- Nepalis in Hong Kong
These is a small ethnic minority population of Nepalese people in Hong Kong, forming roughly 0.2% of the total population. They primarily came to the territory as part of the Gurkha brigade of the British Army. After the handover in 1997, they were allowed to stay in Hong Kong, but continued to face a variety of problems, especially in education. From primary school to tertiary education, their opportunities are limited by language polic.
Nepalese are not totally invisible in the society; they are visible in media discourse as well as the government policies. Also, they are relatively organized, having established their own NGOs to fight for their rights.
- 1 Background and social history
- 2 Life in Hong Kong
- 3 Education
- 4 Public visibility
- 5 Discrimination
- 6 Notes
- 7 References
Nepalese people began to come to Hong Kong in the 1970s, as part of the British Army's Brigade of Gurkhas. They continued in this employment until 1997. Their primary duties were to deter illegal immigrants and protect local residents. Most of them lived in Whitfield Barracks and Shek Kong Barracks.
After 30 June 1997, the British Government withdrew from Hong Kong and the Gurkha brigade disbanded. These Gurkhas and their children had the right to take up residence in Hong Kong. Also in 2008, a law of the UK was passed which claimed that those Gurkhas retired before 1997 would be eligible to live in United Kingdom as citizens.
Nepalese who choose to stay in Hong Kong want to take root there, especially if their children who were born in Hong Kong. They have Hong Kong Identity Cards but their nationality is still Nepalese. Without Chinese nationality, they are ineligible to apply for an SAR passport or a ‘home return permit’ .
There are over 40 NGOs organized by Nepalese in Hong Kong and these social organizations got government licenses. The Southern League Organization and Hong Kong Gurkha (Nepal) associations  are the two main NGOs helping the Nepalese in Hong Kong. Some of the NGOs are formed by difference lineages; they provide services and share relevant news happening in Hong Kong or Nepal to different lineages, such as the lineage of Limbu, Rai, Palungwa, etc.
Life in Hong Kong
The second or younger generations of the Nepalese mainly work as security guards and construction workers after 1997. More than 80% of Nepalese are working for elementary occupations and workers . But there are exceptional cases, like being a bartender or a supervisor. Some of them establish their small businesses, such as cyber cafes, stalls and restaurants to serve the community.
Community and Housing
The Nepalese in Hong Kong mainly live in Yau Tsim Mong area (33.2%) and Yuen Long area (33.9%) . As Kowloon Park was a main military camp for the brigade from Nepal, as well as Shek Kong in Yuen Long, they chose to live nearby after they left the camp. Some of them live in Wai Chai where they first arrived; in fact their communities spread out to more districts nowadays.
Nepalese mainly live in tenement houses. As they would prefer staying together, they would divide a flat into rooms. They rarely choose public housing, as they would be dispersed to different districts. Another reason is the time of public housing application is too long, even they can succeed, and they would be arranged to remote areas. Thus, public housing is not their preference for housing.
The Nepalese have different dialects according to their ethnicities, which are divided by different lineages; they learn their own dialect before they can speak the unified Nepali. Apart from their mother tongue, they speak English and Cantonese less fluently. Although the elder generation was born in Hong Kong, their proficiency in Cantonese remains poor. Some would attribute the problem to the prohibition of learning or communicating with locals in the military camp. Restriction of learning Cantonese was a measure of the British to stabilize the military force.
News & Entertainment: Ethnic newspaper
In Hong Kong, there are some ethnic newspapers for Nepalese. Sunrise Weekly is one of the examples. Both Nepal and Hong Kong news are included in its content. Since Chinese language is their weakness, the news is mainly translated from the South China Morning Post to Nepalese by a group of Nepalesepart-time staff. It is rather popular and each publication reaches 3,500 sales volume.
Applying for school
In the school year of 2009/10, the Hong Kong Government has selected 17 primary schools and 9 secondary schools located in different main areas of Hong Kong that are designated for receiving intensive on-site support to enhance the learning and teaching of non-Chinese students. However, most Nepalese parents encounter difficulties in applying for school places since they cannot get access to official information . Instead, Nepalese parents often search for information within their own community.
