The Sun Dynasty or Solar Dynasty or
Suryavanshais one of the most prominent dynasties in the history of Hinduism, along with the "Chandravansha" or Lunar Dynasty.
"Suryavanshi" means a person belonging to this dynasty. This clan was the eldest and the most prosperous in ancient India till the rise of
Magadhin the 6th century BC. Ayodhya, the city founded by Vaivasvata Manu son of Vivasvanor Vaivasvata, was their capital.
The clan founder,
Vivasvanor Vivaswat, is supposed to have lived coeval with the origin of the world. The name Vivaswan literally means master of the rays. That is, The Sun or Sun God. The first historically important king of this dynasty was Vivaswan's grandson Ikshvaku, so the dynasty is also known as the Ikshvaku dynasty[ [http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/m03/m03106.htm Ikshaku tribe] The Mahabharata translated by Kisari Mohan Ganguli(1883 -1896), Book 3: Vana Parva: Tirtha-yatra Parva: Section CVI, p. 228 'There was born in the family of the Ikshaku tribe, a ruler of the earth named Sagara, endued with beauty, and strength...".] .
The solar clan is especially associated with
Rama, the King of Ayodhya whose story is told in the Ramayana. Rama was the rightful heir according to the rule of primogeniture, but because his father had made a promise to his second queen, Kaikeyi, who asked for Rama to be exiled to the forest for 14 years and her own son crowned in Rama's place, Rama was disqualified from ruling, however, Kaikeyi's son Bharatanever accepted the throne but ruled as regent till Ramacame back from exile. The last important king of Ayodhyawas Brihdbal, who was killed by Abhimanyuin the Kurukshetra war. The last ruling king of the dynasty at Ayodhya was Sumitra in the 4th century BC, who, after being forced out of Ayodhya by emperor Mahapadma Nandaof Magadha's Nanda Dynasty, continued the royal line at Rohtas.
As laid down by
Manu, the kings of the solar dynasty followed the rule of primogeniture. Only the eldest male offspring of the king could succeed to the throne, unless disqualified by the priests for being physically disabled of some other reason. The younger sons also produced many prominent historical Kshatriyas and Vaishyas, but these are not included in the following list of monarchs. The list, however, does include some rightful heirs who were disqualified by the priests.
ource of the lineage
Puranas, perticulerly Vishnu Purana,The Ramayanaby Valmikiand the Mahabharataby Vyasagives accounts of this dynasty.The "Raghuvamsha" of Kalidasaalso mentions the names of some of the kings of this dynasty. [cite book|author=Pargiter, F.E.|title=Ancient Indian Historical Tradition|year=1972|publisher=Motilal Banarasidass|location=New Delhi|page=pp.90-91] [cite book |first=Bhagawan Sri Sathya Sai Baba|title=Ramakatha Rasavahini |year= 2002|publisher=Sri Sathya Sai Books and Publications Trust |location= Prasanthi Nilayam|isbn=8172081324] [cite book |first= Valmiki, translated by Arshia Sattar|title=The Ramayana|year= 1996|publisher=Penguin Books|location= New Delhi|isbn=0140298665] , other important sources are the Mahabharatand the Ramayana
The List of Monarchs
The following is the list, in chronological order, of the monarchs of the solar dynasty. Most of them were rulers of
Ayodhyaand therefore, Kings of Kosala.
Brahmacreated 10 Prajapatis ) [cite book |author=Vyas, R.T. (ed.)|title=IAST|Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Text as Constituted in its Critical Edition|year=1992|publisher=Oriental Institute, Vadodara|location= Vadodara|page=pp.91-2, 255-56] , one of whom was Marichi.
Kashyapais the son of Marichiand Kala. Kashyapa is regarded as the father of humanity. His sons from Aditi, the sky goddess, and the daughter of DakshaPrajapati are called Adityas (Sons of Aditi), they were, IAST|Aṃśa, Aryaman, Bhaga, Dhūti, Mitra, IAST|Pūṣan, Śakra, IAST|Savitṛ, IAST|Tvaṣṭṛ, IAST|Varuṇa, IAST|Viṣṇu, and Vivasvator Vivasvan[ [http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/vp/vp050.htm Vishnu Purana: Book I: Chapter XV] ] .
