- Zebulon Pike
Zebulon Montgomery Pike Jr. (
January 5, 1779– April 27, 1813) was an American soldier and explorer for whom Pikes Peakin Coloradois named. His Pike expedition, often compared to the Lewis and Clark Expedition, mapped much of the southern portion of the Louisiana Purchase.
Pike was born in Lamberton,
New Jersey, now a part of Trenton. [Baldwin, Tom. [http://www.courierpostonline.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080825/NEWS01/808250336/1006/NEWS01 "Where did Pike peak? Colo. explorer got start in New Jersey"] , " Courier-Post", August 25, 2008. Accessed September 19, 2008. "Nineteenth century Jersey explorer Zebulon Pike was born in Lamberton, now a part of south Trenton, but gave his name to Colorado's 14,000-foot Pikes Peak."] His father, also named Zebulon Pike, was an officer in the Continental Armyunder General George Washingtonand served in the United States Armyafter the end of the Revolutionary War. The younger Pike grew to adulthood in a series of Midwestern outposts — the frontier of the United States at the time — in Ohioand Illinois. He joined his father's regiment as a cadet in 1794, earned a commission as ensign in 1799 and a first lieutenancy later that year.
Pike married in 1801 and continued an unremarkable military career in
logisticsand payrollat a series of frontier posts. His career was taken up by General James Wilkinson, a political ally of Aaron Burr's, of mixed allegiance, who had been appointed Governor of the Upper Louisiana Territory. In 1805, Wilkinson ordered Pike to find the source of the Mississippi River. Lewis and Clark's expeditionhad followed the Missouri Rivernorthwest from St. Louis, and American claims on the most northern part of the Louisiana Territory remained unasserted..
On his way to the Mississippi's source, Pike encountered the
Saukleader Black Hawk along the banks of the Rock River. According to Black Hawk's account, Pike received meat and provisions and presented an American flag to him and his people. He considered Pike "a good man" and "a great brave." [Citation
title=The Autobiography of Black Hawk
pages=21-22.] Pike also bought convert|100000|acre|km2 of the Sioux Indian's land for $200 and hunting rights.
His attempts to close British forts on American soil at the lakes, though vigorous, were unsuccessful. Pike returned with his men to St. Louis on April 30, 1806, with little to show for their efforts.
Nearly immediately upon his return, Pike was ordered out once again to lead an exploratory expedition to find the headwaters of the Arkansas River and Red River. Near St. Louis on
July 15, 1806, Pike led what is now known as "the Pike expedition" from Fort Bellefontaine to explore the southwest.
Pike never successfully reached the summit of the famous peak that bears his name. He attempted it in November 1806, made it as far as Mt. Rosa to the southeast of
Pikes Peak, and gave up the ascent in waist-deep snow after having gone almost two days without food.
This journey, which he is most remembered for, ended with his capture on February 26, 1807 by Spanish authorities in northern
New Mexico, now part of Colorado. Pike and his men were taken to Santa Fe, then to Chihuahuawhere he appeared before the Commandant General Salcedo. General Salcedo housed Pike with Juan Pedro Walker, a cartographer, who also acted as an interpreter and as a transcriber/translator for Pike's confiscated documents. It was while with Walker that Pike had access to various maps of the southwest and learned of Mexican discontent with Spanish rule. Pike and his men were released, under protest, to the United States at the Louisiana border on July 1, 1807. Sometime between then and early September, he led a 5 man expedition further south than any western man had ever been and explored provinces of Brazil such as Simonésia, which were mapped and recorded in his private journals.Fact|date=May 2008
ubsequent military duty
Pike was promoted to captain without his knowledge while on the southwestern expedition. In 1811, he was listed as Lt. Col. Zebulon M. Pike with the 4th Infantry Regiment at the
Battle of Tippecanoe. He was promoted to colonel in 1812. He continued his role as a military functionary, serving as deputy quartermaster-general in New Orleans and inspector-generalduring the War of 1812.
Pike was promoted to brigadier general in 1813. Along with General
Jacob Brown, Pike departed from a rural military outpost, Sackets Harbor, on the New Yorkshore of Lake Ontario, for his last military campaign. On this expedition, Pike commanded combat troops in the successful attack on York, Ontario(now Toronto) on April 27, 1813. Pike was killed by flying rocks and other debris when the retreating British garrison blew up its ammunition without warning as the town's surrender negotiations were going on. His body was brought by ship back to Sackets Harbor, where his remains were buried.
Although his actual journals were confiscated by the Spanish authorities, and not recovered from Mexico until the 1900s, Pike's account of his southwest expedition was published in 1810 as "The expeditions of Zebulon Montgomery Pike to headwaters of the Mississippi River, through Louisiana Territory, and in New Spain, during the years 1805-6-7" [Citation
title=The expeditions of Zebulon Montgomery Pike to headwaters of the Mississippi River, through Louisiana Territory, and in New Spain, during the years 1805-6-7
publisher=Ross & Haines
isbn=] and later published in French, German, and Dutch. His account became required reading for all American explorers that followed him in the 19th century. Pike's account had a dramatic effect on the exploration of the southwest. He described the politics in Chihuahua that led to the Mexican independence movement, as well as the trade conditions in New Mexico and Chihuahua, which descriptions helped promote the development of the
Santa Fe Trail.Fact|date=February 2007
Named for Zebulon Pike
Pike County, Alabama
Pike County, Arkansas
Pike County, Illinois
Pike County, Kentucky
Pike County, Mississippi
Pike County, Missouri
Pike County, Ohio
Pike County, Pennsylvania
*Pike County, Georgia and its county seat Zebulon
*USS "General Pike"
USS Zebulon Pike
Pike National Forest
Pikes Peak (Iowa)
Pike Islandin Fort Snelling State Park, Minnesota
Pike Creek Townshipin Morrison County, Minnesota
*Pike Township, Marion County, Indiana
Pike's Trail Marker (Delphos, Kansas)
ZebulonUSA, online retailer of exclusively 'USA Made' products (zebulonusa.com)
Ancestry and family
Zebulon's descent from his immigrant ancestor John Pike is as follows:
*John Pike (1572–1654)
