- John Taylor (Latter Day Saints)
English name=John Taylor
Milnthorpe( Cumbria), England
death_date=death date and age|1887|07|25|1808|11|01
prophet_date=death date and age|1880|10|10|1808|11|01
Joseph Smith, Jr.
apostledate=death date and age|1838|12|19|1808|11|01
ordination_reason=Replentishing Quorum of the Twelve [The Quorum of the Twelve Apostles had not had twelve members since
1837-09-03, when Luke S. Johnson, John F. Boynton, and Lyman E. Johnsonwere disfellowshipped and removed from the Quorum. Since that time, William E. M'Lellinhad been excommunicated and removed from the Quorum and David W. Pattenhad been killed. The ordinations of Taylor and John E. Pagebrought membership in the Quorum of the Twelve to nine members.]
end_date=death date and age|1887|07|25|1808|11|01
Marriner W. Merrill, Anthon H. Lund, and Abraham H. Cannonordained [Merrill, Lund, and Cannon were ordained at the same time to fill three vacancies in the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles that had been created by the excommunication of Albert Carrington; the death of Taylor and the reorganization of the First Presidency; and the death of Erastus Snow.]
John Taylor (
November 1, 1808– July 25, 1887) was the third president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saintsfrom 1880 to 1887.
Taylor was born in
Milnthorpe, Westmorland(now part of Cumbria), England, the son of James and Agnes Taylor. He had formal schooling up to age fourteen, and then he served an initial apprenticeship to a cooper and later received training as a woodturner and cabinetmaker. He was christened in the Church of England, but joined the Methodistchurch at sixteen. He was appointed a lay preacher a year later, and felt a calling to preach in America. Taylor's parents and siblings emigrated to Upper Canada(present-day Ontario) in 1830. John stayed in England to dispose of the family property and joined his family in Torontoin 1832. He met Leonora Cannon from the Isle of Manwhile attending a Toronto Methodist Church and, although she initially rejected his proposal, married her on January 28, 1833.
Between 1834 and 1836, John and Leonora Taylor participated in a religious study group in Toronto. The group discussed problems and concerns with their Methodist faith, and quickly became known as the "Dissenters." Other members included
Joseph Fieldingand his sisters Mary and Mercy, who later also became prominent in the Latter Day Saint faith.
Early church service
Taylor and his wife first came in contact with the Latter Day Saint church in 1836 after meeting church apostle
Parley P. Prattin Toronto. Leonora was the first to join the church and she persuaded Taylor to continue his studies with Pratt. After the couple's baptism, they were active in preaching and the organization of the church in Canada. They then moved to Far West, Missouri, where Taylor was ordained an apostle on December 19, 1838. He assisted other church members as they fled frequent conflict to Commerce, Illinois(soon known as Nauvoo).
In 1839, Taylor and some of his fellow apostles served missions in Britain. While here, Taylor preached in
Liverpooland was responsible for Mormon preaching in Irelandand the Isle of Man. He returned to Nauvoo, Illinoisto serve as a city councilman, a chaplain, a colonel, a newspaper editor, and a judge advocate for the Nauvoo Legion.
In 1844, Taylor was with church founder
Joseph Smith, Jr., Hyrum Smithand Willard Richardsin the Carthage, Illinoisjail when the Smiths were killed by a mob. Taylor was severely wounded in the conflict. His life may have been spared when a ball directed towards his chest was stopped by a pocket watchwhich he was carrying at the time. [cite book |last=Taylor |first=John |authorlink= |coauthors= |editor= |others= |title=Witness to the Martyrdom |origdate= |origyear= |origmonth= |url= |format= |accessdate= |accessyear= |accessmonth= |edition= |series= |date= |year= |month= |publisher= |location= |language= |isbn= |oclc= |doi= |id= |pages=91, 114-115 |chapter= |chapterurl= |quote=I think some prominent nerve must have been severed or injured for, as soon as the ball struck me, I fell like a bird when shot, or an ox when struck by a butcher, and lost entirely and instantaneously all power of action or locomotion. I fell upoon the windowsill and cried out, “I am shot!” Not possessing any power to move, I felt myself falling outside of the window, but immediately I fell inside, from some, at that time, unknown cause. ...The doctor [Willard Richards] had taken my pantaloon's pocket, and put the watch in it with the purse, cut off the pocket, and tied a string around the top; it was in this position when brought home. My family, however, were not a little startled to find that my watch had been struck with a ball. I sent for my vest, and, upon examination it was found that there was a cut as if with a knife, in the vest pocket which had contained my watch. In the pocket the fragments of the glass were found literally ground