- Popular front
A popular front is a broad
coalitionof different political groupings, often made up of leftists and centrists who are united by opposition to another group (most often fascist or far-right groups). Being very broad, they can sometimes include centrist and liberal (or " bourgeois") forces as well as socialist and communist ("working-class") groups. Popular fronts are larger in scope than united fronts, which contain only working-class groups.
In addition to the general definition, the term "popular front" also has a specific meaning in the history of
Europeand the United Statesduring the 1930s, and in the history of Communismand the Communist Party. The term "national front", similar in name but describing a different form of ruling, using ostensibly non-Communist parties which were in fact controlled by and subservient to the Communist party as part of a "coalition", was used in Central and Eastern Europeduring the Cold War.
It should be noted that not all coalitions who use the term "popular front" necessarily meet the accepted definition for "popular fronts", and not all popular fronts necessarily use the term "popular front" in their name. The same applies to "united fronts".
The Comintern's Popular Front policy 1934–1939
In response to the growing threat of
fascismin the 1930s, Communist parties that were members of the Comintern(then largely under the control of Joseph Stalin) adopted a policy of forming broad alliances with almost any political party willing to oppose the fascists. These were called "popular fronts". Some popular fronts won elections and formed governments, as in France(" Front Populaire"), the Second Spanish Republic, and Chile. Others never quite got off the ground. There were attempts in the United Kingdomto found a Popular Front against the National Government's appeasement of Nazi Germany, between the Labour Party, the Liberal Party, the Independent Labour Party, the Communist Party, and even rebellious elements of the Conservative Party under Winston Churchill, but they failed mainly due to opposition from within the Labour Party but incompatibility of Liberal and socialist approaches also caused many Liberals to be hostile [http://www.liberalhistory.org.uk/uploads/28_joyce_the_liberal_party_and_the_popular_front.pdfPeter Joyce, The Liberal Party and the Popular Front: an assessment of the arguments over progressive unity in the 1930s: Journal of Liberal History, Issue 28, Autumn 2000] .
The Popular Front policy of the Comintern was introduced in 1934, succeeding its
ultra-left" Third Period" during which it condemned non-Communist socialist parties as " social fascist". The new policy was signalled in a " Pravda" article of May 1934, which commented favourably on socialist-Communist collaboration. [ [http://libcom.org/library/1914-1946-third-camp-internationalists-france-during-world-war-ii 1914-1946: Third Camp Internationalists in France during World War II, libcom.org] ] In June 1934, Leon Blum's Socialist Party signed a pact of united action with the French Communist Party, extended to the Radical Party in October. In May 1935, France and Russia signed a defensive alliance and in August 1935, the Comintern's Seventh Congress officially endorsed the Popular Front strategy. [ [http://www.marxists.org/history/international/comintern/7th-congress/index.htm The Seventh Congress, Marxist Inernet Alliance] ] In the elections of May 1936, the Popular Front won a majority of parliamentary seats (378 deputies against 220), and Leon Blum formed a government. [ [http://libcom.org/library/1914-1946-third-camp-internationalists-france-during-world-war-ii 1914-1946: Third Camp Internationalists in France during World War II, libcom.org] ]
In Italy, the Comintern advised an alliance between the
Italian Communist Partyand the Italian Socialist Party, but this was rejected by the Socialists. Similarly, in the United States, the CPUSA sought a joint Socialist-Communist ticket with Norman Thomas's Socialist Party of Americain the 1936 presidential election but the Socialists rejected this overture. The CPUSA also offered critical support to Franklin Roosevelt's New Dealin this period. The Popular Front period in the USA saw the CP taking a very patriotic and populist line, later called Browderism. According to some historians, Joseph Stalinused the concept of the Popular Front to solidify control of the Communist Party of the United States(CPUSA) and to suppress criticism from those in the radical left after the Moscow show trials and subsequent series of executions and assassinations. [Lamont, Corliss et al., "An Open Letter to American Liberals, Soviet Russia Today (March 1937)]
The Popular Front period came to an end with the
Molotov-Ribbentrop pactbetween Nazi Germany and Russia, at which point Comintern parties turned from a policy of anti-fascismto one of advocating peace.
Critics and defenders of the Popular Front policy
Leon Trotskyand his supporters roundly criticised the Popular Front strategy. In the first place, Stalin had used the Popular Front as a tool to oppose Trotsky and other dissidents outside Stalin's immediate control. [Lamont, Corliss et al., "An Open Letter to American Liberals, Soviet Russia Today (March 1937)] Additionally, Trotksy believed that only united fronts could ultimately be progressive, and that popular fronts were useless because they included non-working class bourgeois forces such as liberals. Trotsky also argued that in popular fronts, working class demands are reduced to their bare minimum, and the ability of the working class to put forward its own independent set of politics is compromised. This view is now common to most Trotskyistgroups. Left communist groups also oppose popular fronts, but they came to oppose united fronts as well.
