Crop yield


Crop yield

In agriculture, crop yield (also known as "agricultural output") is not only a measure of the yield of cereal per unit area of land under cultivation, yield is also the seed generation of the plant itself (e.g. one wheat grain produces a stalk yielding three grain, or 1:3).[citation needed][original research?] The figure, 1:3 is considered by agronomists as the minimum required to sustain human life.[1]

One of the three seeds must be set aside for the next planting season, the remaining two either consumed by the grower, or one for human consumption and the other for livestock feed[citation needed]. The higher the surplus, the more livestock can be established and maintained, thereby increasing the physical and economic well-being of the farmer and his family. This, in turn, resulted in better stamina, better over-all health, and better, more efficient work. In addition, the more the surplus the more draft animals -- horse and oxen -- could be supported and harnessed to work, and manure, the soil thereby easing the farmer's burden. Increased crop yields meant few hands were needed on farm, freeing them for industry and commerce. This, in turn, led to the formation and growth of cities.

Formation and growth of cities meant an increased demand for food stuffs by non-farmers, and their willingness to pay for it. This, in turn, led the farmer to (further) innovation, more intensive farming, the demand/creation of new and/or improved farming implements, and a quest for improved seed which improved crop yield. Thus allowing the farmer to raise his income by bringing more food to non-farming (city) markets.

History

Historically speaking, a major increase in crop yield took place in the early eighteenth century with the end of the ancient, wasteful cycle of the three-course system of crop rotation whereby a third of the land lay fallow every year and hence taken out of human food, and animal feed, production.

It was to be replaced by the four-course system of crop rotation, devised in England in 1730 by Charles Townshend, 2nd Viscount Townshend or "Turnip" Townshend during the British Agricultural Revolution,[2] as he was called by early detractors.

In the first year wheat or oats were planted; in the second year barley or oats; in the third year clover, rye, rutabaga and/or kale were planted; in the fourth year turnips were planted but not harvested. Instead, sheep were driven on to the turnip fields to eat the crop, trample the leavings under their feet into the soil, and by doing all this, fertilize the land with their droppings. In the fifth year (or first year of the new rotation), the cycle began once more with a planting of wheat or oats, in an average, a thirty percent increased yield[citation needed].

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Pipes, Richard, Russia under the Old Regime (Charles Scribner's Sons, NY 1974) p.8
  2. ^ Durant, Will, The History of Civilization: Vol. IX The Age of Voltaire p.47



Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Crop Yield — A measurement of the amount of a crop that was harvested per unit of land area. Crop yield is the measurement often used for a cereal, grain or legume and is normally measured in metric tons per hectare (or kilograms per hectare). Crop yield can… …   Investment dictionary

  • Crop insurance — is purchased by agricultural producers, including farmers, ranchers, and others to protect themselves against either the loss of their crops due to natural disasters, such as hail, drought, and floods, or the loss of revenue due to declines in… …   Wikipedia

  • Yield — may mean:* Crop yield, a measure of the output per unit area of land under cultivation * Maximum sustainable yield, the largest long term fishery catch that can be safely taken * Rolled throughput yield, a statistical tool in Six Sigma * Yield… …   Wikipedia

  • crop — I n. 1) to grow; plant a crop 2) to gather, harvest, reap a crop 3) to bear, yield a crop 4) to rotate crops 5) to dust, spray crops 6) a bountiful, bumper, record; poor crop 7) a cash; staple crop II v. (N; used with an adjective) they cropped… …   Combinatory dictionary

  • yield´er — yield «yeeld», verb, noun. –v.t. 1. a) to produce; bear: »This land yields good crops. Mines yield ores. SYNONYM(S): furnish, supply. b) to give in return; bring in: »an investment which yielded a large profit. c) to fill a need; furnish; afford …   Useful english dictionary

  • yield — 1 / yēld/ vt: to produce as return from an expenditure or investment: furnish as profit or interest an account that yield s 6 percent vi 1: to give place or precedence (as to one having a superior right or claim) 2: to relinquish the floor of a… …   Law dictionary

  • crop — [kräp] n. [ME croppe < OE croppa, a cluster, flower, crop of bird, hence kidney, pebble; akin to Frank * kruppa, Ger kropf, a swelling, crop of bird (basic sense “something swelling out or swollen”) < IE * gr eu b , curving out < base *… …   English World dictionary

  • yield — [yēld] vt. [ME yelden < OE gieldan, to pay, give, akin to Ger gelten, to be worth < IE base * ghel tō, (I) give, pay] 1. to produce; specif., a) to give or furnish as a natural process or as the result of cultivation [an orchard that… …   English World dictionary

  • Crop — Crop, v. i. To yield harvest. [1913 Webster] {To crop out}. (a) (Geol.) To appear above the surface, as a seam or vein, or inclined bed, as of coal. (b) To come to light; to be manifest; to appear; as, the peculiarities of an author crop out. {To …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • yield — [n] production of labor crop, earnings, harvest, income, output, outturn, produce, profit, return, revenue, takings, turnout; concept 260 yield [v1] produce accrue, admit, afford, allow, beam, bear, blossom, bring forth, bring in, discharge, earn …   New thesaurus


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.