Cloudberry


Cloudberry

Taxobox
name = Cloudberry


image_width = 240px
image_caption = From "Bilder ur Nordens Flora" (1917-1926)
regnum = Plantae
divisio = Magnoliophyta
classis = Magnoliopsida
ordo = Rosales
familia = Rosaceae
genus = "Rubus"
species = "R. chamaemorus"
binomial = "Rubus chamaemorus"
binomial_authority = L.

The cloudberry ("Rubus chamaemorus"), also called bakeapple in Newfoundland and Labrador, Cape Breton Island and southern Nova Scotia, is a slow-growing alpine or sub-Arctic species of "Rubus", producing amber-colored edible fruit. The botanical name ("chamæmorus") derives from the Greek "khamai" ("on the ground") and "moros" ("mulberry"). Cloudberry is the name for both the plant and the fruit. Cloudberry should not be confused with salmonberry, although the fruit looks similar.

The cloudberry grows to 10-25 cm high. The leaves alternate between having 5 and 7 soft, handlike lobes on straight, branchless stalks. After pollination, the white (sometimes reddish-tipped) flowers form raspberry-sized berries. Encapsulating between 5 and 25 drupelets, each fruit is initially pale red, ripening into an amber colour in early autumn.

Distribution and ecology

Cloudberries occur naturally throughout the Northern Hemisphere from 78°N, south to about 55°N, and very scattered south to 44°N mainly in mountainous areas. In Europe and Asia, they grow in the Nordic countries, especially in Finland; sometimes in the moorlands of Britain and Ireland, much in the Baltic states, and across northern Russia east to the Pacific Ocean. Small populations are also found further south, as a botanical vestige of the Ice Ages; it is found in Germany's Weser and Elbe valleys, where it is under legal protection. In North America, cloudberries grow wild across most of Canada / Alaska, and in the lower 48 states of the United States in northern Minnesota, New Hampshire, Maine, and a small population on Long Island, New York.

The cloudberry can withstand cold temperatures down to well below -40°C, but is sensitive to salt and to dry conditions. It grows in bogs, marshes and wet meadows and requires sunny exposures in acidic ground (between 3.5 and 5 "p"H).

Cloudberry leaves are food for caterpillars of several Lepidoptera species. The moth "Coleophora thulea" has no other known foodplants. See also List of Lepidoptera that feed on Rubus.

s which can develop extensive berry patches. Cuttings of these taken in May or August are successful in producing a genetic clone of the parent plant. [cite journal
author=K. Rapp
year=1986
title=Vegetativ oppformering av molte ("Rubus chamaemorus" L.)
journal=Jord og Myr
volume=10
pages=1–11
]

Cultivation

Despite its modern demand as a delicacy exceeding supply (particularly in Norway) the cloudberry is primarily a wild plant. Wholesale prices vary widely based on the size of the yearly harvest, but can reach 10€/kg. [cite web|url=http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=10000085&sid=aFoIHwZwFtyk&refer=europe|title=Record Cloudberry Crop Lures Thousands of Finns to Lapland Bogs|accessdate=2006-05-24]

Since the middle of the 1990s, however, the species has formed part of the " [http://www.uku.fi/northernberries/ Northernberries] " research project. The Norwegian government, in cooperation with Finnish, Swedish and Scottish counterparts, has vigorously pursued the aim of enabling commercial production of various wild berries (Norway imports 200 - 300 tonnes of cloudberries per year from Finland). Beginning in 2002, selected cultivars have been available to farmers, notably "Apolto" (male), "Fjellgull" (female) and "Fjordgull" (female). The cloudberry can be cultivated in Arctic areas where few other crops are possible, for example along the northern coast of Norway.

Uses

The ripe fruits are golden-yellow, soft and juicy, and are rich in vitamin C. When eaten fresh, cloudberries have a distinctive tart taste. When over-ripe, they have a creamy texture and flavor somewhat like yogurt. They are often made into jams, juices, tarts, and liqueurs. In Finland, the berries are eaten with "Leipäjuusto" (a local cheese; the name translates to "bread-cheese"), and lots of cream and sugar. In Sweden, cloudberries are used as topping for ice cream or waffles. In Norway, they are eaten with whipped cream and lots of sugar, or in cakes that often contain marzipan. In Canada, cloudberries are used to flavour a special beer. Canadians also use them for jam, but not on the same scale as Scandinavians.In Alaska, the berries are mixed with seal oil, reindeer or caribou fat (which is diced up and made fluffy with the seal oil) and sugar to make "Eskimo Ice Cream" or Agutuk. The recipes vary by region. Along the Yukon and Kuskokwim river areas, white fish(pike,whitefish) along with Crisco and sugar is used.Due to its high vitamin C content, the berry is valued both by Nordic seafarers and by Canadian Inuit as protection against scurvy. Its high benzoic acid content acts as a natural preservative.

Tea made from cloudberry leaves was used in ancient Scandinavian herbal medicine to cure urinary tract infections.

Alcoholic drinks

In Nordic countries traditionally liqueurs such as "Lakkalikööri" (a Finnish liqueur) are made of cloudberry. It has a strong taste and a high sugar content. Cloudberry has also served as a spice for aquavit.

Dogfish Head Brewery has made an [http://www.ratebeer.com/beer/dogfish-head-arctic-cloudberry-imperial-wheat/54557/2778/ Arctic Cloudberry Imperial Wheat] beer, which was inspired by the [http://www.ratebeer.com/Beer/cantillon-soleil-de-minuit/5962/ cloudberry lambic] dubbed Soleil de Minuit made by Brasserie Cantillon for the Akkurat pub in Stockholm.

