Far right


Far right

Far right, extreme right, ultra-right, or radical right are terms used to discuss the qualitative or quantitative position a group or person occupies within a political spectrum. The terms "far right" and "far left" are often used to imply that someone is an extremist. The terms are used by many political commentators to discuss political groups, movements, and political parties that are difficult to classify within conventional right-wing politics. [Betz & Immerfall 1998; Betz 1994; Durham 2000; Durham 2002; Hainsworth 2000; Mudde 2000] The term "far right" has been used by different scholars in conflicting ways: [Betz & Immerfall 1998; Betz 1994; Durham 2000; Durham 2002; Hainsworth 2000; Mudde 2000; Berlet & Lyons, 2000.]

#Reform-oriented right-wing movements, such as classical liberalism or libertarianism. [Ideologies of Globalization By Mark Rupert]
#Most argue Nazism and fascism are "far right". Some scholars categorize fascism as a Third Way movement. [cite book |last=Bastow|first=Steve |title=Third Way Discourse: European Ideologies in the Twentieth Century|publisher=Edinburgh University Press |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=0J9DpxWxi14C&pg=PA93&dq=%22third+way%22+fascism&sig=ACfU3U21wyLLZwse3dYoyA7aXJoN9cYUsw |isbn=074861561X] cite book |last=Macdonald |first=Hamish |title=Mussolini and Italian Fascism |publisher=Nelson Thornes |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=221W9vKkWrcC&pg=PT16&dq=Gabriele+d%27Annunzio+paris+peace&sig=ACfU3U1BTr2IQkCU7gfZKyLAg2TRbp6a8g |isbn=0748733868] [cite book |last=Woolley |first=Donald Patrick |title=The Third Way: Fascism as a Method of Maintaining Power in Italy and Spain |publisher=University of North Carolina at Greensboro |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=SjOyGwAACAAJ&dq=%22third+way%22+fascism] [cite book |last=Heywood |first=Andrew |title=Key Concepts in Politics |publisher=Palgrave |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=221W9vKkWrcC&pg=PT16&dq=Gabriele+d%27Annunzio+paris+peace&sig=ACfU3U1BTr2IQkCU7gfZKyLAg2TRbp6a8g |isbn=0312233817] [cite book |last=Renton |first=Dave |title=Fascism: Theory and Practice|publisher=Pluto Press |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=Ojtn0IT6LpgC&pg=PA28&dq=%22third+way%22+fascism&lr=&sig=ACfU3U29w491Co0j3H4s72KUCvx_36hSIQ |isbn=0745314708] [cite book |last=Kallis |first=Aristotle A |title=The Fascism Reader |publisher=Routledge |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=tP2wXl5nzboC&pg=PA33&dq=%22third+way%22+fascism+eatwell&lr=&sig=ACfU3U049ZN8MGgXE7O87P1E2rKYDdUGnQ |isbn=0415243599] cite book |last=Griffin |first=Roger |title=The Nature of Fascism |publisher=Palgrave Macmillan |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=fcn5ZtaPc7oC&dq=%22third+way%22+fascism+eatwell&lr= |isbn=0312071329] [cite book |last=Parla |first=Taha |title=The Social and Political Thought of Ziya Gökalp, 1876-1924 |publisher=Brill |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=63weAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA113&dq=%22third+way%22+fascism&lr=&sig=ACfU3U22B0TsrgAkF0dKzH-tGewY7I5n2g |isbn=9004072292] [cite book |last=Durham |first=Martin |title=Women and Fascism |publisher=Routledge |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=yA1Y5znKY1sC&pg=PA4&dq=%22third+way%22+fascism+eatwell&lr=&sig=ACfU3U00G6DB4k2NLWe5EMGpvsNKqyq5tA |isbn=0415122805]

Usage

The term "far right" is usually rejected by right-wing political parties that consider themselves mainstream. Far right supporters are often strong advocates for forcibly intervening in society in order to protect or promote values that are viewed as traditional. This is in contrast to supporters of left-wing politics, who advocate intervention in favor of egalitarianism, and give little or no authority to tradition. Both stand in contrast also to less interventionist positions such as mainstream conservatism and liberalism, anarchism and libertarianism.

