Julius von Sachs


Julius von Sachs

Infobox Scientist
name = Julius von Sachs
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caption = Julius von Sachs
birth_date = October 2, 1832
birth_place = Breslau, Kingdom of Prussia
death_date = May 29, 1897
death_place = Würzburg, Kingdom of Bavaria
residence =
citizenship =
nationality = German
ethnicity =
field = botany
work_institutions = University of Bonn
University of Freiburg
University of Würzburg
alma_mater = Charles University in Prague
doctoral_advisor =
doctoral_students =
known_for =
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author_abbrev_zoo =
influences = Jan Evangelista Purkinje
influenced =
prizes =
religion =
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Julius von Sachs (October 2, 1832 - May 29, 1897) was a German botanist from Breslau, Prussian Silesia.

At an early age he showed a taste for natural history, becoming acquainted with the Breslau physiologist Jan Evangelista Purkyně. In 1851 he began studying at Charles University in Prague. In 1856 he graduated as doctor of philosophy, and then adopted a botanical career, establishing himself as "Privatdozent" for plant physiology in the University of Prague. In 1859 he was appointed physiological assistant to the Agricultural Academy of Tharandt (now part of the Technical University of Dresden); and in 1862 he was called to be director of the Polytechnic at Chemnitz, but was almost immediately transferred to the Agricultural Academy at Poppelsdorf (now part of the University of Bonn), where he remained until 1867, when he was nominated professor of botany in the University of Freiburg. In 1868 he accepted the chair of botany in the University of Würzburg, which he continued to occupy (in spite of calls to all the important German universities) until his death.

Sachs achieved distinction as an investigator, a writer and a teacher; his name will ever be especially associated with the great development of plant physiology which marked the latter half of the 19th century, though there is scarcely a branch of botany to which he did not materially contribute. His earlier papers, scattered through the volumes of botanical journals and of the publications of learned societies (a collected edition was published in 1892-93), are of great and varied interest. Prominent among them is the series of "Keimungsgeschichten," which laid the foundation of our knowledge of microchemical methods, as also of the morphological and physiological details of germination.

Then there is his resuscitation of the method of "water-culture," and the application of it to the investigation of the problems of nutrition; and further, his discovery that the starch-grains to be found in chloroplasts are the first visible product of their assimilatory activity. His later papers were almost exclusively published in the three volumes of the "Arbeiten de botanisthen Inslituts in Würzburg" (1871-88). Among these are his investigation of the periodicity of growth in length, in connection with which he devised the self-registering auxanometer, by which he established the retarding influence of the highly refrangible rays of the spectrum on the rate of growth; his researches on heliotropism and geotropism, in which he introduced the clinostat; his work on the structure and the arrangement of cells in growing-points; the elaborate experimental evidence upon which he based his "imbibition-theory" of the transpiration-current; his exhaustive study of the assimilatory activity of the green leaf; and other papers of interest.

Sachs' first published volume was the "Handbuch der Experimentalphysiologie des Pflanzen" (1865; French edition, 1868), which gives an admirable account of the state of knowledge in certain departments of the subject, and includes a great deal of original information. This was followed in 1868 by the first edition of his famous "Lehrbuch der Botanik", by far the best book of its kind. It is a comprehensive work, giving an able summary of the botanical science of the period, enriched with the results of many original investigations. The fourth and last German edition was published in 1874, and two English' editions were issued by the Oxford Press in 1875 and 1882 respectively.

The "Lehrbuch" was eventually superseded by the "Vorlesungen uber Pflanzenphysiologie" (1st ed., 1882; 2nd ed., 1887; Eng. ed., Oxford, 1887), a work more limited in scope, but yet covering more ground than its title would imply; though it is a remarkable book, it has not gained the general recognition accorded to the "Lehrbuch". Finally, there is the "Geschichte der Botanik" (1875); a brilliant and learned account of the development of the varitius branches of botanical science from the middle of the 16th century up to 1860, of which an English edition was published in 1890 by the Oxford Press. As a teacher Sachs exerted great influence, for his vigorous personality and his ready and lucid utterance enabled him not only to instruct, but to fire his students with something of his own enthusiasm.

A full account of Sachs' life and work was given by Professor Goebel, formerly his assistant, in "Flora" (1897), of which an English translation appeared in "Science Progress" for 1898. There is also an obituary notice of him in the "Proc. Roy. Soc." vol. lxii.

Many pupils of Sachs like Julius Oscar Brefeld, Francis Darwin, Karl Ritter von Goebel, Georg Albrecht Klebs, Hermann Müller-Thurgau, Fritz Noll, Wilhelm Pfeffer, Karl Prantl, Christian Ernst Stahl and Hugo de Vries became later famous botanists.

The standard botanical author abbreviation Sachs is applied to species he described.

References

*1911
*cite journal
quotes = yes
last=Gimmler
first=Hartmut
authorlink=
year=2005
month=
title= [The plant physiologist Julius von Sachs and the academic education of women]
journal=Wurzbg Medizinhist Mitt
volume=24
issue=
pages=415–24
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 17153314
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = yes
last=Harvey
first=R B
authorlink=
year=1929
month=Jan
title=Julius Von Sachs
journal=Plant Physiol.
volume=4
issue=1
pages=154.2–157
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 16652596
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =


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  • Julius von Sachs — Julius Sachs Julius Sachs (* 2. Oktober 1832 in Breslau; † 29. Mai 1897 in Würzburg) war ein deutscher Botaniker. Er gilt als Begründer der experimentellen Pflanzenphysiologie. Sein offizielles botanisches Autorenkürzel lautet „Sachs“ …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Julius von Sachs — Nacimiento …   Wikipedia Español

  • Julius Von Sachs — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Sachs. Julius von Sachs Julius von Sachs est un botaniste allemand, né le …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Julius von sachs — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Sachs. Julius von Sachs Julius von Sachs est un botaniste allemand, né le …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Julius von Sachs — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Sachs. Julius von Sachs Julius von Sachs est un botaniste allemand, né le 2 octobre  …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Sachs, (Ferdinand Gustav) Julius von — ▪ German botanist born Oct. 2, 1832, Breslau, Ger. [now Wrocław, Pol.] died May 29, 1897, Würzburg, Ger.       German botanist whose experimental study of nutrition, tropism, and transpiration of water greatly advanced the knowledge of plant… …   Universalium

  • Julius Sachs — (* 2. Oktober 1832 in Breslau; † 29. Mai 1897 in Würzburg) war ein deutscher Botaniker. Er gilt als Begründer der experimentellen Pflanzenphysiologie. Sein offizielles botanisches Autorenkürzel lautet „Sachs“ …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Sachs — is a German surname meaning man from Saxony and may refer to:;Real people: * Albie Sachs (born 1935), a South African Constitutional Court Justice * Andrew Sachs (born 1930), a German British actor * Bernard Sachs (1858 1944), an American… …   Wikipedia

  • Julius Oscar Brefeld — Nacimiento 19 de agosto 1839 Fallecimiento 12 de enero 1925 Residencia Alemania Nacionalidad alemán …   Wikipedia Español

  • Sachs — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Cet article possède un paronyme, voir : Sacks. Pour consulter un article plus général, voir : Nom de …   Wikipédia en Français


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