Papal conclave, 1939

Papal conclave, 1939

The Papal conclave of 1939 was convoked on the brink of World War II with the death of Pope Pius XI on February 10 of that same year in the Apostolic Palace. The conclave to elect Pius' successor began on March 1 and ended a day later, on March 2, after three ballots. The cardinals elected Eugenio Cardinal Pacelli, then Camerlengo and Vatican Secretary of State, as the new pope. He accepted the election and took the pontifical name of "Pius XII".

Papabili and balloting

Like St. Pius X, Pope Pius XI was seen as a blunt-spoken, no-nonsense pontiff, and so the cardinals, all sixty-two of whom participated at the conclave, decided that they needed a soft-spoken diplomat to guide them through the forthcoming war.

Among the likely contenders for the papacy were August Cardinal Hlond of Gniezno-Poznań, Karl Cardinal Schulte of Cologne, the Curial Eugène Cardinal Tisserant, Ildefonso Cardinal Schuster of Milan, Adeodato Cardinal Piazza of Venice, Maurilio Cardinal Fossati of Turin, and Camerlengo and Secretary of State Eugenio Cardinal Pacelli [TIME Magazine. [,9171,760766,00.html Death of a Pope] February 20, 1939] . The prospect of a non-Italian pope (the last of which, until that point, had been Pope Adrian VI in 1522) was considered better in 1939 than in previous conclaves [Ibid.] .

Cardinal Pacelli received 35 votes in the first ballot, and other votes went to Luigi Cardinal Maglione, Elia Cardinal Dalla Costa of Florence, and Jean Cardinal Villeneuve of Quebec [TIME Magazine. [,9171,760927,00.html "Habemus Papam"] March 13, 1939] . On the second ballot, Pacelli obtained five more votes, reaching a total of 40 [Ibid.] .

Pacelli's election

On the second day and ballot, Pacelli, whose sixty-third birthday it was, received the exact two-thirds majority, but he then requested another ballot to confirm the validity of his election. He was again elected on the third ballot (with 61 votes), accepted and took the regnal name of "Pius XII". This was only the fourth time since 1823 (the others being in 1829, 1878 and 1914) that a cardinal widely viewed as "papabile" was the one actually chosen. Moreover, Pacelli was the first Secretary of State to become pope since Clement IX (1667), the first Camerlengo since Leo XIII (1878), the first member of the Curia since Gregory XVI (1831), and the first Roman since Clement X (1670).

The white smoke signifying a successful election appeared at 5:30 p.m., but confusingly began to turn black [TIME Magazine. [,9171,760766,00.html Death of a Pope] February 20, 1939] . However, Monsignor Vincenzo Santoro, the conclave's secretary, then sent a note to Vatican Radio to confirm that the smoke was indeed white and Eugenio Pacelli was now Pope Pius XII [Inside the Vatican. [ The "Siri Thesis" Unravles] ] . Protodeacon Camillo Caccia-Dominioni later gave the Latin "Habemus Papam" announcement on the balcony of St. Peter's Basilica, and in joy of Pacelli's election, the crowd below in St. Peter's Square began to sing the hymn "Christus Vincit".

Inside the Vatican, Eugenio Pacelli continued to occupy his apartment as Secretary of State. He had given orders to his his housekeepers, to pack everything in order to make way for the next Secretary, as every new Pope has a given right for new appointments. Later Madre Pascalina remembered the Vatican apartment with the closed windows:

"About 5.30, P.M. we were all still occupied with packing and cleaning the rooms, when we heard from St. Peter’s Square yelling and clapping noises. We did not dare to open the windows and look (this was strictly forbidden) and nobody came to tell us. So we waited … until the door to the Office opened. In the entrance stood a tall and thin figure, - now dressed in white. No more Cardinal Pacelli, it was Pope Pius XII."

"How can one forget such a moment. We sisters cried and kneeled in front of him and kissed the hand of the Holy Father, for the first time. He had wet eyes too. Looking down on himself, he said, look what they have done to me." [Lehnert,Pascalina Ich durfte Ihm Dienen, Erinnerungen an Papst Pius XII. Naumann, Würzburg, 1986, 69]


*The conclave of 1939 was the shortest one of the 20th century, with that of August 1978 ranking second.
*Cardinal Pacelli, the eventual winner, had allegedly voted for Federico Cardinal Tedeschini.
*During a break after the second ballot, Pacelli suffered a fall down a flight of stairs, but was only bruised [TIME Magazine. [,9171,760927,00.html "Habemus Papam"] March 13, 1939] .


External links

* [ Video of 1939 conclave - in Italian]

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Cardinal electors in Papal conclave, 1939 — The following were the cardinal electors in the 1939 papal conclave. Arranged by region (not by the linguistic groups commonly used in universal church senacles), and within each alphabetically (not the official order of precedence, which is not… …   Wikipedia

  • Papal conclave — Conclave redirects here. For other uses, see Conclave (disambiguation). The Holy See This article is part of the series: Politics and government of the Holy See …   Wikipedia

  • Papal conclave, 2005 — Papal conclave, April 2005 Dates 18–19 April 2005 Location Sistine Chapel, Apostolic Palace, Vatican City Dean …   Wikipedia

  • Papal conclave, 1492 — Papal conclave, August 1492 Dates August 6–August 11, 1492 Location Sistine Chapel, Apostolic Palace, Papal States …   Wikipedia

  • Papal conclave, October 1978 — Dates October 14–October 16, 1978 Location Sistine Chapel, Apostolic Palace, Vatican City …   Wikipedia

  • Papal conclave, 1878 — The Papal conclave of 1878 resulted from the death of Pope Pius IX in the Apostolic Palace in the Vatican on 7 February 1878. The conclave occurred in circumstances different from those of any previous conclave. Contents 1 Unique circumstances 2… …   Wikipedia

  • Papal conclave, 1644 — Coat of arms of the Holy See during the sede vacante …   Wikipedia

  • Papal conclave, 1903 — The Papal conclave of 1903 was caused by the death of the 93 year old Pope Leo XIII, who at that stage was the third longest reigning pope in history. (Pope John Paul II (1978 2005) passed Leo a century later.) It saw the election of Giuseppe… …   Wikipedia

  • Papal conclave, 1655 — Coat of arms of the Holy See during the sede vacante …   Wikipedia

  • Papal conclave, 1922 — After a reign of just eight years, Pope Benedict XV died on 22 January 1922 of pneumonia. At his death there were 61 members of the College of Cardinals. However, just one day later, Enrique Cardinal Almaraz y Santos, the Archbishop of Toledo,… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.