to powder. It then occurred to me that a ball had strruck me at the time I felt myself falling out of the window, and that it was this force that threw me inside. ] However, recent analysis shows the watch may instead have been damaged when Taylor fell against the windowsill. [cite book |last=Leanord |first=Glen |authorlink= |coauthors= |editor= |others= |title=A Place of Peace, a People of Promise |origdate= |origyear=2002 |origmonth= |url= |format= |accessdate= |accessyear= |accessmonth= |edition= |series= |date= |year= |month= |publisher=Deseret Book |location=Salt Lake City, Utah |language= |isbn= |oclc= |doi= |id= |pages= |chapter= |chapterurl= |quote=Taylor, close behind the Prophet, had been using Markham's ‘rascal-beater’ to knock against the muskets and bayonets thrusting into the room. Richards waited behind Taylor, beyond striking distance. Without any way to shoot back, and certain death threatening from the landing, Taylor suddenly dashed toward the east window, intending to jump. A ball from the landing behind him struck Taylor in the left thigh, grazed the bone, and pushed within half an inch of the other side. He collapsed on the wide sill, denting the back of his vest pocket watch. The force shattered the glass cover of the timepiece against his ribs and pushed the internal gear pins against the enamel face, popping out a small segment later mistakenly identified as a bullet hole. ]
In 1846, most Latter-day Saints followed
Brigham Younginto territory then controlled by Mexico, while Taylor went to Englandto resolve problems in church leadership there. On his return, he and Pratt led more followers to the Salt Lake Valley, where Young and the others had settled. Taylor was appointed an associate judge in the provisional State of Deseretin 1849 and served in the Utah territorial legislature from 1853 to 1876. Taylor was elected Speaker of the Housefor five consecutive sessions, beginning in 1857. In 1852, he wrote a small book, "The Government of God", in which he compared and contrasted the secular and ecclesiastical political systems.
Taylor served as president of two missions of the LDS Church. In 1849, he began missionary work in
Franceand was the first church mission president in the country. While in France, Taylor published a monthly newspaper called " L'Etoile du Deseret".
Taylor later served as president of the Eastern States Mission based in
New York City. In this capacity he published a newspaper that attempted to present the position of the Latter-day Saintsin a favorable light to the public.
Taylor is reported to have had a marvelous singing voice. There are stories of people coming to Latter-day Saint services in England for the first time because they heard the strains of his voice while passing by in the street.Fact|date=July 2007 At the request of
Joseph Smith, Jr., he sang the hymn "A Poor Wayfaring Man of Grief" in Carthage Jail just before the Smiths were killed.
Taylor wrote the lyrics to several
hymns, some of which are still used by the LDS Church. Taylor's hymn "Joseph the Seer" was sung at the 200th anniversery celebration of Joseph Smith's birth. The current English-language edition of the LDS Church hymnal includes two hymns written by Taylor, "Go Ye Messengers of Glory" (#262) and "Go, Ye Messengers of Heaven" (#327).
Actions as church president
Following Brigham Young's death in 1877, the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles governed the church, with John Taylor as the quorum's president. Taylor became the third president of the church in 1880. He chose as his counselors
Joseph F. Smithand George Q. Cannon, the latter being the nephew of his wife Leonora.
As church president, Taylor oversaw the expansion of the Salt Lake community, the further organization of the church hierarchy, the establishment of Mormon communities in other states as well as in the Canadian province of
Albertaand the Mexican state of Chihuahua, and the defense of plural marriageagainst increasing opposition.
In 1878, the
Primary Associationwas founded by Aurelia Spencer Rogersin Farmington, Utah, and, for a time, the organization was placed under the general direction of Relief Societygeneral president Eliza R. Snow. In 1880, Taylor organized the churchwide adoption of the Primary Association; he selected Louie B. Feltas its first general president. In October 1880, the Pearl of Great Price was canonized by the church. Taylor also oversaw the issuance of a new edition of the Doctrine and Covenants. During his term as president, the seventies quorums were also more fully and regularly organized. [Clark, James R. "Messages of the First Presidency, vol. 2"]
In 1882, the
United States Congressenacted the Edmunds Act, which declared polygamy to be a felony. Hundreds of Mormon men and women were arrested and imprisoned for continuing to practice plural marriage. Taylor had followed Joseph Smith's teachings on polygamy, and had at least seven wives. He is known to have fathered thirty-five children.