As there is no special arrangement for Nepalese students in the school allocation system, their choice is limited to those mentioned schools for non-Chinese students. The mother tongue teaching policy for native-level Cantonese speakers was implemented in 1998. At that time, the policy dramatically reduced the number of English medium of instruction (EMI) secondary school. The rest of the EMI schools are either highly competitive or relatively expensive. Thus, those schools that are lower level are often the choices left for Nepalese children. School choices are even more limited after Form 5 since they have no legal rights to education after the age of fifteen (when the compulsory education ends). Other than studying in Hong Kong, some Nepalese parents would send their children to receive cheaper education in Nepal until university graduation.
After Nepalese students graduate from secondary school, choices of enrolling in local tertiary education are limited, since most of the tertiary institutions and programs require passing Advance level (matriculation) or Advance Supplementary (AS) Chinese Language and Culture examination. The Chinese Language in General Certificate of Secondary Education Examinations (GCSE) that they mainly take is always not accepted, as the examination does not meet the basic standards of those tertiary institutions. It is extremely hard for Nepalese to enroll in local tertiary education.
School life and assistance
Although the Hong Kong Education and Manpower Bureau has designed special teaching material for ethnic minorities for the last 10 years, students still find it difficult to learn Chinese. As this is a second language to them, students would have poorer engagement and achievements in learning . Meanwhile the Education Bureau does not seem to have modified the teaching materials according to their learning abilities and needs, the materials adopted are often lack of experts’ support and teachers’ trainings .
Nepalese students can enjoy similar welfare with locals. They can apply for financial assistance in education like School Textbook Assistance and Student Travel Subsidy Schemes, though the relevant information may not be sufficient to all Nepalese. In terms of language education, there are no special Chinese language classes provided by the school unless they fail in the exams. Instead, some NGOs organize Chinese language and adaptation classes to assist them while the Home Affairs Department offers short-term tutorials to them.
As the GCSE Examination in Chinese is not broadly accepted in Hong Kong society for its perceived low standard, the Nepalese graduates are often not qualified for jobs like civil servant jobs or disciplined services. The requirements on the Chinese certificates and proficiency of written Chinese are often significant barriers for them, even though some of them could speak and listen to Cantonese very well. On the other hand, those academic qualifications granted in Nepal are also not accepted by employers. Thus, with no guarantee and support on their academic qualifications, they can hardly enter any professions.
In January 2009, there was news about a homeless Nepalese (named Limbu Dil Bahadur) who was shot dead by a policeman. The policeman arrived to deal with a nuisance complaint about the man, who had been sleeping rough on a hillside in Ho Man Tin. In the process, the policeman fired two shots and the Nepalese was dead. After that the media reported the news and conjectured that the incident was caused by language problem. However, two days later, the media found that the Nepalese was born in Hong Kong and he could speak Cantonese. Mainstream media based on the 2-3 minute video clip and reported this news to a discussion about “illegal snake being damaging to social security” and claimed that they were in Hong Kong to “seek cash”. Other newspapers even had a headline “courageous police officer shot dead a hillside villain”. Only Ming Pao and Economic Daily quoted from a hiker who said that he never perceived the homeless dangerous to others.
The mainstream media tend to stereotype the Nepalese in Hong Kong as “lazy vagrants.” The media tend to depict the negative side of them, with relatively fewer reports on their contributions to Hong Kong society.
There were no local policies protecting the rights for Nepalese until 2008. In July 2008, an anti-discrimination law The Race Discrimination Ordinance (RDO) was enacted and it has come to operation since 10 July 2009. From the RDO, “ it is unlawful to discriminate, harass or vilify a person on the ground of his/her race”. Yet there has been a number of criticisms on the ordinance, for instance, only the part ‘Discrimination and Harassment in Employment Field’ has been implemented so far. Also, the direct involvement of ethnic minorities in legislation was relatively low, due to insufficient promotion of the Bill during its consultation period.
