- Papal conclave, 1939
Papal conclaveof 1939 was convoked on the brink of World War IIwith the death of Pope Pius XIon February 10of that same year in the Apostolic Palace. The conclave to elect Pius' successor began on March 1and ended a day later, on March 2, after three ballots. The cardinals elected Eugenio Cardinal Pacelli, then Camerlengoand Vatican Secretary of State, as the new pope. He accepted the election and took the pontifical name of "Pius XII".
Papabili and balloting
Like St. Pius X,
Pope Pius XIwas seen as a blunt-spoken, no-nonsense pontiff, and so the cardinals, all sixty-two of whom participated at the conclave, decided that they needed a soft-spoken diplomat to guide them through the forthcoming war.
Among the likely contenders for the papacy were August Cardinal Hlond of Gniezno-Poznań, Karl Cardinal Schulte of Cologne, the Curial Eugène Cardinal Tisserant,
Ildefonso Cardinal Schusterof Milan, Adeodato Cardinal Piazza of Venice, Maurilio Cardinal Fossatiof Turin, and Camerlengoand Secretary of State Eugenio Cardinal Pacelli [TIME Magazine. [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,760766,00.html Death of a Pope] February 20, 1939] . The prospect of a non-Italian pope (the last of which, until that point, had been Pope Adrian VIin 1522) was considered better in 1939 than in previous conclaves [Ibid.] .
Cardinal Pacelli received 35 votes in the first ballot, and other votes went to
Luigi Cardinal Maglione, Elia Cardinal Dalla Costa of Florence, and Jean Cardinal Villeneuve of Quebec [TIME Magazine. [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,760927,00.html "Habemus Papam"] March 13, 1939] . On the second ballot, Pacelli obtained five more votes, reaching a total of 40 [Ibid.] .
On the second day and ballot, Pacelli, whose sixty-third birthday it was, received the exact two-thirds majority, but he then requested another ballot to confirm the validity of his election. He was again elected on the third ballot (with 61 votes), accepted and took the
regnal nameof "Pius XII". This was only the fourth time since 1823 (the others being in 1829, 1878 and 1914) that a cardinal widely viewed as " papabile" was the one actually chosen. Moreover, Pacelli was the first Secretary of State to become pope since Clement IX (1667), the first Camerlengo since Leo XIII (1878), the first member of the Curia since Gregory XVI (1831), and the first Roman since Clement X (1670).
The white smoke signifying a successful election appeared at 5:30 p.m., but confusingly began to turn black [TIME Magazine. [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,760766,00.html Death of a Pope]
February 20, 1939] . However, Monsignor Vincenzo Santoro, the conclave's secretary, then sent a note to Vatican Radio to confirm that the smoke was indeed white and Eugenio Pacelli was now Pope Pius XII[Inside the Vatican. [http://www.insidethevatican.com/articles/siri-thesis.htm The "Siri Thesis" Unravles] ] . Protodeacon Camillo Caccia-Dominionilater gave the Latin" Habemus Papam" announcement on the balcony of St. Peter's Basilica, and in joy of Pacelli's election, the crowd below in St. Peter's Square began to sing the hymn"Christus Vincit".
Inside the Vatican,
Eugenio Pacellicontinued to occupy his apartment as Secretary of State. He had given orders to his his housekeepers, to pack everything in order to make way for the next Secretary, as every new Pope has a given right for new appointments. Later Madre Pascalina remembered the Vatican apartment with the closed windows:
"About 5.30, P.M. we were all still occupied with packing and cleaning the rooms, when we heard from St. Peter’s Square yelling and clapping noises. We did not dare to open the windows and look (this was strictly forbidden) and nobody came to tell us. So we waited … until the door to the Office opened. In the entrance stood a tall and thin figure, - now dressed in white. No more Cardinal Pacelli, it was Pope Pius XII."
"How can one forget such a moment. We sisters cried and kneeled in front of him and kissed the hand of the Holy Father, for the first time. He had wet eyes too. Looking down on himself, he said, look what they have done to me." [Lehnert,Pascalina Ich durfte Ihm Dienen, Erinnerungen an Papst Pius XII. Naumann, Würzburg, 1986, 69]
*The conclave of 1939 was the shortest one of the 20th century, with that of August 1978 ranking second.
*Cardinal Pacelli, the eventual winner, had allegedly voted for Federico Cardinal Tedeschini.
*During a break after the second ballot, Pacelli suffered a fall down a flight of stairs, but was only bruised [TIME Magazine. [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,760927,00.html "Habemus Papam"]
March 13, 1939] .
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nWqnga9RFvc Video of 1939 conclave - in Italian]
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