- Fouga Magister
name= CM.170 Magister
caption= A Magister of
Belgian Air Force
type= Jet trainer
national origin =
French Air Force
Israeli Air Force Luftwaffe Finnish Air Force
number built= 929 Total Air Fouga: 576 Heinkel-Messerschmitt: 194 IAI: 30 Valmet: 62
variants with their own articles=
Although it is often lauded as the first purpose built two-seat
turbojet-powered trainer aircraft, similar claims are made for the Fokker S.14 Machtrainerwhose first flight, production, and service entry were all about year earlier. [ http://www.letletlet-warplanes.com/2008/06/15/fokker-s-14-machtrainer/LetLetLet Fokker S.14 Machtrainer article ]
Design and development
Fougadesigned a jet-powered primary trainer called CM.130 for the French Air Force(Armée de l'Air, AdA) to replace piston-engined Morane-Saulnier MS.475aircraft. When AdA found the aircraft lacking in power from the two Turbomeca Palasturbojets, Fouga enlarged the basic design and used the more powerful Turbomeca Marboréengine. The distinctive V-tail of the new CM.170 Magister originated on the CM.8 glider Fouga was using to experiment with jet engines. In December 1950, AdA ordered three prototypes, with the first aircraft flying on 23 July1952. A pre-production batch of ten were ordered in June 1953 followed by the first production order for 95 aircraft on 13 January1954. Fouga built a new assembly plant at Toulouse-Blagnacto produce the aircraft. The aircraft entered service with AdA in 1956.
Due to different industrial mergers, the aircraft has been known as the "Fouga CM.170 Magister", "Potez (Fouga) CM.170 Magister", Sud (Fouga) CM.170 Magister" and "Aérospatiale (Fouga) CM.170 Magister" depending on where and when they were built.
French Navy's Aeronavaleadopted a derivative of the Magister, the CM.175 Zéphyr, as a basic trainer for deck landing training and carrier operations.
An improved version of the Magister designated the CM.173 Super Magister was produced from 1960. It used a more powerful Turbomeca Marboré IV engine. Production of the Magister stopped in France in 1962 but continued to be built in
Finlandup to 1967.
The development of the aircraft came to an end when the French Air Force selected the Alpha Jet as their new jet trainer.
The first export customer was
Germanywho ordered 62 aircraft from Fougaand Flugzeug Union Südlicence built a further 188 aircraft. In addition the CM.170 was built under license by Valmetin Finland, and Israel Aircraft Industriesin Israel, with a total of 929 built. Of these 286 were completed under license.
The Israeli Air Force operated a licence manufactured version, the IAI Tzukit. This aircraft participated in the
1967 Six Day Waragainst Jordanian armoured forces, albeit with heavy casualties.
In 1958-1959, Finland purchased 18 Fouga Magisters from France. At the same time they also obtained a manufacturing license. The Finnish aircraft manufacturer
Valmetlater built 62 Fouga aircraft between 1958-67. The French built aircraft carried the designations FM-1...-18 and the Finnish built FM-21...-82. The aircraft was a jet trainer in the Finnish Air Forcebetween 1958-1988. Twenty-one Fouga Magisters were destroyed in accidents, six with deadly outcome.
Belgian Air Forceoperated 50 Magisters as primary trainers. The stunt team The Red Devilsalso used them as display aircraft. A small number of Magisters remain in use as of 2007, as flight maintenance aircraft for senior officers. The Belgian Air Force was the last country that used Magisters for full duty.
When Congo became independent from Belgium in 1960, the secessionist movement in the province of
Katangarebelled against the communist central government. Their minuscule air force was equipped with a few Fouga Magisters among other aircraft. ONUC, the UN operation to safeguard the survival of the Congolese state 1961-64, fielded one squadron of Swedish SAAB Tunnanand one of Ethiopian F-86, which consistently outperformed the Katangese Magisters in the air.Fact|date=May 2008
Irish Air Corpsoperated six Fouga Magisters, four of which equipped the Silver Swallowsdisplay team.
* CM.170 Magister - three prototypes and ten pre-production aircraft.
* CM.170-1 Magister - first production version with
Turbomeca MarboréII engines, 761 were built including 188 in West Germany, 62 in Finland and 50 in Israel.