Discourse of the group
Though they are always not recognized as “Hong Kongers”, the Nepalese are still eager to contribute to Hong Kong society. In fact they would like to be hired as policemen or firemen who can serve the society, though language barriers limit their opportunities. Nepalese are relatively organized compared to other minority groups in Hong Kong. Gurkha Security Services Limited launched various kinds of talks and workshops on workers’ policies. Besides, the Nepalese in Hong Kong did have several times of demonstrations due to different kinds of issues, for example the demand of democracy in their country, and demand an apology for the fatal shooting by a police officer of a Nepalese man, as mentioned above.
Nepalese in Hong Kong are being discriminated or facing difficulties because of their race. For instance, the police check their HKID cards more frequently than the locals, it is usually due to misunderstanding of language and cultural difference. This would cause discomfort and inconvenience to the Nepalese.
In order to improve the situation, the Hong Kong government provides a new set of guidelines for the police who garrison in Yau Tsim Mong district. Tips on speaking Nepalese and brief introduction to minority cultures are provided, in order to ease their communication and reduce the appearance of direct discrimination .
In terms of career, the Labour Department is one of the important sources for finding jobs. However, its recruitment notices are posted mostly in Chinese, therefore it is difficult for Nepalese to identify a suitable job. Besides, most of the job training courses are offered in Cantonese, such as the construction training programs.
Moreover, the salary of Nepalese workers in Hong Kong is usually lower than that of local workers, even if they work longer hours. More than 46% of Nepalese construction workers whose earning is less than $12,000 a month but more than 60% of them work for 60 hours per week. Nepalese workers earn $100 less than the locals in average per day. The situation of female workers is even worse. Also, many of them are hired on a daily basis rather than in monthly terms. This results in them having less stable jobs than the locals. Nonetheless, many of them would continue to work for their companies because they cannot afford to risk losing the income .
According to the RDO, people treated differently because of language barriers are not classified as being discriminated. In terms of public services, although the public hospitals provide services in English or Chinese to non-local patients, Nepalese sometimes find difficulties to communicate with their doctors, even when they perceive a different treatment from the locals. In fact, translation is necessary, particularly in medical services and education. Therefore, there are limitations of the RDO in protecting the rights of Nepalese and other ethnic minorities.
- ^ Sautman, Barry. (2006) Hong Kong as a semi-ethnocracy: “Race”, migration and citizenship in a globalised region, ‘Remaking Citizenship in Hong Kong’, London: Routledge, p.122
- ^ Simpson, Aislinn:Gurkhas win High Court battle to stay in UK. (2008). Retrieved April 10, 2010,from, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/politics/defence/3110530/Gurkhas-win-High-Court-battle-to-stay-in-the-UK.html
- ^ The ‘home return permits’ is also called hui xiang zheng, it allows visa-free entry to Mainland. Sautman, Barry. (2006) Hong Kong as a semi-ethnocracy: “Race”, migration and citizenship in a globalised region, ‘Remaking Citizenship in Hong Kong’, London: Routledge, p.125
- ^ Hong Kong Gurkha (Nepal) associations, http://www.gurkha.com.hk/index.html;The Gurkha International Group was founded in 1994 by members of the British Army's Brigade of Gurkhas to provide reputable employment for Nepalese men and women worldwide. This organization aims to provide efficient and reliable Nepalese recruiting and security services to employers worldwide and to establish Nepal as a source of trained seafarers for the international maritime industry.
