Fouga Magister


Fouga Magister

Infobox Aircraft
name= CM.170 Magister


caption= A Magister of Belgian Air Force
type= Jet trainer
national origin = France
manufacturer= Fouga
designer=
first flight= 23 July 1952
introduced= 1956
retired=
primary user= French Air Force
more users= Israeli Air Force Luftwaffe Finnish Air Force
number built= 929 Total Air Fouga: 576 Heinkel-Messerschmitt: 194 IAI: 30 Valmet: 62
status=
unit cost=
variants with their own articles= Fouga Zéphyr

The Fouga Magister (company designation CM.170) was a 1950s French two-seat jet trainer. The related CM.175 Zéphyr was a carrier-capable version for the French Navy.

Although it is often lauded as the first purpose built two-seat turbojet-powered trainer aircraft, similar claims are made for the Fokker S.14 Machtrainer whose first flight, production, and service entry were all about year earlier. [ http://www.letletlet-warplanes.com/2008/06/15/fokker-s-14-machtrainer/LetLetLet Fokker S.14 Machtrainer article ]

Design and development

In 1948, Fouga designed a jet-powered primary trainer called CM.130 for the French Air Force (Armée de l'Air, AdA) to replace piston-engined Morane-Saulnier MS.475 aircraft. When AdA found the aircraft lacking in power from the two Turbomeca Palas turbojets, Fouga enlarged the basic design and used the more powerful Turbomeca Marboré engine. The distinctive V-tail of the new CM.170 Magister originated on the CM.8 glider Fouga was using to experiment with jet engines. In December 1950, AdA ordered three prototypes, with the first aircraft flying on 23 July 1952. A pre-production batch of ten were ordered in June 1953 followed by the first production order for 95 aircraft on 13 January 1954. Fouga built a new assembly plant at Toulouse-Blagnac to produce the aircraft. The aircraft entered service with AdA in 1956.

Due to different industrial mergers, the aircraft has been known as the "Fouga CM.170 Magister", "Potez (Fouga) CM.170 Magister", Sud (Fouga) CM.170 Magister" and "Aérospatiale (Fouga) CM.170 Magister" depending on where and when they were built.

The French Navy's Aeronavale adopted a derivative of the Magister, the CM.175 Zéphyr, as a basic trainer for deck landing training and carrier operations.

An improved version of the Magister designated the CM.173 Super Magister was produced from 1960. It used a more powerful Turbomeca Marboré IV engine. Production of the Magister stopped in France in 1962 but continued to be built in Finland up to 1967.

The development of the aircraft came to an end when the French Air Force selected the Alpha Jet as their new jet trainer.

Operational history

The first export customer was Germany who ordered 62 aircraft from Fouga and Flugzeug Union Süd licence built a further 188 aircraft. In addition the CM.170 was built under license by Valmet in Finland, and Israel Aircraft Industries in Israel, with a total of 929 built. Of these 286 were completed under license.

Israel

The Israeli Air Force operated a licence manufactured version, the IAI Tzukit. This aircraft participated in the 1967 Six Day War against Jordanian armoured forces, albeit with heavy casualties.

Finland

In 1958-1959, Finland purchased 18 Fouga Magisters from France. At the same time they also obtained a manufacturing license. The Finnish aircraft manufacturer Valmet later built 62 Fouga aircraft between 1958-67. The French built aircraft carried the designations FM-1...-18 and the Finnish built FM-21...-82. The aircraft was a jet trainer in the Finnish Air Force between 1958-1988. Twenty-one Fouga Magisters were destroyed in accidents, six with deadly outcome.

Belgium

The Belgian Air Force operated 50 Magisters as primary trainers. The stunt team The Red Devils also used them as display aircraft. A small number of Magisters remain in use as of 2007, as flight maintenance aircraft for senior officers. The Belgian Air Force was the last country that used Magisters for full duty.

Katanga

When Congo became independent from Belgium in 1960, the secessionist movement in the province of Katanga rebelled against the communist central government. Their minuscule air force was equipped with a few Fouga Magisters among other aircraft. ONUC, the UN operation to safeguard the survival of the Congolese state 1961-64, fielded one squadron of Swedish SAAB Tunnan and one of Ethiopian F-86, which consistently outperformed the Katangese Magisters in the air.Fact|date=May 2008

Ireland

The Irish Air Corps operated six Fouga Magisters, four of which equipped the Silver Swallows display team.