In a book written in 1977, the
Eurocommunistleader Santiago Carrillooffered a positive assessment of the Popular Front. He argued that in Spain, despite excesses attributable to the passions of civil war, the period of coalition government in Republican areas 'contained in embryo the conception of an advance to socialism with democracy, with a multi-party system, parliament, and liberty for the opposition'. [Santiago Carrillo, Eurocommunism and the State, Lawrence and Wishart, 1977, ISBN 0-85315-408-2 page 128] Carrillo however criticised the Communist International for not taking the Popular Front strategy far enough - specifically for the fact that the French Communists were restricted to supporting Leon Blum's government from without, rather than becoming full coalition partners. [Santiago Carrillo, Eurocommunism and the State, Lawrence and Wishart, 1977, ISBN 0-85315-408-2 page 113-114]
Popular Fronts governments in the Soviet Bloc
World War II, most Central and Eastern European countries became "de facto" one-party states, but in theory they were ruled by coalitions between several different political parties who voluntarily chose to work together. For example, East Germanywas ruled by a "National Front" of all anti-fascist parties and movements within parliament ( Socialist Unity Party of Germany, Liberal Party, Farmers' Party, Youth Movement, Trade Union Federation, etc). The People's Republic of China's United Front is a current (as of 2007) surviving system.
In Soviet republics
Republics of the Soviet Union, between around 1988 and 1992 (by which time the USSR had dissolved and all were independent), the term "Popular Front" had quite a different meaning. It referred to movements led by members of the liberal intelligentsia, in some republics small and peripheral, in others broad-based and influential. Officially their aim was to defend " perestroika" against reactionary elements within the state bureaucracy, but over time they began to question the legitimacy of their republics' membership of the USSR. It was their initially cautious tone that gave them considerable freedom to organise and gain access to the mass media. In the Baltic republics, they soon became the dominant political force and gradually gained the initiative from the more radical dissident organisations established earlier, moving their republics towards greater autonomy and later independence. They also became the main challengers to Communist Party hegemony in Moldova, Ukraine, Armenia and Azerbaijan. A Popular Front was established in Georgia but remained marginal compared to the dominant dissident-led groups, because the April 9 tragedyhad radicalised society and it was unable to play the compromise role of similar movements. In the other republics, such organisations existed but never posed a meaningful threat to the incumbent Party and economic elites. [Wheatley, Jonathan. "Georgia from National Awakening to Rose Revolution", p. 31,45. Ashgate Publishing, 2005, ISBN 0754645037.]
[Tsygankov, Andrei P.. "Russia's Foreign Policy: Change and Continuity in National Identity", p. 46. Rowman & Littlefield, 2006, ISBN 074252650X.]
Examples of Popular Fronts
Popular fronts in Communist countries
Czechoslovakia- the National Front led by the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia
East Germany- the National Front led by the Socialist Unity Party of Germany
North Korea- the Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherlandled by the Workers' Party of Korea
People's Republic of China- the United Front led by the Communist Party of China
Poland- the Democratic Bloc led by the Polish United Workers' Party
Vietnam- the Fatherland Front led by the Communist Party of Vietnam
Popular fronts in non-Communist countries
Popular Front (France)
Popular Front (Senegal)
Popular Front (Spain)
Popular Front (Mauritania)
Belarusian People's Front
Azerbaijan Popular Front Party
Popular Front (Chile)
Popular Unity (Chile)
Popular Front for the Liberation of Oman
Popular Front for the Liberation of Bahrain
Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine
Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine - General Command
Popular Front of India
Frente Popular (Philippines)
Popular Democratic Front(Italy, 1948)
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Popular Front — (dt. Volksfront ) war eine linke soziale Bewegung in den USA. Sie wurde von der Kommunistischen Partei der USA, dem radikalen Industriearbeitergewerkschaftsbund CIO, aber vor allem von unabhängigen Antifaschisten, Sozialisten und Sympathisanten… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Popular Front — (Front populaire) The Popular Front (Front populaire) was the name given, by analogy to the Spanish Frente popular, to the coalition of leftist parties that came to power in France in June 1936. See also auriol, Vincent; blum, léon,… … France. A reference guide from Renaissance to the Present
popular front — n. [often P F ] a coalition of leftist and liberal groups and political parties, as in France (1936 39) to combat fascism … English World dictionary
popular front — 1. a coalition, usually temporary, of leftist and sometimes centrist political parties, formed against a common opponent, as fascism, and promoting social reform. 2. any similar political coalition formed to achieve short term goals. Also called… … Universalium
popular front — pop′ular front′ n. gov a coalition, usu. temporary, of leftist and sometimes centrist political parties, formed against a common opponent, as fascism • Etymology: 1935–40; cf. Sp. frente popular, F front populaire … From formal English to slang
popular front — noun Usage: often capitalized P&F Date: 1936 a coalition especially of leftist political parties against a common opponent; specifically one sponsored and dominated by Communists as a device for gaining power … New Collegiate Dictionary
popular front — pact between the communist party and the rest of the left and central parties against the right political parties … English contemporary dictionary
popular front — noun a political party or coalition representing left wing elements … English new terms dictionary
popular front — /pɒpjələ ˈfrʌnt/ (say popyuhluh frunt) noun an alliance of left wing or progressive political parties, often formed against a common opponent, as against fascism … Australian English dictionary
popular front — noun a leftist coalition organized against a common opponent • Hypernyms: ↑alliance, ↑coalition, ↑alignment, ↑alinement … Useful english dictionary