima ("Five Rivers"). Stevenson himself adopted the native name Tusitala. His influence spread to the natives who consulted him for advice, and he soon became involved in local politics. He was convinced the European officials appointed to rule the natives were incompetent, and after many futile attempts to resolve the matter, he published " A Footnote to History". This was such a stinging protest against existing conditions that it resulted in the recall of two officials, and Stevenson feared for a time it would result in his own deportation. When things had finally blown over he wrote a friend, "I used to think meanly of the plumber; but how he shines beside the politician!" [Letter to Sidney Colvin, April 17, 1893, "Vailima Letters", .]
In addition to building his house and clearing his land and helping the natives in many ways, he found time to work at his writing. In his enthusiasm, he felt that "there was never any man had so many irons in the fire." [Letter to Sidney Colvin, January 3, 1892, "Vailima Letters", .] He wrote "The Beach of Falesa", "Catriona" (titled "
David Balfour" in the USA), [cite web | url = http://dinamico2.unibg.it/rls/bib_detailed.htm | title = Robert Louis Stevenson - Bibliography: Detailed list of works | accessdate = 2008-04-20] " The Ebb-Tide", and the " Vailima Letters", during this period.
For a time during 1894 Stevenson felt depressed; he wondered if he had exhausted his creative vein and completely worked himself out. He wrote that he had "overworked bitterly". [Letter to Sidney Colvin, December 1893, "Vailima Letters", .] He felt more clearly that, with each fresh attempt, the best he could write was "ditch-water". ["To W.E. Henley, [Trinity College, Cambridge, Autumn 1878] ," "The Letters of Robert Louis Stevenson", Volume 1, .] He even feared that he might again become a helpless invalid. He rebelled against this idea: "I wish to die in my boots; no more Land of Counterpane for me. To be drowned, to be shot, to be thrown from a horse — ay, to be hanged, rather than pass again through that slow dissolution." [Letter to Sidney Colvin, May, 1892, "Vailima Letters", .] He then suddenly had a return of his old energy and he began work on "
Weir of Hermiston". "It's so good that it frightens me," he is reported to have exclaimedFact|date=July 2008. He felt that this was the best work he had done. He was convinced, "sick and well, I have had splendid life of it, grudge nothing, regret very little ... take it all over, damnation and all, would hardly change with any man of my time." ["To H. B. Baildon, Vailima, Upolu [undated, but written in 1891] .," "The Letters of Robert Louis Stevenson", Volume 2, .]
Without knowing it, he was to have his wish fulfilled. During the morning of 3 December 1894, he had worked hard as usual on "Weir of Hermiston". During the evening, while conversing with his wife and straining to open a bottle of wine, he suddenly exclaimed, "What's that!" He then asked his wife, "Does my face look strange?" and collapsed beside her. [Balfour, Graham (1906). "The Life of Robert Louis Stevenson." London: Methuen. 264. http://ia350627.us.archive.org/0/items/lifeofrobertloui00balfiala/lifeofrobertloui00balfiala_djvu.txt] He died within a few hours, probably of a cerebral haemorrhage, at the age of 44. The natives insisted on surrounding his body with a watch-guard during the night, and on bearing their Tusitala (Samoan for "Story Writer") upon their shoulders to nearby Mt Vaea and buried him on a spot overlooking the sea. A tablet was placed there, which bore the inscription of his 'Requiem', the piece he always had intended as his epitaph:cquote|"Under the wide and starry sky,
Dig the grave and let me lie.
"Glad did I live and gladly die,
"And I laid me down with a will.
"This be the verse you grave for me:
"Here he lies where he longed to be;
"Home is the sailor, home from sea,
"And the hunter home from the hill."
Stevenson was a celebrity in his own time, but with the rise of
modern literatureafter World War I, he was seen for much of the 20th century as a writer of the second class, relegated to children's literatureand horror genres. Condemned by authors such as Virginia and Leonard Woolf, he was gradually excluded from the canon of literature taught in schools. His exclusion reached a height when in the 1973 2,000-page " Oxford Anthology of English Literature" Stevenson was entirely unmentioned; and the " Norton Anthology of English Literature" excluded him from 1968 to 2000 (1st–7th editions), including him only in the 8th edition (2006). The late 20th century saw the start of a re-evaluation of Stevenson as an artist of great range and insight, a literary theorist, an essayist and social critic, a witness to the colonial history of the Pacific Islands, and a humanist. Even as early as 1965 the pendulum had begun to swing: he was praised by Roger Lancelyn Green, one of the Oxford Inklings, as a writer of a consistently high level of "literary skill or sheer imaginative power" and a co-originator with H. Rider Haggardof the Age of the Story Tellers. [ introduction to 1965 Everyman's Libraryedition of the one-volume " The Prisoner of Zenda" and " Rupert of Hentzau"] He is now being re-evaluated as a peer of authors such as Joseph Conrad(whom Stevenson influenced with his South Seas fiction) and Henry James, with new scholarly studies and organizations devoted to Stevenson.Stephen Arata (2006). "Robert Louis Stevenson". David Scott Kastan (ed.). "The Oxford Encyclopedia of British Literature". Vol. 5: 99-102] No matter what the scholarly reception, Stevenson remains very popular around the world. According to the Index Translationum, Stevenson is ranked the 25th most translated author in the world, ahead of fellow nineteenth-century writers Charles Dickens, Oscar Wildeand Edgar Allan Poe. [See the Index Translationum.]
