- Lucian Freud
name = Lucian Freud
caption = Lucian Freud.
birthdate = Birth date and age|1922|12|8|df=y
location = Berlin, Germany
nationality = British1 German2 Austrian3
Central School of Art, London, East Anglian School of Painting and Drawing, Dedham, Essex, Goldsmiths College, London
Realism, Expressionism, Surrealism
footnote1 = Became a naturalized
British Citizenin 1939.
footnote2 = Retains German citizenship through birth.
footnote3 = Holds Austrian citizenship through his Grandfather,
In May 2008, his 1995 portrait "
Benefits Supervisor Sleeping" was sold by auction by Christie'sin New York City for $33.6 million, setting a world record for sale value of a painting by a living artist. [cite news | title = Freud work sets new world record | date = 14 May 2008 | url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/7398949.stm | publisher = BBC NewsOnline | accessdate = 2008-05-14]
Early life and family
Freud was born in Berlin, Germany in 1922, son of Jewish parents
Ernst Ludwig Freud, an architect, and Lucie née Brasch. He is the grandson of Sigmund Freud, brother of writer and politician Clement Raphael Freud and of Stephan Gabriel Freud, and uncle of radio and television broadcaster Emma Freud.
Freud and his family moved to the United Kingdom in 1933 to escape the rise of
Nazism, and gained British citizenship in 1939. During this period he attended Dartington Hallschool in Totnes, Devon, and later Bryanston School.
Freud briefly studied at the
Central School of Artin London then, with greater success, at Cedric Morris' East Anglian School of Painting and Drawingin Dedham, and also at Goldsmiths College - University of London from 1942-3. He served as a merchant seaman in an Atlantic convoy in 1941 before being invalided out of service in 1942. In 1943, Tambimuttu, the Ceylonese editor, commissioned the young artist to illustrate a book of poems by Nicholas Mooreentitled "The Glass Tower". It was published the following year by Editions Poetry Londonand comprised, among other drawings, a stuffed zebra (-cum-unicorn) and a palm tree. Both subjects reappeared in "The Painter's Room" on display at Freud's first solo exhibition in 1944 at the Alex Reid & Lefevre Gallery. In the summer of 1946, he travelled to Paris before continuing to Greece for several months. Since then he has lived and worked in London.
Freud's early paintings are often associated with
surrealismand depict people and plants in unusual juxtapositions. These works are usually painted with relatively thin paint, but from the 1950s he began to paint portraits, often nudes, to the almost complete exclusion of everything else, employing a thicker impasto. With this technique he would often clean his brush after each stroke. The colours in these paintings are typically muted. Often Freud's portraits depict only the sitter, sometimes sprawled naked on the floor or on a bed or alternatively juxtaposed with something else, as in "Girl With a White Dog" and "Naked Man With Rat". Freud's subjects are often the people in his life; friends, family, fellow painters, lovers, children. To quote the artist: "The subject matter is autobiographical, it's all to do with hope and memory and sensuality and involvement, really."
"I paint people," Freud has said, "not because of what they are like, not exactly in spite of what they are like, but how they happen to be." Freud has painted fellow artists, including
Frank Auerbachand Francis Bacon. He produced a series of portraits of the performance artist Leigh Bowery, and also painted Henrietta Moraes, a muse to many Soho artists.
Freud is one of the best known British artists working in a traditional representational style, and was shortlisted for the
Turner Prizein 1989. [Button, Virginia. " [http://www.tate.org.uk/britain/turnerprize/history/freud.htm The Turner Prize: Twenty Years] ". Tate Online, 2003. Retrieved on 28 March 2007.] According to the " Sunday Telegraph" of 1 September 2002, he is rumoured to have up to 40 illegitimate children, acknowledging them when they have become adults. After an affair with Lorna Garman, he went on to marry her niece Kitty (daughter of sculptor Jacob Epsteinand socialite Kathleen Garman) in 1948. After four years and the birth of two children, their marriage ended when he began an affair with Lady Caroline Blackwood, a society girl and writer. They married in 1957. He has children by Jacquetta Lampson, daughter of the first Baron Killearn, and by Bernardine Coverley (fashion designer Bella Freudand writer Esther Freud), Suzy Boyt (5 children: Ali, Rose Boyt, Isobel, and Susie Boyt), and Katherine Margaret McAdam (4 children). His daughter Jane McAdam Freudis an artist.
His painting "After Cézanne", which is notable because of its unusual shape, was bought by the
National Gallery of Australiafor $7.4 million. The top left section of this painting has been 'grafted' on to the main section below, and closer inspection reveals a horizontal line where these two sections were joined.Lucian Freud served as a visiting tutor at the Slade School of Fine Art (1949-54), University College, London.