Vivasvanor Vaivasvata(one of the sons of Lord Sun) - the Sun God, progenitor of the clan. His parents were the sage Kashyapa, father of all beings, and Aditi, Aditi's 12 sons, the Adityas, are the sun deities, and both Vivaswan and Aditya mean sun. Therefore another name for Vivaswan is Suryaor the Sun, hence the name, "Suryavansha". Vivaswan's sons include Shrraaddev and Shanishchar. The river Tapiwas named after Vivaswan's sister Tapti.
# Manu or Vaivasvata Manu - the King of all mankind and the first human being. (According to Hindu belief there are 14
Manvantaras; in each, Manu rules. Vaivasvata Manu was the seventh Manu [ [http://www.harekrsna.com/philosophy/incarnations/manus/manvantara.htm List of Manus] ] . Manu is referred to as a Rajan (King) in the Shatapatha Brahmanascripture. He founded the town of Ayodhya. He had nine sons, Vena, Dhrishnu, Narishyan, Nabhaga, Ikshvaku, Karusha, Saryati, Prishadhru, Nabhagarishta and one daughter, Ila, who was married to Budhaof the Lunar Dynasty). He left the kingdom to the eldest male of the next generation, Ikshvaku, who was actually the son of Manu's brother Shraaddev.
Ikshvaku- the first prominent monarch of this dynasty, giving the dynasty its another name the Ikshvaku dynasty. He had one hundred sons. Fifty of them ruled Uttarapath (Northern India) and fifty ruled Dakshinapath (Southern India).
# Vikukshi - He is said to have eaten the meat of a rabbit at the time of "Shraddha" and was known as "Shasad". (Some records claim him to be grandson of Ikshvaku.) His son was Kakuthsa or Puranjay.
# Kakutstha or Puranjaya - He was a brave king and fought in the "Devasur Sangram". His original name was Puranjaya. But after he annihilated
Asuras (demons) while sitting on the hump (Kukud) of a bull, he was known as Kakuthstha, which means "seated on the hump". His dynasty was also known as Kakuthstha after him.
# Anena or Anaranya
# Ardra or Chandra
# Yuvanashva I
# Shravast - He founded the town of Shravasti near Kosala.
# Kuvalashva - He killed a
Rakshasanamed "Dhundh". It is said that Dhundharregion and the Dhund river are named after Dhund. Eighteen of Kuvalashva's sons died in the battle with Dhund. Thereafter, Kuvalashva was called "Dhundhumara".
# Haryashva I
# Prasenjit I - His daughter Renuka was married to sage Jamdgni. She was mother of
# Yuvanashva II - He was married to Gori, daughter of the Chandravanshi king Matinaar.
# Mandhata - He became a famous and
Chakravarti(ideal universal ruler) king. He defeated most of the other kings of his time. He married Bindumati, a daughter of the Chandravanshi king.
# Purukutsa - He performed the
Ashwamedha Yajna(horse sacrifice). He married Nagkanya "Narmada". He helped Nagasin their war against the Gandharvas.
# Anaranya II
# Haryashva II
# Satyavrata or
Trishanku- His original name was Satyavrata, but he committed three ("tri") sins, and hence got the name Trishanku. First, while he was a prince, he misbehaved and was temporarily exiled from the kingdom. Next, he killed the milch cow of his preceptor Vasishta. His third sin was that he used the unsanctified meat of his kill as food. Trishanku also had a desire to ascend to heaven in his mortal body. After Vashistha refused him this boon, since it is against nature to ascend into heaven as a mortal, the sage Vishwamitra, Vashistha's rival, created another heaven for him, called "Trishanku's Heaven", and located in mid-air. His sons were Dhundumara, and Harishchandra, who was borh of the princess of "Kaikaya" named "Satyaraksha".
Harishchandra- He is known for his honesty, truth and devotion to duty or Dharma.
# Rohitashva - He was the son of Harishchandra. He founded town of "Rohtas Garh" in
Rohtas district, Bihar and Rohtak, originally "Rohitakaul", meaning from the "Kul" (family) of Rohit
# Bahu or Asit - He was attacked and defeated by another clan of
Kshatriyas. After this, he left Ayodhya and went to the Himalayamountains to live as an ascetic with his queens. At that time Yadavi queen was pregnant with Sagara.
Sagara- He recaptured Ayodhyafrom the "Haihaya" and "Taljanghi" Kshtriyas. He then attempted to perform the horse sacrifice, AshwamedhaYajna. However, the sacrificial horse was stolen by the god Indraon the south eastern shores of the ocean, which was at that time an empty bed with no water in it. At least sixty of Sagara's sons died attempting to recover the horse, also causing great destruction by their reckless search. Puranic legends say the number of his sons was 60 thousand.
