- Getica (Jordanes)
"De origine actibusque Getarum" (lit. "The Origin and Deeds of the Getae" but referring to the Goths, whom Jordanes considered Getae), [G. Costa, 32. Also: "De Rebus Geticis": O. Seyffert, 329; "De Getarum (Gothorum) Origine et Rebus Gestis": W. Smith, vol 2 page 607] or the "Getica" [Jordanes, "The Origin and Deeds of the Goths", translated by C. Mierow] , written by
Jordanes(or Jornandes) in 551, is a summary of a voluminous account by Cassiodorusof the origin and history of the Gothic people, the now lost "Libri XII De Rebus Gestis Gothorum". [W. Smith, "Cassiodorus"] It is significant as the only remaining contemporaneous resource on the origin and history of the Goths. Another important point of this work is the information about the early history and the customs of Slavs.
ynopsis of the work
The "Getica" sets off with a geography/ethnography of the North, especially of
Scandza(16-24). He lets the history of the Goths commence with the emigration of Berigwith three ships from Scandza to Gothiscandza(25, 94), in a distant past. In the pen of Jordanes (or Cassiodorus), Herodotus' Getian demi-god Zalmoxisbecomes a king of the Goths (39). Jordanes tells how the Goths sacked " Troyand Ilium" just after they had recovered somewhat from the war with Agamemnon(108). They are also said to have encountered the Egyptian pharaoh Vesosis(47). The less fictional part of Jordanes' work begins when the Goths encounter Roman military forces in the third century AD. The work concludes with the defeat of the Goths by the Byzantine general Belisarius. Jordanes concludes the work by stating that he writes to honour those who were victorious over the Goths after a history of 2030 years.
Importance — Credibility
Because Cassiodorus' original version has not survived, Jordanes' work is one of the most important sources for the period of the migration of the European tribes, and the
Ostrogothsand Visigothsin particular, from the 3rd century CE. Cassiodorus' work claims to have the Gothic "Folk songs" -- "carmina prisca" (Latin) -- as an important source. Recent scholarship regards this as highly questionable.A. S. Christensen] The main purpose of the original work (Cassiodorus's) was to give the Gothic ruling class a glorious past - to match the past of the senatorial families of Roman Italy.
A controversial passage identifies the ancient people of Venedi mentioned by
Tacitus, Pliny the Elderand Ptolemy, with the Slavsof the 6th century. As early as 1844, [Pavel Josef Schafarik, "Slawiche Alterthümmer", Leipzig, 1844, vol 1, 40] it has been used by many eastern European scholars for supporting the idea of the existence of a Slavic ethnicity much before the last phase of the Late Roman period. Others have rejected this view, based on the absence of concrete archaeological and historiographical data. [F. Curta, 7. See also F. Curta, 11-13 for an analysis of Schafarik's ideas in the context of his age as well as their revival by the late Soviet historiography.]
The book is important to some medieval historians because it mentions the campaign in
Gaulof one Riothamus, "King of the Brettones," who was possibly a source of inspiration for the early stories of King Arthur.