Rodrigues Winery [http://www.rodrigueswinery.com] located in Newfoundland, Canada makes a cloudberry wine and a cloudberry liqueurfrom Newfoundland and Labrador grown berries.

A cloudberry liqueur is also made in the north eastern Quebec region of Canada. The liqueur is known as chicoutai, which is the local Aboriginal name for the cloudberry.

Other names

Other names for the cloudberry include:
* Canada: _fr. plaquebiere, " _fr. chicoutai" or " _fr. chicoutée" (in Quebec) _en. bakeapple(in Newfoundland and Labrador and Cape Breton Island)
*
* Cup'ig: "atsar atsakutag" (plural)
*
*
*, " _nl. gele bosbraam"
* (commonly used); " _et. kaarlad", " _et. kaarmed", " _et. kaarnad", " _et. käbalad", " _et. muuramed" (locally used)
*, " _fi. suomuurain", " _fi. hilla", " _fi. muurain", " _fi. lintti", " _fi. valokki", " _fi. nevamarja
*, " _fr. plaquebière", " _fr. ronce des tourbières", " _fr. ronce petit-mûrier", " _fr. mûre arctique
*, " _de. Multebeere", " _de. Multbeere" (from Danish); " _de. Torfbeere" (peat berry)
* (" _gr. βατόμουρο")
*, " _hu. Sarki szeder", " _hu. Lápi málna", " _hu. tőzegmálna" " _hu. mocsári hamvasszeder"
*
*
* or Unicode|ᐊᖅᐱᒃ
*
* Jamtlandic: "mylta"
*
*
*
*, " _no. multe", " _no. multebær", " _no. myrbær" (whilst unripe)
*
*, " _pl. moroszka"
*
* ("moroshka")
* Sakha: "Unicode|ыт тиҥилэҕэ" ("yt tingileghe")
* Siberian Yup'ik: "akavsik" (plural)
*
*
*, " _es. mora ártica", " _es. mora de ronces", " _es. camemoro", " _es. camemoro ártico"
* (commonly used); " _sv. multebär", " _sv. myrbär", " _sv. snåtterblomma", " _sv. solbär", " _sv. snåttren/snattren" (locally used)
*
* Yup'ik: "naunraq", "atsalugpiaq"

Trivia

The Norwegian municipality of Nesseby has a cloudberry in its coat-of-arms. The cloudberry fruit and leaves are also displayed on the national side of the Finnish €2 coins.

References

*Resvoll, T. R., 1925. "Rubus chamaemorus" L. A morphological - biological study. Nytt Magasin for Naturvidenskapene, 67: 55-129.
*Resvoll, T. R., 1925. "Rubus chamaemorus" L. Die geographische Verbreitung der Pflanze und ihre Verbreitungsmittel. Veröffentlichungen des Geobotanischen Institutes Rübel in Zürich, 3: 224-241.

External links

* [http://www.uku.fi/northernberries/ "Northernberries" project: Domestication of Northern Berries]
* [http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Rubus+chamaemorus Plants for a Future database report]
* [http://linnaeus.nrm.se/flora/di/rosa/rubus/rubuchav.jpgDen virtuelle floran - Distribution]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Synonyms:
, (Rubus chamaemorus)


Look at other dictionaries:

  • Cloudberry — Cloud ber ry, n. (Bot.) A species of raspberry ({Rubus Cham[ae]merous}) growing in the northern regions, and bearing edible, amber colored fruit. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • cloudberry — [kloud′ber΄ē] n. pl. cloudberries a northern wild raspberry (Rubus chamaemorus) with large, orange fruit …   English World dictionary

  • cloudberry — paprastoji tekšė statusas T sritis vardynas apibrėžtis Erškėtinių šeimos prieskoninis, vaisinis augalas (Rubus chamaemorus), paplitęs Europoje, Azijoje ir Šiaurės Amerikoje. Iš jo gaminami maisto priedai (kvėpikliai). atitikmenys: lot. Rubus… …   Lithuanian dictionary (lietuvių žodynas)

  • cloudberry — noun Date: 1597 a creeping herbaceous raspberry (Rubus chamaemorus) of north temperate regions; also its pale amber colored edible fruit …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • cloudberry — /klowd ber ee, beuh ree/, n., pl. cloudberries. 1. the orange yellow edible fruit of a creeping plant, Rubus chamaemorus, of the rose family, related to the raspberries and blackberries and restricted to northern regions. 2. the plant itself.… …   Universalium

  • cloudberry — noun a) A species of slow growing bramble. b) The fruit of these plants. Syn: bakeapple …   Wiktionary

  • cloudberry — n. orange yellowish fruit of the creeping raspberry; creeping raspberry plant native to northern regions of North America and Eurasia …   English contemporary dictionary

  • cloudberry — noun (plural cloudberries) a dwarf bramble with white flowers and edible orange fruit, growing on high, open land. [Rubus chamaemorus.] Origin C16: appar. from cloud in the obs. sense hill + berry …   English new terms dictionary

  • cloudberry — n. Knotberry, mountain bramble (Rubus chamaemorus) …   New dictionary of synonyms

  • cloudberry — cloud•ber•ry [[t]ˈklaʊdˌbɛr i, bə ri[/t]] n. pl. ries pln an orange yellow raspberry, Rubus chamaemorus, of northern regions • Etymology: 1590–1600 …   From formal English to slang


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.