- Kingdom of Spain (Napoleonic)
Kingdom of Spain
Reino de España
Client state of the French Empire ← 1808–1813 → Flag Royal Coat of arms Motto
Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish, Catalan, French Religion Roman Catholic Government Constitutional Monarchy King - 1808–1813 Joseph I First Secretary of State - 1808–1813 Mariano Luis de Urquijo - 1813 Juan O'Donoju O'Ryan - 1813 Fernando de Laserna Legislature Cortes Generales Historical era Napoleonic Wars - Established 06 June 1808 - Constitution created 19 March 1812 - Battle of Vitoria 21 June 1813 - Joseph I abdicates 11 December 1813 Currency Real
The Kingdom of Spain (Spanish: Reino de España; French: Royaume d’Espagne) was a short-lived client state of the First French Empire that briefly existed during the Peninsular War, a contest between France and the allied powers of Spain, the United Kingdom, and Portugal for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars. Catalonia was segregated from this Kingdom and became part of the French Empire proper. Occupation by the French was a national humiliation for the Spanish, precipitating Spanish American wars of independence, and resulted in further turbulence for Spain in subsequent decades of the 19th century.
The French occupation
Murat established a plan of conquest into two great armies pockets of resistance against Ferdinand and said the route between Madrid and Vitoria, Zaragoza, Girona and Valencia were besieged and took the army sent to Andalusia Cordoba and ransacked. When they returned to Madrid came out to the army of General Castanos which they inflicted defeat in Bailen on July 22. The French had to lift the sieges and King Joseph left the capital to take refuge in Vitoria. This victory encouraged the resistance against the French in several countries and in the fall of 1808, the Emperor entered and looted Burgos in Spain, defeated the armies and entered Madrid on December 2, so that Joseph I return to the capital. Meanwhile, entered Spain from Portugal a British army was forced to retreat to Galicia. In early 1810, the imperial offensive reached the vicinity of Lisbon, but was arrested in the fortified line behind which were the British, Portuguese and Spanish.
The two Spains
The reign of Joseph Bonaparte
Was considered as a period of plunder of national assets serving only the interests of France. The State Josephine had its legal basis in the Constitution of Bayonne . The Constitution established a Courts or General Assemblies, an advisory body composed of the Senate. formed by the male members of the royal family and 24 members appointed by the king among the nobles and the clergy, and a legislative assembly , with representatives character estates of the nobility, the clergy. The Constitution established an authoritarian regime that included some projects illustrated, as the abolition of torture, but maintained the Inquisition.
During his stay in Vitoria had taken important steps to organize the state institutions, created a Council of State advisory. The king appointed a government, leading personalities whose ministries put the old group illustrated and adopted a reform program well underway for the reality of the country. The Inquisition was abolished, as the Council of Castile , accused of anti-French policy. He decreed the demise of feudal rights, the reduction of religious communities and the abolition of internal customs.
Introduced measures to liberalize trade and agriculture and established a stock exchange in Madrid. The State Council undertook the division of land in 38 provinces each with a hearing, a university and a church diocese. The creation of the Ministry of Justice and contentious boards were an attempt to modernize the judicial system and universal. Attempts to reform the tax crashed against the impossibility of raising regular taxes. Finally, the imperial defeats on the peninsula forced the king to leave Madrid on two occasions. In June 1813, Joseph I finally left Spain, ending the failed stage of enlightened government. Most Francophiles, fled to France after the war and their property confiscated (formed early migration policy).
Courts of Cadiz
In 1810 , the Central Board had to move from Seville to Cadiz to escape the French advance. Its members disbanded and transferred its powers to a Council of Regency. The five regents convened the meeting of the Cortes in Cadiz. Cortes were planned estates represented, but neither in the metropolis, or in the American colonies, could run the electoral mechanisms, so that the assembly lost its estates in favor of territorial representation.
The Constitution of Cádiz
Courts opened their sessions in September 1810 in the Isle of Leon . The comprised 97 deputies (223 in 1813 would be Madrid ) 47 were alternates from Cadiz residents, approved a decree expressing represent the Spanish nation and declared legally constituted in general and special courts in which lay the national sovereignty. They swore as king Fernando VII's abdication canceling Bayonne, assumed the exclusive legislative competence and the executive entrusted to the regency, reporting this to the courts. The Extraordinary subordinated the executive and legislature, establishing the first parliamentarian from the separation of powers. Before drafting the Constitution, the Parliament approved the decree of freedom of the press, the political camps opened the possibility to present their positions on the issue of the constitution and to influence public opinion. The project on the basis of which the Constitution was entrusted to a parliamentary committee, written by one of its members and promulgated on March 19. It consisted of 384 articles, 10 titles and proclaimed the sovereignty of the Spanish nation, uniting individuals, fair and beneficial citizens and official Catholic state. It established a parliamentary monarchy with a unicameral Parliament, sat the separation of powers, marked preponderance of the legislature over the executive and will ensure the independence of the courts. The Constitution estates ended with the order and the absolute monarchy. It was the key instrument for the construction of a state to reflect the new reality emerging from the long contest.
The legislative development
Following the adoption of the Constitution, the courts continued their extraordinary sessions until September 1813, the return of Ferdinand, became the ordinary courts. The Legislature a series of social and economic reforms, - manors Act, abolished the legal relationship which existed in the feudal regime and legally incorporated jurisdictional domains, if maintained as private property. The courts validated the ecclesiastical confiscation of Joseph I and abolished the Inquisition. - In the economic field by declaring freedom of cultivation, sale and transportation of agricultural products, or authorization to fence their farms. The deputies removed the Council of Mesta. Industry was legislated with the freedom to create businesses and hire workers (unions disappear). La Hacienda Cortes was not successful but noted for future action lines of liberalism, replacement of indirect taxes or direct taxes, abolition of customs and taxes as domestic trade. The landless peasants and the industrial proletariat suffered the negative consequences of the liberalization process.
The Allied victory
As the French were controlling the area came another form of resistance, the guerrilla group, a very effective tactic of war, which had a considerable desgate in the French army and held the moral of the population in the occupied regions. Buoyed by a large majority of the clergy, became cross-resistance in a religious and patriotic which helped to consolidate Spanish nationalism linked to a unitary ideal state and cultural community. The start of the campaign in Russia and Wellington won the French evacuate much of Andalusia and Castilla la Vieja, Madrid lost but regained it at the end of the year. In March 1813, the king left the capital, threatened by the Spanish-British army, the Allied offensive was intensified and culminated in the Battle of Vitoria , which marked the beginning of the end of French occupation.
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