The political terms "left" and "right" arose during the French Revolution, and the original meaning of "far right" was the "throne-and-altar" reactionaries such as Joseph de Maistre and Louis de Bonald. They rejected democracy, liberalism and individualism, and were in favour of an authoritarian monarchical government. They further advocated the submission of the individual to the "natural associations" (families, regions, professions, nations, etc.). For them, humans should obey their superiors (the father in the family, the king in the state, the Pope in the Church) on earth because their authority is the mirror of the authority of God in the universe.

The original French meaning of "far right" is specific to a Roman Catholic nation, and more specifically to a Gallican society in which church and state were closely tied to one another. In this context, the term can be expanded to include the kind of Caesaropapism that occasionally existed in some Eastern Orthodox kingdoms. This specific interpretation of the term "far right" especially lost favor in the decades following the Revolutions of 1848, as a return to the Ancien Régime became increasingly implausible. By the reign of Pope Pius XI, this interpretation of "far right" had essentially become anachronistic even in conservative Catholic circles. The last regimes that were far-right in this sense were arguably those of General Francisco Franco in Spain (1939-1975) and Salazar's Estado Novo in Portugal (1933-1974). [ [http://countrystudies.us/spain/22.htm Spain - The Franco Years ] ]

In the 2000s, the term "far right" is usually applied to those who support authoritarianism and policies that are considered "right" rather than "left". In regions and nations that have no recent history of monarchy, such as Central America (discounting the Pre-Columbian era), Switzerland, and the United States, far-right politics is rarely monarchist, and usually advocates harsher law enforcement, particularly against disfavored groups, and sometimes fascist or military dictatorship.

The term "far right" also embraces extreme nationalism, and sometimes evokes a "pure" ideal of the nation, often defined by race. They may advocate the expansion or restructuring of existing state borders to achieve an ideal nation, often to the point of embracing war and imperialism. In English-speaking nations, this nationalism is often descended from militant aspects of British New Imperialism. Radical right-wing populism is a far right ideology that accepts representative democracy, but criticizes supposed political elites and appeals to ethno-nationalism. Fascism is generally, but not universally, classified as a far-right ideology. However, there are many other competing interpretations of the left-right spectrum.

Ideologies and movements such as Strasserism, National Bolshevism, Third Position, National-Anarchism — and the ideologies of Juan Peron in Argentina, Gamal Abdel Nasser in Egypt, and the Baath in Syria and Iraq — are sometimes regarded as far right, but they transcend standard political boundaries. On one hand, these movements are anti-communist, but they often recruit among the lower and middle-classes, and when in power, have often nationalized industries and property, especially that owned by foreigners or by members of ethnicities not defined by them as part of their nation.

Environmentalism, calls for full employment and other concerns common on the left are sometimes found in the far right. Populism, social unrest, Autarky, violence, and revolution can be found in both the far right and far left.

The term "far right" has sometimes been used to describe certain "free market dictatorships", such as that of Augusto Pinochet in Chile. [cite web|url=http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=6069233|title=A Dictator's Legacy of Economic Growth|date=2006-09-14|accessdate=2007-10-15] [ [http://www.salon.com/opinion/greenwald/2007/05/04/politico_funding/ Who funds and runs the Politico? - Glenn Greenwald - Salon.com ] ] While the term is occasionally applied to supporters of laissez-faire capitalism, calling right-wing libertarians "far right" is a matter of controversy. Capitalist libertarians consider themselves proponents of Classical liberalism, which was the main adversary of the original far right. In his essays "Left and Right: the Prospects for Liberty" and "Confessions of a Right-Wing Liberal", Murray Rothbard even put libertarianism on the left, claiming that conservatives are the right and socialists merely "middle-of-the road". [ [http://www.mises.org/fullstory.aspx?control=910 "Left and Right: the Prospects for Liberty", Murray Rothbard] ] . [ [http://www.lewrockwell.com/rothbard/rothbard77.html "Confessions of a Right-Wing Liberal", Murray Rothbard] ]