For a detailed list see [http://dinamico.unibg.it/rls/biblio.htm bibliography] .
Treasure Island" (1883) His first major success, a tale of piracy, buried treasure, and adventure, has been filmed frequently. He originally entitled it "The Sea Cook" but an editor changed it.
The Black Arrow: A Tale of the Two Roses" (1883) An historical adventure noveland romance set during the Wars of the Roses. This novelpresents the Wars of the Roses, as it were, in miniature.
Prince Otto" (1885) Stevenson’s third full-length narrative, an action romance set in the imaginary Germanic state of Grünewald.
Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde" (1886), a novellaabout a dual personality much depicted in plays and films, also influential in the growth of understanding of the subconscious mind through its treatment of a kind and intelligent physician who turns into a psychopathic monster after imbibing a drug intended to separate good from evil in a personality.
*"Kidnapped" (1886) is a
historical novelthat tells of the boy David Balfour's pursuit of his inheritance and his alliance with Alan Breckin the intrigues of Jacobite troubles in Scotland.
The Master of Ballantrae" (1889), a masterful tale of revenge, set in Scotland, America, and India.
*"The Wrong Box" (1889); co-written with
Lloyd Osbourne. A comic novelof a tontine, also filmed (1966). A tontine is a group life-insurance policy in which all the benefits go to the last survivor. Both in the novel and in real life, it is an incentive to murder, and no longer legal in most countries.
*"The Wrecker" (1892); co-written with
*"Catriona" (1893), also known as "David Balfour," is a sequel to "Kidnapped", telling of Balfour's further adventures.
The Ebb-Tide" (1894); co-written with Lloyd Osbourne.
Weir of Hermiston" (1896). Unfinished at the time of Stevenson's death, considered to have promised great artistic growth.
*"" (1897). Unfinished at the time of Stevenson's death, the novel was completed by
hort story collections
*"New Arabian Nights" (1882)
*"" (1885); co-written with Fanny Van De Grift Stevenson
The Merry Men and Other Tales and Fables" (1887)
Island Nights' Entertainments" (also known as "South Sea Tales") (1893)
List of short stories sorted chronologically. Note: does not include collaborations with Fanny found in "More New Arabian Nights:The Dynamiter".
*"Virginibus Puerisque, and Other Papers" (1881)
*"Familiar Studies of Men and Books" (1882)
Memories and Portraits" (1887), a collection of essays.
*"Father Damien: an Open Letter to the Rev. Dr. Hyde of Honolulu" (1890)
*"Vailima Letters" (1895)
*"The New Lighthouse on the Dhu Heartach Rock, Argyllshire" (1995). Based on an 1872 manuscript edited by R. G. Swearingen. California. Silverado Museum.
*"Sophia Scarlet" (2008). Based on 1892 manuscript edited by Robert Hoskins. AUT Media (AUT University).
*"Aes Triplex" (1887)
A Child's Garden of Verses" (1885), written for children but also popular with their parents. Includes such favourites as "My Shadow" and "The Lamplighter". Often thought to represent a positive reflection of the author's sickly childhood.
Underwoods" (1887), a collection of poetry written in both English and Scots.
Songs of Travel and Other Verses" (1896)
An Inland Voyage" (1878), travels with a friend in a "Rob Roy" canoefrom Antwerp(Belgium) to Pontoise, just north of Paris.
Travels with a Donkey in the Cévennes" (1879), two weeks' solo ramble (with Modestine as his beast of burden) in the mountains of Cévennes(south-central France), one of the first books to present hikingand camping as recreational activities. It tells of commissioning one of the first sleeping bags.
The Silverado Squatters" (1883). An unconventional honeymoon trip to an abandoned mining camp in Napa Valleywith his new wife Fanny and her son Lloyd. He presciently identifies the California wineindustry as one to be reckoned with.