One of the major questions concerning the historicity of the work is whether the identities mentioned are as ancient as stated or date from a later time. The evidence allows a wide range of views, the most skeptical being that the work is mainly mythological, or if Jordanes did exist and is the author, that he describes peoples of the 6th century only. According to the latter, his main source's credibility is questionable for a number of reasons. First, the originality of his main source,
Cassiodorus, is debatable because large part of it consists of culling of ancient Greek and Latin authors for descriptions of peoples who "might" have been Goths. [P. Geary, 60-61] Not only that but it seems that Jordanes has distorted Cassiodorus's narrative by presenting us a cursory abridgement of the latter, mixed with 6th century ethnic names. [F. Curta, 40] [W. Gofart, 59-61]
It seems clear that, while acceptance of Jordanes at face value may be too naive, a totally skeptical view is not warranted. For example, Jordanes says that the Goths originated in Scandinavia 1490 BC. Some scholars, like
Austrian historian Herwig Wolfram, believe that there might be a kernel of truth in that claim, if we assume that a clan of the Gutae left Scandinavia long before the establishment of the Amaliin the leadership of the Goths. This clan might have contributed to the ethnogenesis of the Gutonesin east Pomerania(see Wielbark culture) [W. Herwig, 40. Walter Gofart, 59-61, harshly criticized this view] . Another example is the name of the king Cnivawhich David S. Potter thinks is genuine because, since it doesn't appear in the fictionalized genealogy of Gothic kings given by Jordanes, he must had found it in a genuine 3rd century source. [D. S. Potter, 245]
A manuscript of the text was rediscovered in
Viennain 1442by the Italian humanist Enea Silvio Piccolomini. [W. Thomas, M. Gamble, Pp vi, 202, 59] Its " editio princeps" was issued in 1515by Konrad Peutinger, followed by many other editions. [W. Smith, "Jornandes"]
The classic edition is that of
19th-centuryGerman classical scholar Theodor Mommsen(in " Monumenta Germaniae Historica", "auctores antiqui", v. ii.). The best surviving manuscript was the "Heidelberg manuscript", written in Heidelberg, Germany, probably in the 8th century, but this was destroyed in a fire at Mommsen's house on July 7, 1880. The next of the manuscripts in historical value are the "Vaticanus Palatinus" of the 10th century, and the "Valenciennes manuscript" of the 9th century.
Jordanes' work had been well known prior to Mommsen's 1882 edition. It was cited in
Edward Gibbon's classic 6 volumes of The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire(1776), and had been earlier mentioned by Degoreus Whear(1623) who refers to both Jordanes' "De regnorum ac temporum successione" and to "De rebus Geticis". [citation |title=De Ratione Et Methodo Legendi Historias |author= Degoreus Whear|year=1623 |url=http://www.philological.bham.ac.uk/whear/text.html]
In his Preface, Jordanes presents his plan :"...to condense in my own style in this small book the twelve volumes of Senator on the origin and deeds of the Getae [i.e. Goths] from olden times to the present day."Jordanes admits that he did not then have direct access to Senator's book, and could not remember the exact words, but that he felt confident that he had retained the substance in its entirety. [Charles C. Mierow (1915), [http://www.ucalgary.ca/~vandersp/Courses/texts/jordgeti.html#pref Preface] ; Jordanes writes: "But above every burden is the fact that I have no access to his books that I may follow his thought. Still - and let me lie not - I have in times past read the books a second time by his steward's loan for a three days' reading. The words I recall not, but the sense and the deeds related I think I retain entire."] He goes on to say that he added relevant passages from Latin and Greek sources, composed the Introduction and Conclusion, and inserted various things of his own authorship. Due to this mixed origin, the text has been examined in an attempt to sort out the sources for the information it presents.
Former notarius to a Gothic
magister militumGunthigis, Jordanes would have been in a position to know traditions concerning the Gothic peoples without necessarily relying on anyone else. However, there is no evidence for this in the text, and some of the instances where the work refers to "carmina prisca" can be shown to depend on classical authors.
Cassiodorus was a native Italian (
Squillace, Bruttium), who rose to become advisor and secretary to the Gothic kings in various high offices. His and the Goths' most successful years were perhaps the reign of Theodoric. The policy of Theodoric's government at that time was reconciliation and in that spirit he combined Italians into the government whenever he could. He asked Cassiodorus to write a work on the Goths that would, in essence, demonstrate their antiquity, nobility, experience and fitness to rule.
Theodoric died in 526 and Cassiodorus went on to serve his successors in the same capacity. He had not by any means forgotten the task assigned to him by his former king. In 533 a letter ostensibly written by King
Athalaricto the senate in Rome, but ghosted by Cassiodorus, mentions the great work on the Goths, now complete, in which Cassiodorus "restored the Amali with the illustriousness of their race"."The work must have been written at Ravenna, seat of the Gothic kings, between 526 at latest and 533.