**John Pike (1613–1690)
***John Pike (1650–1714)
****Zebulon Pike (1693–1763)
*****James Pike (1721–?)
******Zebulon Pike (1751–1834)
*******Zebulon Montgomery Pike
Zebulon married Clarissa Harlow Brown in 1801. Their daughter Clarissa Brown Pike married John Cleves Symmes Harrison, a son of President William Henry Harrison. Zebulon died with no son to carry on his name, so there are no Pikes who are direct descendants. However there is an active DNA effort to document relatives and there are a large number of PIKEs that are related to Zebulon. [http://www.math.mun.ca/~dapike/family_history/pike/DNA/index.php?content=results.html]
* Hollon, W. Eugene (1949) "The lost pathfinder, Zebulon Montgomery Pike" Univ. of Oklahoma Press, Norman, OK
* [http://www.archive.org/search.php?query=Zebulon%20Pike%20AND%20mediatype%3Atexts Works by Zebulon Pike] at
* [http://www.nps.gov/jeff/LewisClark2/Circa1804/WestwardExpansion/EarlyExplorers/ZebulonPike.htm National Park Service biography]
* [http://www.rootsweb.com/~usgenweb/ky/tippecanoe/chapter11.html Battle of Tippecanoe]
* [http://www.lanepl.org/blount/jbcols/documents/94C47CF9959B9CC201E9D6CDF93ECC84F3C0CD3B.html "Butler County connections to the Mexican War" "Hamilton Journal-News" Hamilton, Ohio]
* [http://www.morrisoncountyhistory.org/histpikeexp.html Pike's Explorations] - related to Pike's journey to find the source of the Mississippi River and the building of his fort in what is now Morrison County, Minnesota
* [http://www.morrisoncountyhistory.org/histpikemeng.html Pike's Menagerie] - the animals Pike and his men encountered in central Minnesota
* [http://www.morrisoncountyhistory.org/histpikefail.html Was Pike a Failure?] - an examination of the often-heard critique of Pike's Mississippi River expedition
* [http://www.zebulonpike.net Zebulon Pike and the Blue Mountain] - award winning film produced with the help of Pike Historian W. Eugene Hollon, the U.S. Army, the Smithsonian and the National Archives about the explorer's time in what is now Colorado
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Look at other dictionaries:
Zebulon Pike — Zebulon Montgomery Pike Jr. Retrato de Zebulon Pike Nacimiento … Wikipedia Español
Zebulon Pike — Zebulon Montgomery Pike (* 5. Januar 1779; † 27. April 1813) war ein US amerikanischer Offizier und Entdecker. Der Pikes Peak, ein Berg in Colorado, wurde nach ihm benannt. Die von ihm geleitete Pike Expedition, vielfach mit der bekannten Lewis… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Zebulon Pike — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Pike. Zebulon Montgomery Pike est un militaire et explorateur américain, né le 5 janvier 1779 et décédé le 27 avril 1813. Son expédition, souvent comparée à l expédition Lewis et Clark, permit de cartographier l… … Wikipédia en Français
Zebulon Montgomery Pike — Zebulon Pike Zebulon Montgomery Pike (* 5. Januar 1779; † 27. April 1813) war ein US amerikanischer Offizier und Entdecker. Der Pikes Peak, ein Berg in Colorado, wurde nach ihm benannt. Die von ihm geleitete Pike Expedition, vielfach mit der… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Zebulon (Georgia) — Zebulon Pike County Courthouse (erbaut 1895) Lage im County und in Georgia … Deutsch Wikipedia
Pike Expedition — Zebulon Pike US Armee Hauptmann Zebulon Pike führte die Pike Expedition (15. Juli 1806–1. Juli 1807 ) an, die den Süden und Westen Louisianas erforschen sollte. Ungefähr gleichzeitig mit der Lewis und Clark Expedition war Pikes Exkursion der… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Pike-Expedition — Zebulon Pike US Armee Hauptmann Zebulon Pike führte die Pike Expedition (15. Juli 1806–1. Juli 1807 ) an, die den Süden und Westen Louisianas erforschen sollte. Ungefähr gleichzeitig mit der Lewis und Clark Expedition war Pikes Exkursion der… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Zebulon — as a first name may refer to these people: *Zebulon Baird Vance (1830 1894), an American Civil War hero and North Carolina Governor *Zebulon Brockway (1827 1920), an American penologist *Zebulon Butler (1731 1795), an American colonial soldier… … Wikipedia
Zebulon — steht für: Sebulon der Name eines der zwölf Söhne Jakobs in der Bibel und daher eines der zwölf Stämme Israels eine Figur aus der Puppentrickserie Das Zauberkarussell aus den 1960er Jahren. Zebulon (North Carolina) eine Stadt in North Carolina,… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Pike — bezeichnet: eine Stangenwaffe von Fußsoldaten, siehe Spieß eine gemeine Figur in der Heraldik, siehe Stangenwaffe (Heraldik) Pike (Programmiersprache), eine Programmiersprache Pike (Verschlüsselung), einen Verschlüsselungsalgorithmus mehrere… … Deutsch Wikipedia