Across the Plains" (written in 1879–80, published in 1892). Second leg of his journey, by train from New York to California (then picks up with "The Silverado Squatters"). Also includes other travel essays.
The Amateur Emigrant" (written 1879–80, published 1895). An account of the first leg of his journey to California, by ship from Europe to New York. Andrew Noble ("From the Clyde to California: Robert Louis Stevenson’s Emigrant Journey", 1985) considers it to be his finest work.
The Old and New Pacific Capitals" (1882). An account of his stay in Monterey, California in August to December 1879. Never published separately. See, for example, James D. Hart, ed., "From Scotland to Silverado", 1966.
Although not well known, his island fiction and non-fiction is among the most valuable and collected of the 19th century body of work that addresses the
Non-fiction works on the Pacific
In the South Seas". A collection of Stevenson's articles and essays on his travels in the Pacific.
A Footnote to History, Eight Years of Trouble in Samoa" (1892) [Project Gutenberg online text of "A Footnote to History, Eight Years of Trouble in Samoa" ] .
Stevenson was an amateur composer who wrote songs typical of California in the 1880s, salon-type music, entertaining rather than serious. A
flageoletplayer, Stevenson had studied harmony and simple counterpoint and knew such basic instrumental techniques as transposition. Some song titles include "Fanfare", "Tune for Flageolet", "Habanera", and "Quadrille". Robert Hughes in 1968 arranged a number of Stevenson's songs for chamber orchestra, which went on a tour of the Pacific Northwest in that year. [http://secondeveningart.com/_wsn/page5.html]
Robert Louis Stevenson State Park
*Graham Balfour, "The Life of Robert Louis Stevenson", London: Methuen, 1901.
*John Jay Chapman "Robert Louis Stevenson", [http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/13088 Emerson, and Other Essays] ". New York: AMS Press, 1969, ISBN 0404006191 (reprinted from the edition of 1899)
*J. C. Furnas, "Voyage to Windward: The Life of Robert Louis Stevenson", London: Faber and Faber, 1952
*Claire Harman, "Robert Louis Stevenson: A Biography", HarperCollins, ISBN 0-00-711321-8 [reviewed by Matthew Sturgis in the "
Times Literary Supplement", 11 March 2005, page 8]
James Pope-Hennessy, "Robert Louis Stevenson - A Biography", London: Cape, 1974, ISBN 0224010077
*Ernest Mehew, "Robert Louis Stevenson", "Oxford Dictionary of National Biography", Oxford: OUP, 2004. Retrieved on 29 September 2008
*Roland Paxton, "Stevenson, Thomas (1818-1887)", "Oxford Dictionary of National Biography", Oxford: OUP, 2004. Retrieved on 11 October 2008
* [http://www.archive.org/search.php?query=mediatype%3A(texts)%20-contributor%3Agutenberg%20AND%20(subject%3A%22Stevenson%2C%20Robert%20Louis%2C%201850-1894%22%20OR%20creator%3A%22Stevenson%2C%20Robert%20Louis%2C%201850-1894%22%20OR%20creator%3ARobert%20Louis%20Stevenson) Works by & about Robert Louis Stevenson] at
Internet Archive(scanned books original editions color illustrated)
* [http://books.google.com/books?as_brr=1&q=inauthor%3A%22Robert+Louis+Stevenson%22&btnG=Search+Books Works by Robert Louis Stevenson] at
Google Books(scanned books original editions)
* (plain text and HTML)
* [http://onlinebooks.library.upenn.edu/webbin/book/search?author=robert+louis+stevenson&amode=words Works by Robert Louis Stevenson] , at
The Online Books Page(plain text and HTML)
* [http://essays.quotidiana.org/stevenson/ Essays by Stevenson at Quotidiana.org]
* [http://www.sanjeev.net/poetry/stevenson-robert-louis/index.html 151 poems by Robert Louis Stevenson] , at
* [http://eserver.org/thoreau/stevens1.html "Henry David Thoreau: His Character and Opinions"] , by Robert Louis Stevenson
* [http://digital.library.wisc.edu/1711.dl/Literature.StvnsnFables "Fables"] , by Robert Louis Stevenson, at [http://uwdc.library.wisc.edu The University of Wisconsin Digital Collections Center] .
