- USS Maryland (BB-46)
USS "Maryland" (BB-46), a Sclass|Colorado|battleship, was the third ship of the
United States Navyto be named in honor of the seventh state.
Her keel was laid down 24 April 1917 by Newport News Shipbuilding Company of Newport News, Virginia. She was launched on 20 March 1920 sponsored by Mrs. E. Brook Lee, wife of the Comptroller of the State of
Marylandand commissioned on 21 July 1921 with Captain C.F. Preston in command.
With a new type of seaplane catapult and the first 16 inch (406 mm) guns mounted on a U.S. ship, "Maryland" was the pride of the Navy. Following an east coast shakedown she found herself in great demand for special occasions. She appeared at
Annapolis, Maryland, for the 1922 United States Naval Academygraduation and at Boston, Massachusetts, for the anniversary of Battle of Bunker Hilland the Fourth of July. Between 18 August and 25 September she paid her first visit to a foreign port transporting Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughesto Rio de Janeirofor Brazil's Centennial Exposition. The next year, after fleet exercises off the Panama CanalZone, Marylandtransited the canal in the latter part of June to join the battle fleet stationed on the west coast.
She made a goodwill voyage to Australia and
New Zealandin 1925, and transported President-elect Herbert Hooveron the Pacific leg of his tour of Latin Americain 1928. The eight 3" anti-aircraftguns were replaced by an equal number of 5"/25 caliber guns in 1928-1929.Breyer 1973 p. 230] Throughout these years and the 1930s she served as a mainstay of fleet readiness through tireless training operations. In 1940 "Maryland" and the other battleships of the battle force changed their bases of operations to Pearl Harbor. She was present at battleship row along Ford Islandduring the Japanese attack on Pearl Harboron 7 December 1941.
World War II
Seaman Leslie Short, addressing Christmas cards near his machine-gun, brought the first of his ship's guns into play, shooting down one of two torpedo planes that had just released against USS|Oklahoma|BB-37. Inboard of "Oklahoma", and thus protected from the initial
torpedoattack, "Maryland" managed to bring all her antiaircraft batteries into action. "Maryland" was struck by two armor-piercing bombs which detonated low-order.Wallin, Homer N., VADM USN "PEARL HARBOR: Why, How, Fleet Salvage and Final Appraisal" United States Government Printing Office (1968) p.192] The first struck the forecastle awning and made a hole about 12 feet by 20 feet. The second exploded after entering the hull at the 22-foot water level at frame 10. The latter hit caused flooding and increased the draft forward by five feet. "Maryland" continued to fire and, after the attack, sent firefighting parties to assist her sister ships. The Japanese announced that she had been sunk, but 30 December, battered yet sturdy, the ship entered the repair yard at Puget Sound Navy Yard. Two of the original twelve 5"/51 caliber guns were removed and the 5"/25 caliber guns were replaced by an equal number of 5"/38 caliber guns.
She emerged 26 February 1942 not only repaired but modernized and ready for service. During the important
Battle of Midway, the old battleships, not fast enough to accompany the carriers, operated as a backup force. Thereafter "Maryland" engaged in almost constant training exercises until 1 August, when she returned to Pearl Harbor.
Assigned sentinel duty along the southern supply routes to Australia and the Pacific fighting fronts, "Maryland" and "Colorado" operated out of the
Fiji Islandsin November and advanced to the New Hebridesin February 1943. Her return to Pearl Harbor after ten months in the heat of the South Pacific brought the installation of additional 40 mm antiaircraft protection.
In the vast amphibious campaigns of the Pacific the firepower of "Maryland" and her sister ships played a key role. Departing the
Hawaiian Islandson 20 October for the South Pacific, "Maryland" became flagship for Rear Admiral Harry W. Hill's Southern Attack Force in the Gilbert IslandsInvasion, with Major General Julian C. Smith, Commander, Second Marine Division, embarked. Early on 20 November her big guns commenced five days of shore bombardment and call fire assignment in support of one of the most gallant amphibious assaults in history, at Tarawa. After the island's capture, she remained in the area protecting the transports until she headed back to the United States 7 December.
"Maryland" steamed from
San Pedro, California, on 13 January 1944, rendezvoused with TF 53 at Hawaii, and sailed in time to be in position off the well-fortified KwajaleinAtoll in the Marshall Islandson the morning of 31 January. Assigned to reduce pillboxes and blockhouses on Roi Island, the old battleship fired splendidly all day and again the following morning until the assault waves were within 500 yards of the beach. Following the operation she steamed back to Bremerton, Washington, for new guns and an overhaul.