Taylor moved into the
Gardo Housealone with his sister Agnes to avoid prosecution and to avoid showing preference to any one of his families. [Cowley, Matthias F. "Prophets and Patriarchs of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints". Kessinger Publishing, 2006, p. 68. ISBN 1428601805.] [Taylor, Samuel Woolley. "The Kingdom Or Nothing: The Life of John Taylor, Militant Mormon". Macmillan, 1976, p. 302. ISBN 0026166003.] However, by 1885 he and his counselors were forced to withdraw from public view to live in the "underground": frequently on the move to avoid arrest. During his last public sermon Taylor remarked, "I would like to obey and place myself in subjection to every law of man. What then? Am I to disobey the law of God? Has any man a right to control my conscience, or your conscience? ... No man has a right to do it". [" Journal of Discourses" 26:152.]
Many viewed Mormon polygamy as religiously, socially and politically threatening. The U.S. Congress passed the
Edmunds-Tucker Actin 1887, which abolished women's suffrage, forced wives to testify against their husbands, disincorporated the LDS Church, dismantled the Perpetual Emigrating Fund Company, abolished the Nauvoo Legion, and provided that LDS Church property in excess of $50,000 would be forfeited to the United States.
For two and a half years, Taylor presided over the church from exile. During this time, he received the
1886 Revelation, which restated the permanence of the commandment to practice plural marriage; [ [http://www.fldstruth.com/sysmenu.php?MParent=HISTORY&MIndex=0 1886 Revelation] , fldstruth.org, accesssed 2008-05-09.] the validity of this revelation is rejected by the LDS Church but it is used by Mormon fundamentalists to justify the continued practice of polygamy.
Taylor died on
July 25, 1887, from congestive heart failurein Kaysville, Utah. For two years after his death, the church was without a presidency. The Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, with Wilford Woodruffas president of the quorum, assumed leadership in this interim period. In the April church general conference of 1889, the First Presidency was reorganized with Wilford Woodruff as the president. Six months later, in the October general conference, Anthon H. Lundwas called to fill President Woodruff's vacancy in the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles.
plural marriageand was married to seven wives: Leonora Cannon, Elizabeth Kaighin, Jane Ballantyne, Mary Ann Oakley, Sophia Whitaker, Harriet Whitaker, and Margaret Young. [ B. H. Roberts, "The Life of John Taylor" (Salt Lake City, Utah: George Q. Cannon & Sons, 1897).] He was the father of 34 children. [Richard L. Jensen, [http://www.lds.org/ldsorg/v/index.jsp?hideNav=1&locale=0&sourceId=9153615b01a6b010VgnVCM1000004d82620a____&vgnextoid=2354fccf2b7db010VgnVCM1000004d82620aRCRD “The John Taylor Family,”] "Ensign", Feb. 1980, pp. 50–51.]
Taylor's eldest son, John W. Taylor, continued to serve in the church and in politics and helped to shepherd
Utahto statehoodin 1896. John W. Taylor was ultimately excommunicated from the LDS Church for his opposition to the church's abandonment of plural marriage.
Another son, William W. Taylor, served as one of the first presidents of the seventy and also served in the Utah territorial legislature.
Margaret Young Taylorwas a member of the inaugural general presidency of what is today the church's Young Women organization. Taylor's daughter Annie Taylor Hydewas a leader in the Relief Societygeneral presidency and was the founder of Daughters of Utah Pioneers.
* LDS Church [http://lds.org/portal/site/LDSOrg/menuitem.b7723f4adab435807398f2f6e44916a0/?vgnextoid=05425f74db46c010VgnVCM1000004d82620aRCRD&locale=0&sourceId=f17dbe335dc20110VgnVCM100000176f620a____ publication number 35969] .
Times and Seasons"
* Allen, James B.;
Glen M. Leonard. "The Story of the Latter-day Saints." Deseret Book Co., Salt Lake City, UT, 1976. ISBN 978-0-87747-594-1.
* Krakauer, John. "" (Doubleday, New York, 2003). ISBN 978-1-4000-3280-8. The book takes its title from part of a speech given by Taylor on
January 4, 1880in defense of the Mormon practice of polygamy: "We believe in honesty, morality, and purity; but when they enact tyrannical laws, forbidding us the free exercise of our religion, we cannot submit. God is greater than the United States, and when the Government conflicts with heaven, we will be ranged under the banner of heaven and against the Government."
* Ludlow, Daniel H., Editor. "Church History, Selections from the Encyclopedia of Mormonism."
Deseret Book Company, Salt Lake City, UT, 1992. ISBN 978-0-87579-924-7.
* Nibley, Preson. "The Presidents of the Church."
Deseret Book Company, Salt Lake City, UT, 1974. ISBN 978-0-87747-414-2.
* [http://www.gapages.com/tayloj1.htm Grampa Bill's G.A. Pages: John Taylor]
* [http://miloandrusjr.org The Milo Andrus, Jr. Website includes the John Taylor family with ancestry and descendants.]
* [http://www.2bc.info/JTaylor.pdf All known John Taylor "Word of the Lord" revelations]
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