# Asmanja - Sagara's surviving son was not made king due to his bad conduct.
# Anshuman - He was the grandson of Sagara, and his successor as king. He did penance in an attempt to bring the holy river Ganges to earth, that she might wash away the sins of his ancestors.
# Dileepa I - He also tried to bring Ganges to earth, but also failed.
Bhagiratha- Sagara's great-grandson, after strenuous penances, at last succeeded in bringing Gangadown from heaven. When she flowed over the remains of his ancestors, their souls were redeemed, and the ocean was refilled. Gangaalso bears the name "Bhagirathi", in honour of his deed.
# Ambarish - According to Buddhist legends, he went to "Tapovana" to be a renunciant but after a public outcry returned and ruled for some time.
# Sindhu Dweep
# Saudas or Mitrasah - He performed the Ashwamedha Yajna, but as the rituals were concluding a Rakshasa tricked him into serving human meat to Brahmin,s including Rishi Vashishta. He was then cursed by the Brahmins. He wanted to curse them back, but his wife prevented him. He spent twelve years in exile in the forest.
# Sarvakama II
# Ananaranya III
# Raghu I
RaghuII or Dirghbahu - He was a famous king, who conquered most of India. The great epic Raghuvamsadescribes his victories. After him the Sun dynasty was also known as the dynasty of Raghu.
Rama- He is considered the seventh Avatarof the god Vishnu. He is worshiped by every Hindu. Many Hindus include his name in either their first or last name. Rama's story before he became king of Ayodhya is recounted in the Ramayana. After he ascended the throne, he performed the Ashwamedha Yajna. Bharata, his younger brother, won the country of Gandharaand settled there, where his two sons, Taksha and Pushkal, founded the cities of "Taksashila" and " Pushkalavati", now known as Taxilaand Peshawar. Rama's third brother, Lakshmana, founded Lakshmanpur, now known as Lucknow, and his youngest brother Shatrughna, Lakshmana's twin, was given "Madhura" which is now known as Mathura.
Lavaand Kusha- They were the twin sons of Ramaand his wife Sita. Lava ruled south Kosala while Kusha ruled north Kosala, including Ayodhya. Kusha married "Nagkanya" "Kumuddhati", sister of Kumuda. After Kusha the following kings of the solar dynasty ruled Ayodhya:
# Ahinagu, Roop and Rooru
# --(unknown name)
# Prasenjit I
# Brihadbal - He fought in Battle of Kurukshetra (see
Mahabharata) on the Kauravaside and was killed in battle.
# Prasenjit II - He was a contemporary of
Gautama Buddhaand King Bimbisaraof Magadha. His sister, Koushala Devi, was married to Bimbisara. The city of Kashi( Varanasiwas given as a dowry to her. After Bimbisara was murdered by his own son Ajatshatru, Prasenjit undertook a long series of wars with Ajatshatru. He also respected Buddha, who was also a Kshatriyafrom solar dynasty. In Buddhist literature he is addressed as "Pasenadi".
# Sumitra - He was the last king of
Ayodhyafrom solar dynasty. In the fourth century BC, emperor Mahapadma Nandaof the Nanda Dynastyforced Sumitra to leave Ayodhya. He went to Rohtas with his sons. His son Kurma established his rule over Rohtas.
* [http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/vp/vp093.htm#page_348 Vishnu Purana P-348]
* [http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/vp/vp094.htm#page_359 Vishnu Purana P-359]
* [http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/vp/vp095.htm#page_372 Vishnu Purana P-372]
* [http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/vp/vp096.htm Vishnu Purana P-377]
* [http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/vp/vp115.htm Vishnu Purana Chapter 22-P 463,464]
* Kshatriya Rajvansh
* [http://acharya.iitm.ac.in/mirrors/vv/literature/ramayana/ba070c.html The Valmiki Ramayana]
* [http://www.smileindia.com/cities/ayodhya/ayodhya.htm Ayodhya]
* [http://www.freeindia.org/biographies/greatlkings/dileepa/page1.htm Holy Sun Dynasty]
* [http://mewarindia.com/history/lin1text.html The linage of Mewar]
* [http://suryavanshiarekatik.blogspot.com Suryavanshi]
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