Although Freud is internationally acknowledged as one of the most important artists working today, there have been few opportunities to see his paintings and etchings in Britain. In 1996, Abbot Hall Art Gallery in
Kendalmounted a major exhibition of 27 paintings and thirteen etchings, covering the whole period of Freud's working life to date. The following year the Scottish National Gallery of Modern Artpresented the artist's "Early Works". The exhibition comprised around 30 drawings and paintings done between 1940 and 1945 [Catalogue Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art. Lucian Freud: Early Works: 18 January - 13 April 1997. Edinburgh: Trustees of the National Galleries of Scotland. ISBNO- 903598-663] . This was followed most notably by a large retrospective at Tate Britainin 2002. During a period from May 2000 to December 2001, Freud painted Queen Elizabeth II. There was significant criticism of this portrayal of the Queen in some sections of the British media. The highest selling tabloid newspaper, "The Sun", was particularly condemnatory, describing the portrait as "a travesty". [" [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/arts/1723071.stm Freud royal portrait divides critics] " BBC News(December 21, 2001). Retrieved on February 26, 2008.] In late 2007, a collection of Freud's etchings titled "Lucian Freud: The Painter’s Etchings" went on display at the Museum of Modern Art. The etchings allow viewers to get a closer and more detailed look at the artist's creative process. Freud's works sometimes involve the same person and similar compositions, since his works are about getting to know the subject, prompting him to use the same person more than once when he feels there is more he can learn from him or her physically, mentally, or emotionally. citation | title= Curator’s Voice: Starr Figura on Lucian Freud’s Etchings | author=Robert Ayers | publisher=ARTINFO | year=2007 | date= December 18, 2007 | url=http://www.artinfo.com/news/story/26397/curators-voice-starr-figura-on-lucian-freuds-etchings/ | accessdate=2008-04-23 ]
* William Feaver, "Lucian Freud", Tate, 2002. ISBN 0-8109-6267-5
* Lawrence Gowing, "Lucian Freud", Thames & Hudson, 1982. ISBN 0-500-09154-4
* Robert Hughes, "Lucian Freud", Thames & Hudson, revised edition, 1997. ISBN 0-500-27535-1
* William Feaver, "Lucian Freud: Paintings and Etchings", Abbot Hall Art Gallery, 1996. ISBN 0-9503335-7-3
* Richard Calvocoressi, "Early Works: Lucian Freud",
Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art, 1997. ISBN 0-903598-663
* [http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/freud/ WebMuseum: Lucian Freud] - features images of a selection from Freud's work
* [http://www.artchive.com/artchive/F/freud.html Lucian Freud (ArtChive)] – includes quotes from the biography by Lawrence Gowing, as well as images of additional artistic works
* [http://www.tate.org.uk/britain/exhibitions/freud/ 2002 exhibition at Tate Britain] including a [http://www.tate.org.uk/britain/exhibitions/freud/chronology.htm chronology]
* [http://www.liverpoolmuseums.org.uk/walker/collections/20c/Freud.asp Interior at Paddington (1951)] , Freud's portrait of his friend, Harry Diamond
* [http://www.bbc.co.uk/bbcfour/audiointerviews/profilepages/freudl1.shtml BBC Four Radio Interview] Lucian Freud talks to William Feaver on 7 February 1988
* [http://www.abbothall.org.uk/exhibitions/freud96.shtml Abbot Hall Exhibition 1996]
* [http://www.abbothall.org.uk/shop.shtml#FREUD Abbot Hall Exhibition Catalogue 1996]
* [http://www.tendreams.org/freud.htm Ten Dreams Galleries]
* [http://observer.guardian.co.uk/review/story/0,,1635240,00.html Essay by Kelly Grovier on Lucian Freud in The Observer 2006]
* [http://www.museumsyndicate.com/artist.php?artist=235 Lucian Freud Paintings at MuseumSyndicate]
* [http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,2-2486901.html Lucian Freud Controversy 05/12/06]
* [http://www.artnet.com/magazineus/features/finch/finch12-12-07.asp Charles Finch on Lucian Freud - MOMA: Museum of Modern Art, New York City]
* [http://www.arteseleccion.com/ventanas/autor/autor.php?idioma=en&id=185&autor= Lucian Freud. Critical analysis]
* [http://www.literalmagazine.com/pdf/l12.pdf#page=14 Lucian Freud in Literal] - features images from Freud's work
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