Two months later "Maryland", again readied for battle, sailed westward 5 May to participate in the biggest campaign yet attempted in the Pacific war --
Saipan. Vice Admiral R.K. Turner allotted TF 52 three days to soften up the island before the assault. Firing commenced 0545 on 14 June. Silencing two coastal guns, "Maryland" encountered little opposition as she delivered one devastating barrage after another. The Japanese attempted to strike back through the air. On 18 June the ship's guns claimed their first victim but four days later a G4M Bettysneaked in flying low over the still-contested Saipan hills and found two anchored battleships. Crossing the bow of "Pennsylvania", she dropped a torpedo which opened a gaping hole in "Maryland"'s bow, portside. Casualties were light and in 15 minutes she was underway for Eniwetok, and shortly thereafter to the repair yards at Pearl Harbor.
With an around-the-clock effort by the shipyard workers, on 19 August, 34 days after arrival, the ship again steamed forth for the war zone. Rehearsing briefly in the Solomons, she joined Rear Admiral J. B. Oldendorf's Western Fire Support Group (TG 32.5) bound for the
Palau Islands. Firing first on 12 September to cover minesweeping operations and underwater demolition teams, she continued the shore bombardment until the landing craft approached the beaches on 15 September. Four days later organized resistance collapsed, permitting the fire support ships to retire to the Admiralty Islands.
Reassigned to the Seventh Fleet, "Maryland" sortied 12 October to cover the important initial landings in the
Philippinesat Leyte. Despite floating naval mines, the invasion force entered Leyte Gulfon 18 October. The bombardment the following day and the landings of 20 October went well, but the Japanese decided to contest this success with both kamikazes and a three-pronged naval attack.
submarines and scout planes, the American battleship-cruiser force steamed 24 October to the southern end of Leyte Gulf to protect Surigao Strait. Early on 25 October the enemy battleships "Fusō" and "Yamashiro" led the Japanese advance into the Strait. The waiting Americans pounded the enemy ships severely. First came torpedoes from the fleeting PT boats, then more torpedoes from the destroyers, which destroyed the battleship "Fusō". Next came gunfire from the cruisers. Finally, at 0355 the readied guns of the battleship line opened fire. Thunderous salvos of heavy caliber fire slowed the enemy force and set the Japanese battleships on fire. Leaving their doomed battleships behind, the decimated enemy ships fled; only a remnant of the original force escaped subsequent naval air attacks. Similarly other U.S. forces blunted and repulsed attacks by the center and northern enemy forces during the decisive Battle of Leyte Gulf.
In the aftermath of this important victory, "Maryland" patrolled the southern approaches to Surigao Strait until 29 October; after replenishment at Manus, Admiralties, she resumed patrol duty 16 November. Japanese air attacks continued to pose a definite threat. During a raid on 17 November, guns of TG 77.2 splashed 11 of the attacking planes. Shortly after sunset two days later, a determined suicide plane dove through the clouds and crashed onto "Maryland" between turrets Nos. 1 and 2. Thirty-one sailors died in the explosion and fire that followed. On 29 November, "Maryland" was again damaged by a kamikaze attack;cite book | url = http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/USN/USN-Chron/| title = The official chronology of the U.S. Navy in World War II | chapter = Chapter VI: 1944 | chapterurl = http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/USN/USN-Chron/USN-Chron-1944.html | first = Robert | last = Cressman | location = Annapolis, Maryland | publisher = Naval Institute Press | year = 2000 | isbn = 9781557501493 | oclc = 41977179 | accessdate = 2007-11-29 ] however, the sturdy battleship continued her patrols until relieved 2 December. She reached Pearl Harbor on 18 December and during the next two months workmen repaired and refitted "Fighting Mary."
After refresher training, Maryland headed for the western Pacific 4 March 1945, arriving
Ulithion 16 March. There she joined Rear Admiral M.L. Deyo's TF 54 and on 21 March departed for the invasion of Okinawa. She closed the coast of Okinawa 25 March and began hitting assigned targets along the southwestern part of the Japanese island fortress. In addition, she provided fire support during a diversionary raid on the southeast coast drawing enemy defenses from the main amphibious landings on the western beaches. On 3 April she received a fire support call from "Minneapolis" (CA-36). The cruiser was unable to silence entrenched shore batteries with eight inch (203 mm) fire and called on "Fighting Mary's" mighty 16 inch (406 mm) guns for aid. The veteran battleship hurled six salvos which destroyed the enemy artillery.