What Cassiodorus did with the manuscripts after that remains unknown. The fact that Jordanes once obtained them from a steward indicates that the wealthy Cassiodorus was able to hire at least one full-time custodian of them and other manuscripts of his; i.e., a private librarian (a custom not unknown even today).
Jordanes says in the preface to "Getica" that he obtained them from the librarian for three days in order to read them again (relegi). The times and places of these readings have been the concern of many scholars, as this information possibly bears on how much of "Getica" is based on
There are two main theories, one expressed by the Mierow source below, and one by the O'Donnell source below. Mierow's is earlier and does not include a letter cited by O'Donnell.O'Donnell, 223-240]
Gothic sovereignty came to an end with the reconquest of Italy by
Belisarius, military chief of staff for Justinian, ending in 539. Cassiodorus' last ghost writing for the Gothic kings was done for Witiges, who was removed to Constantinople in 540. A number of token kings ruled from there while Belisarius established that the Goths were not going to reinvade and retake Italy (which was however taken again by the Lombardsafter Justinian's death).
Cassiodorus retired in 540 to his home town of Squillace, where he used his wealth to build a monastery with school and library, "Vivarium".
Authors cited by "Getica"
The events, persons and peoples of "Getica" are put forward as being up to many centuries prior to the time of Jordanes. Taken at face value, they precede any other history of Scandinavia.
Jordanes does cite some writers well before his time, to whose works he had access but we do not, and other writers whose works are still extant. Mierow gives a summary of these, which is reviewed below, and also states other authors he believed were used by Jordanes but were not cited in "Getica" (refer to the Mierow source cited below). Mierow's list of cited authors is summarized as follows:
Ablabius. Otherwise unknown historian, author of the work "Gothorum gentis" ("of the Gothic people"), now lost.
Dexippuson the Vandalsand the Heruli.
Dio Cassiusor Dio Chrysostom, author of another "Getica". Description of Britain in Jordanes.
*Fabius. Otherwise unknown, author of a work including the siege of
Ravenna, now missing.
Josephusin IV.29, brief mention of the Goths as Scyths.
Livy, brief mention in II.10.
*Lucan on the
*Pompeius Trogus, now known only in
Justinus' epitome of "Historiae Philippicae".
Priscus. Events concerning Attila.
Ptolemyon Scandinaviain "Getica" Part III.
Strabo. Authority on Britain.
*Symmachus. Copies of his copies from
Julius Capitolinuson Maximinus.
Tacitus. Authority on Britain.
The late Latin of Jordanes
The early Late Latin of Jordanes evidences a certain variability in the structure of the language which has been taken as an indication that the author no longer had a clear standard of correctness. [Brian Croke, "Cassiodorus and the Getica of Jordanes" in "Classical Philology", Vol. 82, No. 2 (Apr., 1987), pp. 117-134] Jordanes tells us in "Getica" that he interrupted work on the "Romana" to write "Getica", and then finished "Romana". Jordanes states in "Romana" that he wrote it in the 24th year of the emperor Justinian, which began April 1, 551. In "Getica" he mentions a plague of nine years previous. This is probably the plague that began in Egypt in 541, reached Constantinople in 542 and went on to Italy in 543. The time is too early to identify a direction of change toward any specific Romance language, as none had appeared yet. This variability, however, preceded the appearance of the first French, Italian, Spanish, etc. After those languages developed, the scholastics gradually restored classical Latin as a means of scholarly communication.
Jordanes refers to himself as "agrammaticus" before his conversion. This obscure statement is sometimes taken to refer to his Latin. Variability, however, characterizes all Late Latin, and besides, the author was not writing just after his conversion (for the meaning of the latter, see under
Jordanes), but a whole career later, after associating with many Latin speakers and having read many Latin books. According to him, he should have been grammaticus by that time. More likely, his style reflects the way Latin was under the Goths.