Parties and movements alleged to be far right or extreme right

Europe

*European Union
**Euronat
**Identity, Tradition, Sovereignty cite news
last =Mahony
first =Honor
title =Far-right group formed in European Parliament
publisher =EUobserver
date =2007-01-09
url =http://euobserver.com/9/23223
accessdate =2007-01-10
] cite news
first=Ian
last=Traynor
title =Romania's first gift to the European Union - a caucus of neo-fascists and Holocaust deniers
publisher =The Guardian
date =2007-01-08
url =http://www.guardian.co.uk/eu/story/0,,1984947,00.html?gusrc=rss&feed=1
accessdate =2007-01-10
] cite news
title =Rechtsaußenfraktion im EU-Parliament kommt
publisher =Der Standard
date =2007-01-05
url =http://derstandard.at/?url=/?id=2709523
accessdate =2007-01-10
de icon]
*Austria
** Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs (FPÖ) – Freedom Party of Austriacitation
last=Ignazi|first=Piero
contribution=The Extreme Right in Europe
title=The Revival of Right-Wing Extremism in the Nineties
editor-last=Merkl|editor-first=Peter H.|editor2-last=Weinberg|editor2-first=Leonard
year=1997|place=London|publisher=Peter Cass
] cite book
last=Mudde|first=Cas|year=2000|title=The Ideology of the Extreme Right|location=Manchester, England|publisher=Manchester University Press
] [http://www.cnn.com/WORLD/europe/9910/03/austria.elections.03/index.html?eref=sitesearch Far-right party shows surprising strength in Austrian vote] , CNN, October 3, 1999.]
*Belgium
** Vlaams Blok
**Vlaams Belang
** Front National Belge (FNB) – Belgian National Front
*Bulgaria - National Union Attack cite news
last =Mahony
first =Honor
title =Far-right group formed in European Parliament
publisher =EUobserver
date =2007-01-09
url =http://euobserver.com/9/23223
accessdate =2007-01-10
]
*Croatia
** Croatian Pure Party of Rights (HČSP) [Cynthia M. Frank, [http://72.14.253.104/search?q=cache:CJKLOjQgrtgJ:etd.gsu.edu/theses/available/etd-11172005-153850/unrestricted/frank_cynthia_m_200512_ma.pdf+%22Croatian+Pure+Party+of+Rights%22+%22far+right%22+-wikipedia&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1&gl=us The Impact of Electoral Engineering on Nationalist Parties in Post-War States] , master's thesis (Georgia State University). Accessed 16 February 2007.]
** Croatian Liberation Movement (HOP) [ [http://www.jasenovac-info.com/cd/biblioteka/pavelicpapers/hop/index.html Jasenovac - Donja Gradina: Industry of Death 1941-45 ] ] [ [http://www.hidra.hr/stranke/programi/028368.htm Povijest i program ] ] [ [http://www.moreorless.au.com/killers/pavelic.html Ante Pavelic killer file ] ] [ [http://arcticbeacon.com/audio/2007/2007-LRN/07-2007-LRN/ July 2007 Investigative Journal LRN mp3 Archive ] ]
*Denmark - Fremskridtspartiet - Progress Party (Denmark) [ [http://edition.cnn.com/interactive/specials/0009/denmark.keyplayers/kjarsgaard.html CNN article on Pia Kjærsgaard] - includes statement about the Progress Party being far right.]
*France – Front National (FN) – National Front
*Germany
** Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands (NPD) – National Democratic Party of Germany
** Die Republikaner – The Republicans (Germany)
** Freiheitliche Arbeiter Partei (FAP) - Free German Workers' Party
** Deutsche Heidnische Front – German Heathen's Front
** Deutsche Volksunion (DVU) - German People's Union [ [http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,2144,1323331,00.html German Far Right Exploiting Reform Anger | Current Affairs | Deutsche Welle | 10.09.2004 ] ] [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/4556233.stm BBC NEWS | Europe | German far right unites for polls ] ]
** Deutsche Liga für Volk und Heimat (DLVH) - German League for People and Homeland
*Greece
