- Francis Spellman
name = Francis Cardinal Spellman
See = New York
Title = Cardinal Archbishop of New York
April 15, 1939– December 2, 1967
February 18, 1946
Patrick Cardinal Hayes†
date of birth =
May 4, 1889
date of death =
December 2, 1967(aged 78)
place of birth =
place of death =
New York City
Francis Joseph Cardinal Spellman (
May 4, 1889– December 2, 1967) wasthe ninth bishopand sixth archbishopof the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New York. He served as Archbishop of New York from 1939 until his death, and was named a cardinal by Pope Pius XIIin 1946.
Francis Joseph Spellman was born in
Whitman, Massachusettsto William and Ellen (née Conway) Spellman. His father (d. 1957) was a grocer. Francis also served as an altar boy at the local church [TIME Magazine [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,865830,00.html Cardinal's Birthday] May 11, 1959] . He studied at Fordham College in New York, and the North American Collegein Romebefore being ordained to the priesthood by Patriarch Giuseppe Ceppetelli on 14 May, 1916. Spellman then did pastoral work in Boston until 1918, at which time he became assistant Diocesan Chancellor. An attachéof the Secretariat of State in the Roman Curiafrom 1925 to 1932, Spellman was raised to the rank of Monsignoron October 4, 1926by Pope Pius XI. From 1924 to 1935 he acted as editor of the "The Boston Pilot".
July 30, 1932, he was appointed Auxiliary Bishop of Boston and Titular Bishop of "Sila". Spellman received his episcopal consecration on the following September 8from close friend Eugenio Cardinal Pacelli, with Archbishops Giuseppe Pizzardo and Francesco Borgongini Ducaserving as co-consecrators, in St. Peter's Basilica. His was the first consecration of an American bishop ever to be held in St. Peter's [TIME Magazine. [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,744398,00.html Crosier & Mitre] September 19, 1932] .
cardinal name=Francis Cardinal Spellman †
Spellman was promoted to sixth Archbishop of New York on
April 15, 1939, and on December 11of that same year, named Apostolic Vicar for the US Armed Forces. He was created Cardinal Priest of " Ss. Giovanni e Paolo (Rome)" by Pope Pius XIIin the consistoryof February 18, 1946; his cardinalitial church was the same one held by Pope Pius before he was elected to the papacy. He was charged with releasing Pius XI's encyclical on Catholic Actionto the world [TIME Magazine [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,761432,00.html Spellman to St. Patrick's] June 5, 1939] .
World War II, he visited 16 countries in four months on behalf of the Pope [TIME Magazine [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,884953,00.html Odyssey for the Millennium] June 7, 1943] . Spellman acted as a liaison between Pope Pius XIIand President Franklin D. Rooseveltin the Pope's attempts to have Romedeclared an open cityand save it from the relentless bombing other European capitals suffered and risk potentially destroying Rome's historical sites and ruins, including the Vatican. In 1946, he received The Hundred Year Association of New York's Gold Medal Award "in recognition of outstanding contributions to the City of New York."
Towards Vatican II
He led his archdiocese through an extensive period of building the Catholic infrastructure, particularly the parochial schools. He was a staunch opponent of
communism, and often criticized films he viewed as "indecent." As archbishop he assigned Ivan Illichas pastor to a Puerto Rican parish in Washington Heights, New York City, in 1951. For his service to soldiers, sailors, airmen and marines, Cardinal Spellman was awarded the prestigious Sylvanus Thayer Awardby the United States Military Academyat West Point in 1967. Spellman once engaged in a dispute with Eleanor Rooseveltover federally funded education at parochial schools, even accusing her of anti-Catholicism[TIME Magazine. [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,794889-1,00.html My Day in the Lion's Mouth] August 1, 1949] . He was instrumental in getting William Brennan appointed to the Supreme Court in 1956, but would later regret the decision.
He attended the
Second Vatican Council(1962-1965), and sat on its Board of Presidency. Cooney describes how Spellman was dismissive of Pope John XXIII: "Spellman held his tongue in Rome, where it would be unwise to be indiscreet about the new pope. But when he returned home, the Cardinal announced his disdain. 'He's no Pope,' Spellman scoffed to his aides. 'He should be selling bananas.'" [cite book|first=John|last=Cooney|title=The American Pope: The Life and Times of Francis Cardinal Spellman| publisher=New York Times Books|location=New York|year=1984|pages=p.333|id=ISBN 0-440-10194-8]
He was a cardinal elector in the 1958 papal conclave, and again voted in the conclave of 1963. In 1966, Spellman offered his resignation to
Pope Paul VI, but the latter asked him to remain in his post [TIME Magazine. [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,836510-2,00.html] October 21, 1966] . He was also Grand Prior in the USA of the Sovereign Order of Maltaand Grand Prior of America of the Military and Hospitaller Order of St. Lazarus.
Spellman's biographer, John Cooney [John Cooney, "The American Pope: The Life and Times of Francis Cardinal Spellman", New York, 1984] , notes that many interviewees 'took his
homosexualityfor granted' but has not documented his relationships although Spellman defended Senator Joseph McCarthy's 1953 investigations of subversives and homosexuals in the federal government.
The Cardinal died in New York at age 78, and is buried in the crypt under the altar at St. Patrick's Cathedral. To date, Spellman's twenty-eight year tenure as Archbishop is the longest one in the history of the Archdiocese of New York.
List of notable cardinals
Cardinal Spellman High School
*Nicholas Von Hoffman, "Citizen Cohn"
* [http://www.catholic-hierarchy.org/bishop/bspellman.html Catholic Hierarchy: Francis Joseph Cardinal Spellman]
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Spellman — biographical name Francis Joseph 1889 1967 American cardinal … New Collegiate Dictionary
Spellman — /spel meuhn/, n. Francis Joseph, Cardinal, 1889 1967, U.S. Roman Catholic clergyman: archbishop of New York 1939 67. * * * … Universalium