Variants

* CM.170 Magister - three prototypes and ten pre-production aircraft.
* CM.170-1 Magister - first production version with Turbomeca Marboré II engines, 761 were built including 188 in West Germany, 62 in Finland and 50 in Israel.
* CM.170-2 Super Magister - uprated Marboré IV engines with 4.7 kN (1,055 lbf) thrust each, 137 built.
* CM.171 Makalu - enlarged airframe, Turbomeca Gabizo engines with 10.8 kN (2,422 lbf) thrust each, the only prototype lost in an accident on March 20, 1957
* CM.173 Super Magister - Marboré Super VI engines with 5.1 kN (1,143 lbf) thrust each and ejection seats, 137 built. Flown in France, Ireland and Lebanon
* IAI Tzukit or AMIT Fouga - Israeli Air Force version, permanent weapon hardpoints under the wings for light attack capability
* Fouga 90/90A - attempt to modernize the aircraft with Turbomeca Astafan engines with 7.6 kN (1,715 lbf) thrust each, reshaped canopy for better visibility, and upgraded avionics. 90A was equipped with a 790 kp Turbomeca Astafan engine; both versions failed to attract orders.

Operators

;ALG
* Algerian Air Force (28 ex-German aircraft);flag|Austria
* Austrian Air Force (18 aircraft);BAN
* Bangladeshi Air Force (eight ex-German aircraft);BEL
* Belgian Air Component (50 aircraft);BRA
* Brazilian Air Force (seven aircraft);flag|Cambodia
* Cambodian Air Force (four aircraft);CMR
* Cameroon Air Force (nine ex-French aircraft);SLV
* El Salvador Air Force (nine ex-Israel aircraft);FIN
* Finnish Air Force (80 aircraft (18 manufactured in France, 62 in Finland));FRA
* French Air Force (397 aircraft);GAB
* Gabonese Air Force (five ex-German aircraft);GER
* Luftwaffe (250 aircraft (62 new and 188 licence production));IRL
* (seven ex-Austrian and French aircraft);ISR
* Israeli Air Force (52 aircraft (16 new and 36 licence production));flag|Lebanon
* Lebanese Air Force (eight ex-German aircraft);LBA
* Libyan Arab Air Force (12 ex-French aircraft);MAR
* Royal Moroccan Air Force (21 new, ex-French and ex-German aircraft);NIC
*Nicaraguan Air Force;NLD;flag|Rwanda
* Rwandan Air Force (three ex-French aircraft);SEN
* Senegalese Air Force (five ex-Brazilian aircraft);TOG
* Togolese Air Force (four ex-German aircraft);UGA
* Ugandan Air Force (12 ex-Israel aircraft);ZAI
* (four aircraft)

pecifications (CM.170-1)

aircraft specifications

plane or copter?=plane
jet or prop?=jet
crew=One or two
length main=10.06 m
length alt=33 ft 0 in
span main=12.15 m with wingtip fuel tanks
span alt=39 ft 10 in
height main=2.80 m
height alt=9 ft 2 in
area main=17.3 m²
area alt=186.1 ft²
empty weight main=2,150 kg
empty weight alt=4,740 lb
loaded weight main=2,850 kg
loaded weight alt=6,280 lb
max takeoff weight main=3,200 kg
max takeoff weight alt=7,050 lb
engine (jet)=Turbomeca Marboré IIA
type of jet=turbojets
number of jets=2
thrust main=3.9 kN
thrust alt=875 lbf

max speed main=715 km/h at 7,000 m
max speed alt=444 mph at 23,000 ft
range main=925 km
range alt=575 miles
ceiling main=11,000 m
ceiling alt=36,080 ft
climb rate main=17 m/s
climb rate alt=3,345 ft/min
loading main=165 kg/m²
loading alt=34 lb/ft²
thrust/weight=0.28
armament=
*2x 7.5 mm or 7.62 mm machine guns, 200 rounds/gun
*Up to 140 kg (310 lb) of weapons on two underwing hardpoints, including 50 kg (110 lb) bombs, unguided rockets, and Nord Aviation SS.11 anti-tank missiles.

ee also

aircontent
related=
* Fouga Zéphyr

similar aircraft=
* Fokker S.14 Machtrainer
* Cessna T-37
* Soko G-2 Galeb
* Morane-Saulnier MS-760
* Aero L-29 Delfin
* Aermacchi MB-326
* PZL TS-11 Iskra

lists=

see also=

References

* Kopenhagen, W., ed. "Das große Flugzeug-Typenbuch." Stuttgart, Germany: Transpress, 1987. ISBN 3-344-00162-0.

External links

* [http://www.ljtfougajettraining.com Fouga Magister Jetwarbird Training]
* [http://www.ljtfougajettraining.com/History_of_the_Fouga.php History of the Fouga Magister]
* [http://www.warbirdalley.com/fouga.htm Fouga CM-170 Magister]


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