**Πατριωτική Συμμαχία (Patriotiki Symmakhia, in English: Patriotic Alliance) [http://www.europeannationalfront.org/?p=25 "ENF gathers in Athens"] from the European National Front website.]
**Chrysi Avyi
*Hungary
** Jobbik Magyarországért Mozgalom (Jobbik) - Movement for a Better Hungary
** Magyar Igazság és Élet Pártja (MIÉP) - Hungarian Justice and Life Party
*Italy - Movimento Sociale Italiano - Destra Nazionale (MSI) - Italian Social Movement-National Right.
*Latvia — National Power Union [ [http://www.fas.harvard.edu/~postcomm/papers/2006-07/Odwyer2007.pdf Return to (illiberal) diversity? - p. 9] ]
*Luxembourg - Nationalbewegung
*Netherlands
** Centrumdemocraten – Centre Democrats (defunct)
** Centrumpartij – Centre Party, later Centrumpartij’86, both defunct
*Norway
**Demokratene [ [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demokratene] ]
**Fremskrittspartiet [ [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Progress_Party_(Norway)] ]
*Portugal - Partido Nacional Renovador - National Renewal Party [ [http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~content=a780700480 Informaworld - Portugal: A New Look At The Extreme Right] ]
*Romania - Greater Romania Partycite news
first=Ian
last=Traynor
title =Romania's first gift to the European Union - a caucus of neo-fascists and Holocaust deniers
publisher =The Guardian
date =2007-01-08
url =http://www.guardian.co.uk/eu/story/0,,1984947,00.html?gusrc=rss&feed=1
accessdate =2007-01-10
]
*Serbia - Serbian Radical Party [ [http://www.virglob-sp.org/pages/04d_e_extreme_right.htm The Virtual and Global Social Democratic Party - Political Exchange World-wide: List of Extreme Right-wing & Left-wing Parties] ] [ [http://see.oneworld.net/article/view/94368/1/3260 Southeast Europe Portal - Serbia: Local Elections 2004 Results] ] [ [http://www.guardian.co.uk/serbia/article/0,,2075091,00.html Guardian: Extreme nationalist elected speaker of Serbian parliament] ] [ [http://www.boston.com/news/world/europe/articles/2007/05/08/milosevic_ally_gains_key_serbian_post/ Boston.com news article: Milosevic ally gains key Serbian post] ]
*Spain
** Falange
** Democracia Nacional (National Democracy)
*Sweden
** Nationaldemokraterna - National Democratscite web| url=http://hsf.bgu.ac.il/europe/index.aspx?pgid=pg_127842651505941456| publisher=The Centre for the Study of European Politics and Society| title=Radical Right-wing Populism in Sweden and Denmark| first=Jens| last=Rydgren| accessdate=2006-05-25]
** Nordiska rikspartiet - Nordic Reich Party
** Sverigedemokraterna - Sweden Democrats
*Switzerland - Schweizer Demokraten - Swiss Democrats (SD) [ [http://www.nzzonline.ch/nachrichten/schweiz/aktuell/schweizer_demokraten_aufloesung_1.573966.html?printview=true Schweizer Demokraten vor der Auflösung] , NZZ Online (2007), "facing dissolution".]
*United Kingdom
**British Movement
** National Front (NF)
** British National Party (BNP) [http://www.economist.com/research/backgrounders/displaystory.cfm?story_id=3070134 British National Party: Nasty, brutish and short-lived?] , "The Economist", August 5, 2004.]
**Combat 18