Some of the variabilities are as follows (Mierow):
Orthography. The spelling of many words differs from the classical, which Jordanes would certainly have known. For example, Grecia replaces Graecia; Eoropam, Europam; Atriatici, Adriatici. Inflection. Substantives migrate between declensions; verbs between conjugations. Some common changes are fourth to second (lacu to laco), second declension adjective to third (magnanimus to magnanimis), i-stems to non-i-stems (mari to mare in the ablative). Gendermay change. Verbs may change voice.
One obvious change in a modern direction is the indeclinability of many formerly declined nouns, such as corpus. Also, the -m accusative ending disappears, leaving the preceding vowel or replacing it with -o (Italian, Romanian), as in Danubio for Danubium.
Syntax. Case variability and loss of agreement in prepositional phrases (inter Danubium Margumque fluminibus), change of participial tense (egressi .. et transeuntes), loss of subjunctivein favor of indicative, loss of distinction between principle and subordinate clauses, confusion of subordinating conjunctions. Semantics. A different vocabulary appears: germanus for frater, proprius for suus, civitas for urbs, pelagus for mare, etc.
* Christensen, Arne Søby. "Cassiodorus, Jordanes, and the History of the Goths. Studies in a Migration Myth", 2002, ISBN 978-87-7289-710-3
* Costa, Gustavo. "Le antichità germaniche nella cultura italiana da Machiavelli a Vico", 1977. ISBN 88-7088-001-X
* Curta, Florin "The Making of the Slavs. History and Archaeology of the Lower Danube Region c.500-700", Cambridge University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-521-03615-1
* Geary, Patric. "The Myth of Nations, the Medieval Origins of Europe", Princeton University Press, 2002, ISBN 0-691-11481-1
* Goffart, Walter. "Barbarian Tides, The Migration Age and the Later roman Empire", University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006, ISBN 0-8122-3939-3
* Jordanes. "The Origin and Deeds of the Goths", translated by C. Mierow, Princeton University Press, 1908
* O'Donnell, James J. [http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/jod/texts/jordanes.html "The Aims of Jordanes"] , Historia, 1982, vol 31, 223-240
* Potter, David Stone. "The Roman Empire at Bay AD 180–395", Routledge, 2004, ISBN 0-415-10058-5
* Seyffert, Oscar. "Dictionary of Classical Antiquities", edited by Henry Nettleship and J. E. Sandys, 1894
* Smith, William. "
Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology" [http://www.ancientlibrary.com/smith-bio/1715.html]
* Thomas, William and Gamble, Miller. "The Monumenta Germaniae Historica: Its Inheritance in Source-valuation and Criticism", Washington: Catholic University of America, 1927
* Wolfram, Herwig. "History of the Goths" (transl. by Thomas J. Dunlap), University of California Press, 1988, ISBN 0-520-06983-8
* [http://www.thelatinlibrary.com/iordanes.html IORDANIS DE ORIGINE ACTIBUSQUE GETARUM]
* [http://www.ucalgary.ca/~vandersp/Courses/texts/jordgeti.html "The Origin and Deeds of the Goths", trans. Charles C. Mierow, with introductory note by J. Vanderspoel, Department of Greek, Latin and Ancient History, University of Calgary]
* [http://www.northvegr.org/lore/jgoth/ Northvegr edition, C. Mierow translation online]
*Charles Christopher Mierow (translator). "The Gothic History of Jordanes. In English Version with an Introduction and a Commentary", 1915. Reprinted 2006. Evolution Publishing, ISBN 1-889758-77-9. [http://www.evolpub.com/CRE/CREseries.html]
* Charles C. Mierow. "The Gothic History of Jordanes". Princeton: University Press, 1915. (Reprinted at Cambridge: Speculum Historiae, 1966.)
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