* CM.170-2 Super Magister - uprated Marboré IV engines with 4.7 kN (1,055 lbf) thrust each, 137 built.
* CM.171 Makalu - enlarged airframe,
Turbomeca Gabizoengines with 10.8 kN (2,422 lbf) thrust each, the only prototype lost in an accident on March 20, 1957
* CM.173 Super Magister - Marboré Super VI engines with 5.1 kN (1,143 lbf) thrust each and ejection seats, 137 built. Flown in France, Ireland and Lebanon
* IAI Tzukit or AMIT Fouga -
Israeli Air Forceversion, permanent weapon hardpoints under the wings for light attack capability
* Fouga 90/90A - attempt to modernize the aircraft with
Turbomeca Astafanengines with 7.6 kN (1,715 lbf) thrust each, reshaped canopy for better visibility, and upgraded avionics. 90A was equipped with a 790 kp Turbomeca Astafan engine; both versions failed to attract orders.
Algerian Air Force(28 ex-German aircraft);flag|Austria
Austrian Air Force(18 aircraft);BAN
Bangladeshi Air Force(eight ex-German aircraft);BEL
Belgian Air Component(50 aircraft);BRA
Brazilian Air Force(seven aircraft);flag|Cambodia
Cambodian Air Force(four aircraft);CMR
Cameroon Air Force(nine ex-French aircraft);SLV
El Salvador Air Force(nine ex-Israel aircraft);FIN
Finnish Air Force(80 aircraft (18 manufactured in France, 62 in Finland));FRA
French Air Force(397 aircraft);GAB
Gabonese Air Force(five ex-German aircraft);GER
Luftwaffe(250 aircraft (62 new and 188 licence production));IRL
* (seven ex-Austrian and French aircraft);ISR
Israeli Air Force(52 aircraft (16 new and 36 licence production));flag|Lebanon
Lebanese Air Force(eight ex-German aircraft);LBA
* Libyan Arab Air Force (12 ex-French aircraft);MAR
Royal Moroccan Air Force(21 new, ex-French and ex-German aircraft);NIC
*Nicaraguan Air Force;NLD;flag|Rwanda
Rwandan Air Force(three ex-French aircraft);SEN
Senegalese Air Force(five ex-Brazilian aircraft);TOG
* Togolese Air Force (four ex-German aircraft);UGA
Ugandan Air Force(12 ex-Israel aircraft);ZAI
* (four aircraft)
plane or copter?=plane
jet or prop?=jet
crew=One or two
length main=10.06 m
length alt=33 ft 0 in
span main=12.15 m with wingtip fuel tanks
span alt=39 ft 10 in
height main=2.80 m
height alt=9 ft 2 in
area main=17.3 m²
area alt=186.1 ft²
empty weight main=2,150 kg
empty weight alt=4,740 lb
loaded weight main=2,850 kg
loaded weight alt=6,280 lb
max takeoff weight main=3,200 kg
max takeoff weight alt=7,050 lb
type of jet=
number of jets=2
thrust main=3.9 kN
thrust alt=875 lbf
max speed main=715 km/h at 7,000 m
max speed alt=444 mph at 23,000 ft
range main=925 km
range alt=575 miles
ceiling main=11,000 m
ceiling alt=36,080 ft
climb rate main=17 m/s
climb rate alt=3,345 ft/min
loading main=165 kg/m²
loading alt=34 lb/ft²
*2x 7.5 mm or 7.62 mm machine guns, 200 rounds/gun
*Up to 140 kg (310 lb) of weapons on two underwing hardpoints, including 50 kg (110 lb) bombs, unguided rockets, and
Nord Aviation SS.11anti-tank missiles.
Fokker S.14 Machtrainer
Soko G-2 Galeb
Aero L-29 Delfin
PZL TS-11 Iskra
* Kopenhagen, W., ed. "Das große Flugzeug-Typenbuch." Stuttgart, Germany: Transpress, 1987. ISBN 3-344-00162-0.
* [http://www.ljtfougajettraining.com Fouga Magister Jetwarbird Training]
* [http://www.ljtfougajettraining.com/History_of_the_Fouga.php History of the Fouga Magister]
* [http://www.warbirdalley.com/fouga.htm Fouga CM-170 Magister]
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