"Maryland" continued fire support duty until 7 April when she sailed with TF 54 to intercept a Japanese surface force to the northward. These ships, including the mighty "Yamato", came under intense air attacks that same day, and planes of the Fast Carrier Task Force sank six of ten ships in the force. At dusk on the 7th "Maryland" took her third hit from enemy planes in ten months. A suicide plane loaded with a 500 pound (230 kg) bomb crashed the top of Turret No. 3 from starboard. The explosion wiped out the 20 mm mounts, causing 53 casualties. As before, however, she continued to hit enemy shore positions with 16 inch (406 mm) fire. While guarding the western transport area on 11 April, she splashed two planes during afternoon raids.
On 14 April "Maryland" left the firing line as escort for retiring transports. Steaming via the
Mariana Islandsand Pearl Harbor, she reached the Puget Sound Navy Yardat Bremerton, Washington, on 7 May the next day for extensive overhaul. All 5-inch guns were removed and replaced by sixteen 5"/38 caliber guns in new twin mounts. Completing repairsin August, she now entered Operation Magic Carpet fleet. During the next four months she made five voyages between the west coast and Pearl Harbor, returning more than 8,000 combat veterans to the United States.
Seattle, Washington, on 17 December, she completed her Operation Magic Carpet duty. She entered Puget sound Naval Shipyard on 15 April 1946 and was placed in commission in reserve on an inactive basis 16 July. She was decommissioned at Bremerton 3 April 1947 and remained there as a unit of the Pacific Reserve Fleet. "Maryland" was sold for scrapping to Learner Company of Oakland, California, on 8 July 1959.
On 2 June 1961 the Honorable
J. Millard Tawes, Governor of Maryland, dedicated a lasting monument to the memory of the venerable battleship and her fighting men. Built of granite and bronze and incorporating the bell of "Fighting Mary," this monument honors a ship and her men whose service to the Nation reflected the highest traditions of the naval service. This monument is located on the grounds of the State House, Annapolis, Maryland.
"Maryland" received seven
battle stars for World War IIservice.
*- First-hand account of "Maryland's" war service by a former officer of her crew.
* [http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/sh-usn/usnsh-m/bb46.htm US Navy Historical Center USS Maryland gallery]
* [http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/us_navy_pages/uss_maryland_bb46.htm Maritimequest USS Maryland BB-46 Photo Gallery]
* [http://www.ussmaryland.org/historyspecs.htm USS Maryland BB-46 Veterans Association]
* [http://www.navsource.org/archives/01/46a.htm NavSource Online: Battleship Photo Archive BB-46 USS MARYLAND 1917 - 1940]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
USS Maryland (BB-46) — USS Maryland p1 … Deutsch Wikipedia
Uss maryland (bb-46) — USS Maryland (BB 46), Puget Sound, 1945 … Wikipédia en Français
USS Maryland (BB-46) — USS Maryland (BB 46), Puget Sound, 1945 Histoire A servi dans … Wikipédia en Français
USS Maryland — war der Name mehrerer Schiffe der US Marine, die nach dem US Bundesstaat Maryland benannt wurden: USS Maryland (1799) USS Maryland (ACR 8) USS Maryland (BB 46) USS Maryland (SSBN 738) Kategorie: Schiffsname der United States Navy … Deutsch Wikipedia
USS Maryland — ha sido el nombre utilizado por cuatro buques de la Armada de los Estados Unidos, en honor al estado de Maryland. 105 que participó en combate durante la Primera Guerra Mundial, y que posteriormente, fue renombrado Frederick, fue dado de baja el… … Wikipedia Español
USS Maryland — Four ships of the United States Navy have been named USS Maryland in honor of Maryland.*USS|Maryland|1799, was a sloop that served for three years during the Napoleonic Wars*USS|Maryland|ACR 8, was a Pennsylvania class armored cruiser that saw… … Wikipedia
USS Maryland (SSBN-738) — is the 13th of 18 Ohio class submarines in the United States Navy. She is the fourth U.S. Navy ship to be named Maryland .Built by the Electric Boat Division of General Dynamics in Groton, Connecticut, Maryland was commissioned in 13 June… … Wikipedia
USS Maryland (SSBN-738) — Maryland 1997 in Puerto Rico Geschichte Bestellung 14. März 1986 Kiellegung … Deutsch Wikipedia
USS Maryland (SSBN-738) — Para otros buques con el mismo nombre, véase USS Maryland . USS Maryland (SSBN 738) USS Maryland (SSBN 738) Banderas … Wikipedia Español
USS Maryland (SSBN-738) — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Maryland (homonymie). USS Maryland Autres noms Fighting M … Wikipédia en Français