* [http://www.riapress.com/riapress/author.lasso?goto=35&-session=StoreSession:51ECA750050e324ACDGMYQB32E41 Works by Robert Louis Stevenson] in PDF at
*Stevenson's writings in Scots at [http://www.scotstext.org/makars/robert_louis_stevenson/ ScotsteXt]
Biographies and commentaries
*There are over [http://dinamico.unibg.it/rls/biogs.htm 200 published biographies of RLS]
*" [http://www.gutenberg.net/etext/590 Robert Louis Stevenson: a record, an estimate, and a memorial] ", by
Alexander H. Japp
*" [http://www.gutenberg.net/etext/333 Robert Louis Stevenson] ", a biography by Sir Walter Alexander Raleigh
* [http://books.google.com/books?vid=OCLC00502469&id=8omQokmMv7IC&pg=RA1-PA287&lpg=RA1-PA287&dq=stevenson+inauthor:edmund+inauthor:gosse&num=100#PRA1-PA275,M1 Robert Louis Stevenson: a memoir] (1895), by
Edmund Gossewho knew Stevenson personally.
* [http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&id=ahwOAAAAIAAJ&dq=graham+balfour+life+of+robert+louis+stevenson&printsec=frontcover&source=web&ots=bWzWrnfJ6J&sig=3ulX-IRZwmlKtqA9FyLn7fHtSdQ The Life of Robert Louis Stevenson] (1913) by Graham Balfour, Stevenson's cousin.
* [http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Robert_Louis_Stevenson:_a_short_biography Robert Louis Stevenson: biography] (1911), by
Edmund Gosse, from the " Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition"
* [http://people.brandeis.edu/~teuber/stevensonbio.html Robert Louis Stevenson] , biography from the "Dictionary of Literary Biography", 1987.
* [http://secondeveningart.com/_wsn/page5.html Robert Louis Stevenson, the composer]
* [http://dinamico.unibg.it/rls/rls.htm Robert Louis Stevenson Website] . Extensive information including the most complete collection of derivative works. Maintained by editor of the [http://www.english.stir.ac.uk/centres/stevensonstudies.htm "Journal of Stevenson Studies"] .
* [http://www.bellrock.org.uk/stevensons/ The bell rock lighthouse and the Stevenson : the history of an old sea tower and a family of engineers ]
* [http://www.gr70-stevenson.com/en/stevenson-trail.htm Robert Louis Stevenson trail GR70]
* [http://www.silveradomuseum.org/ Silverado Museum, California, 'Devoted to Robert Louis Stevenson'.]
* [http://www.kittybrewster.com/ancestry/balfour.htm The Genealogy of the Balfour Family]
NAME= Stevenson, Robert Louis
SHORT DESCRIPTION= Novelist, Poet, Travel writer
DATE OF BIRTH= 1850-11-13
PLACE OF BIRTH=
DATE OF DEATH= 1894-12-3
PLACE OF DEATH=
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Robert-Louis Stevenson — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Robert Stevenson et Stevenson. Robert Louis Stevenson … Wikipédia en Français
Robert Louis Stevenson — Nacimiento 13 de noviembre de 1850 Edimburgo, Escocia … Wikipedia Español
Robert Louis Stevenson — Porträt Robert Louis Stevenson, 1892, Gemälde von Girolamo Nerli, National Galleries of Scotland Robert Louis Balfour Stevenson (* 13. November 1850 in Edinburgh; † 3. Dezember 1894 in Vailima, nahe Apia, Samoa) war ein … Deutsch Wikipedia
Robert Louis Stevenson — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Robert Stevenson et Stevenson. Robert Louis Stevenson … Wikipédia en Français
Robert Louis Stevenson — noun Scottish author (1850 1894) • Syn: ↑Stevenson, ↑Robert Louis Balfour Stevenson • Instance Hypernyms: ↑writer, ↑author * * * Robert Louis Stevenson [Robert Louis … Useful english dictionary
Robert Louis Stevenson — Robert Louis Balfour Stevenson, escritor escocés nacido en Edimburgo el 13 de noviembre de 1850 y muerto el 3 de diciembre de 1894, en la isla de Upolu, Samoa Occidental. Es autor de algunas de las historias fantásticas y de aventuras más… … Enciclopedia Universal
Robert Louis Stevenson — ➡ Stevenson (II) * * * … Universalium
Robert Louis Stevenson — n. (1850 1894) Scottish author and poet, author of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde and Treasure Island … English contemporary dictionary
Robert Louis Stevenson State Park — is a California state park, located in Sonoma and Napa Counties. The park offers a convert|5|mi|km|0|adj=on hike to the summit of Mount Saint Helena from which one can see much of the Bay Area. On clear days it is possible to see the peak of… … Wikipedia
Robert Louis Stevenson School, Samoa — Robert Louis Stevenson School is a private primary and secondary school in Apia, the capital of Samoa. It was established in 1987. In 2004 5 it had 660 pupils and 33 teachers. It has moved several times since its foundation, and currently the… … Wikipedia