- ^ Census and Statistics Department, Thematic Report- Ethnic Minorities. (2001) p.58
- ^ Census and Statistics Department, Thematic Report- Ethnic Minorities. (2001) p.58
- ^ Education Bureau, Education For Non-Chinese Speaking Children (n.d.) Retrieved April 9, 2010, from. http://www.edb.gov.hk/FileManager/EN/Content_4405/information%20notes-%20ncs_8%20oct%202009%20(for%20uploading).pdf
- ^ Loper, Kelly. (2004) Race and Equality: A study of Ethnic Minorities in Hong Kong’s Education System, Centre for Comparartive and Public law and Unison Hong Kong-for ethnic Equality, p.3
- ^ Lao, Christy Ying.& Krashen, Stephen. (1999)Implementation of Mother-Tongue Teaching in Hong Kong Secondary Schools, Some Recent Reports, Discover, Oct, available at: http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/ncbepubs/discover/05hongkong.htm.
- ^ 「少數族裔不懂中文搵工難 」，《星島日報》，2009年8月12日。
- ^ McInerney, Dennis M. (2010) The Role of Sociocultural Factors in Shaping Student Engagement in Hong Kong: An ethnic minority perspective, Hong Kong: The Hong Kong Institute of Education
- ^ 少數族裔關注組， 「對少數族裔兒童教育情況的意見及建議」，2006年1月。
- ^ Education and Manpower Bureau, Education and Support Service for non-Chinese speaking children(2006) Retrieved April 9, 2010, from http://www.edb.gov.hk/FileManager/EN/Content_4782/ncsc%20leaflet%20-%20(english)16_6_06.pdf
- ^ 「少數族裔不懂中文搵工難 」，《星島日報》，2009年8月12日。
- ^ Officer describes fatal shooting of Nepali,China Daily (Hong Kong). September 15, 2009
- ^ 「警員何文田開槍案擊斃巴籍漢 」，蘋果動新聞，2009年3月18日 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DlErqSFnn7s&feature=player_embedded
- ^ 「探射燈：康文署公園變露天賭場」，《東方日報》，2010年1月25日
- ^ Loper ,Kelley. (2001) Cultivating a Multicultural Society and Combating Racial Discrimination in Hong Kong
- ^ 「膚色異 態度異 少數即弱勢」，《經濟日報》，2009年8月25日
- ^ Equal Opportunities Commission, Race Discrimination Ordinance and I (n.d.) Retrieved April 11, 2010,from, http://www.eoc.org.hk/EOC/GraphicsFolder/showcontent.aspx?content=Race%20Discrimination%20Ordinance%20and%20I
- ^ Race Discrimination Ordinance, The Government of The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Gazette, Retrieved March 26, 2010,from, http://www.gld.gov.hk/cgi-bin/gld/egazette/gazettefiles.cgi?lang=e&year=2008&month=7&day=18&vol=12&no=29&gn=29&header=1&part=1&df=1&nt=s1&newfile=1&acurrentpage=12&agree=1&gaz_type=ls1
- ^ 「種族歧視立法諮詢 論者稱豁免條款寬鬆」，本地教會，3168期，http://kkp.catholic.org.hk/lo/lo3168.htm
- ^ 龍緯汶︰「香港少數族裔舉行勞工講座」，2009年4月6日 http://hk.myblog.yahoo.com/lwmlung/article?mid=1322
- ^ 葉蔭聰︰「我今天與尼泊爾朋友一起上街」，2006年4月23日http://www.inmediahk.net/node/107259
- ^ 2,000 march over fatal police shooting. South China Morning Post March 30, 2009
- ^ 余鳳明︰「警員學非華裔習俗減誤會」，《星島日報》，2010年2月22日
- ^ 余鳳明︰「警員學非華裔習俗減誤會」，《星島日報》，2010年2月22日
- ^ Frost ,Stephen .Building Hong Kong: Nepalese Labour in Construction Sector, Journal of Contemporary Asia;2004; Academic Research Library, p,373
- ^ 「尼人被歧視薪低工時長」，《頭條日報》，2009 年10月12日
- ^ 李靜敏︰「南亞移民工人的默默承受 」，《公教報》，2010年3月7日
Books and journals
- Census and Statistics Department, Thematic Report- Ethnic Minorities. (2001)
