Water transportation


Water transportation

Water transportation is the intentional movement of water over large distances. Methods of transportation fall into three categories:
*Aqueducts, which include pipelines, canals, and tunnels,
*container shipment, which includes transport by tank truck, tank car, and tank ship, and
*towing, where a tugboat is used to pull an iceberg or a large water bag along behind it.

Due to its weight, the transportation of water is very energy intensive. Unless it has the assistance of gravity, a canal or long-distance pipeline will need pumping stations at regular intervals. In this regard, the lower friction levels of the canal make it a more economical solution than the pipeline. Water transportation is also very common along rivers and oceans.

Major Water Transportation Projects

The Grand Canal of China, finished in the 7th Century AD and measuring 1794 kilometres.

The California Aqueduct, near Sacramento, is 444 miles long.

The Great Manmade River is a vast underground network of pipes (1600 kilometres) in the Sahara desert, transporting water from an immense aquifer to the largest cities in the region.

The Kimberley Water Source Project is currently underway in Australia to determine the best method of transporting water from the Fitzroy River to the city of Perth. Options being considered include a 3,700 kilometre canal, a pipeline of at least 1,800 kilometres, tankers of 300,000 to 500,000 tonnes, and water bags each carrying between 0.5 and 1.5 gigalitres.

The Goldfields Pipeline built in Western Australia in 1903 was the longest pipeline of its day at 597 kilometres. It supplies water from Perth to Kalgoorlie's gold mining industry.

See also

* Water management
* Water export


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