- Frost ,Stephen .Building Hong Kong: Nepalese Labour in Construction Sector, Journal of Contemporary Asia;2004; Academic Research Library
- Lao, Christy Ying.& Krashen, Stephen. (1999)Implementation of Mother-Tongue Teaching in Hong Kong Secondary Schools, Some Recent Reports, Discover, Oct
- Loper ,Kelley. (2001)Cultivating a Multicultural Society and Combating Racial Discrimination in Hong Kong
- Loper, Kelly. (2004) Race and Equality: A study of Ethnic Minorities in Hong Kong’s Education System, Centre for Comparartive and Public law and Unison Hong Kong-for ethnic Equality
- McInerney, Dennis M. (2010) The Role of Sociocultural Factors in Shaping Student Engagement in Hong Kong: An ethnic minority perspective, Hong Kong: The Hong Kong Institute of Education
- Sautman, Barry. (2006) Hong Kong as a semi-ethnocracy: “Race”, migration and citizenship in a globalised region, ‘Remaking Citizenship in Hong Kong’, London: Routledge, p. 122
- 少數族裔關注組， 「對少數族裔兒童教育情況的意見及建議」，2006年1月。
- Civil Service Bureau, Common Recruitment Examination and Basic Law Test (n.d.)
- Retrieved April 9, 2010, from http://www.csb.gov.hk/english/recruit/cre/949.html
- Education Bureau, Education For Non-Chinese Speaking Children (n.d.) Retrieved April 9, 2010, from. http://www.edb.gov.hk/FileManager/EN/Content_4405/information%20notes-%20ncs_8%20oct%202009%20(for%20uploading).pdf
- Education and Manpower Bureau, Education and Support Service for non-Chinese speaking children(2006) Retrieved April 9, 2010, from http://www.edb.gov.hk/FileManager/EN/Content_4782/ncsc%20leaflet%20-%20(english)16_6_06.pdf
- Equal Opportunities Commission, Race Discrimination Ordinance and I (n.d.) Retrieved April 11, 2010,from, http://www.eoc.org.hk/EOC/GraphicsFolder/showcontent.aspx?content=Race%20Discrimination%20Ordinance%20and%20I
- Hong Kong Gurkha (Nepal) associations (2007) Retrieved April 9, 2010 http://www.gurkha.com.hk/index.html
- Hong Kong Police Force, Entry Requirements (n.d.) Retrieved April 9, 2010, from http://www.police.gov.hk/ppp_en/15_recruit/er.html
- Race Discrimination Ordinace, The Government of The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Gazette, Retrieved March 26, 2010, from, http://www.gld.gov.hk/cgi-bin/gld/egazette/gazettefiles.cgi?lang=e&year=2008&month=7&day=18&vol=12&no=29&gn=29&header=1&part=1&df=1&nt=s1&newfile=1&acurrentpage=12&agree=1&gaz_type=ls1
- Simpson, Aislinn:Gurkhas win High Court battle to stay in UK. (2008). Retrieved April 10, 2010, from, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/politics/defence/3110530/Gurkhas-win-High-Court-battle-to-stay-in-the-UK.html
- 「種族歧視立法諮詢 論者稱豁免條款寬鬆」，本地教會，3168期，http://kkp.catholic.org.hk/lo/lo3168.htm
- 2,000 march over fatal police shooting. South China Morning Post March 30, 2009
- Officer describes fatal shooting of Nepali,China Daily (Hong Kong). September 15, 2009
- 「少數族裔不懂中文搵工難 」，《星島日報》，2009年8月12日
- 「膚色異 態度異 少數即弱勢」，《經濟日報》，2009年8月25日
- 「警員何文田開槍案擊斃巴籍漢 」，蘋果動新聞，2009年3月18日 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DlErqSFnn7s&feature=player_embedded
- 「尼人被歧視薪低工時長」，《頭條日報》，2009 年10月12日
- 李靜敏︰「南亞移民工人的默默承受 」，《公教報 》，2010年3月7日
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