North America

*United States
** Alaskan Independence Party
** America First Party
** American Party
** American Heritage Party
** American Independent Party
** American Patriot Party [http://www.americanpatriotparty.cc]
** Constitution PartyDiamond, Sara. 1995. "Roads to Dominion: Right–Wing Movements and Political Power in the United States". New York: Guilford.]
** Independent American Party

outh America

*Argentina
** Partido Unidad Federalista
** Union of the Democratic Centre (Argentina)Fact|date=May 2008
** Democratic Party (Mendoza)

*Brazil - Party of the Reconstruction of the National Order

Asia

*India -
**Shiv Sena [cite web|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/low/world/south_asia/842293.stm|title=Police deny Shiv Sena arrest rumours] [cite web|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/low/world/south_asia/1979275.stm|title=Indian MPs elect far-right speaker]
**Bharatiya Janata Party
**Vishwa Hindu Parishad
**Bajarang Dal
*Israel
**Kach and Kahane Chai [cite web|title=Currently Listed Entities|publisher=Public Safety Canada|date=2006-11-06|url=http://www.ps-sp.gc.ca/prg/ns/le/cle-en.asp#kach26|accessdate=2007-08-13]
**Israel - Yisrael Beiteinu [cite web|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/6098310.stm| title= Far-right joins Israel coalition, BBC News| accessdate=2007-04-19|date=30|year=2006 |month=10]
*Lebanon
**Lebanese Forces
**Phalangist Party
**Guardians of the Cedars
*Pakistan - Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal [cite web|url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/03/16/AR2007031600608.html| title=Top Judge's Ouster Shakes Pakistan, Washington Post| accessdate=2007-04-19|date=27|year=2007 |month=3]
*Turkey
**Felicity Party
**Great Union Party
**Nationalist Action Party [cite web|title=Europe Coalition offer to Turkey's far right, BBC News|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/349857.stm|accessdate=2007-04-19|date=1999-05-21]
**Nationalist Movement Party (Gray Wolves)

Australia

*Australia First Party [http://www.theage.com.au/news/national/australia-first-reclaiming-the-agenda/2005/12/13/1134236064358.html Australia First: reclaiming the agenda] , "The Age", December 14, 2005.]
*Citizens Electoral Council [http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2004/08/23/1093246439313.html?oneclick=true Fascist Australia] , "The Age", August 24, 2004.] [http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,25197,22071629-30417,00.html Minority group in TV hijacking] , "The Australian", July 14, 2007.]
* One Nation

Notes

References

*Arzheimer, Kai and Elisabeth Carter (2006). [http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6765.2006.00304.x "Political Opportunity Structures and Right-Wing Extremist Party Success" "European Journal of Political Research" (45):419-443]
*Betz, Hans-Georg and Stefan Immerfall, eds. 1998. "The New Politics of the Right: Neo-Populist Parties and Movements in Established Democracies". New York: St. Martin's Press.
*Betz, Hans-Georg (1994). "Radical Right-wing Populism in Western Europe". New York: St. Martins Press.
*Durham, Martin (2000). "The Christian Right, the Far Right and the Boundaries of American Conservatism". Manchester, England: Manchester University Press.
*Durham, Martin (2002). "From Imperium to Internet: the National Alliance and the American Extreme Right" "Patterns of Prejudice" 36(3), (July): 50-61.
*Hainsworth, Paul (2000). "The Politics of the Extreme Right: From the Margins to the Mainstream". London: Pinter.
*Schoenbaum, David. "Hitler's Social Revolution: Class and Status in Nazi Germany,." ISBN
*cite journal
author = Formisano, Ronald P.
year = 2005
title = Interpreting Right-Wing or Reactionary Neo-Populism: A Critique
journal = Journal of Policy History
volume = 17
issue = 2
pages = 241–255
doi = 10.1353/jph.2005.0010

* Radical conservatism : the right's political religion / Robert Brent Toplin., 2006
* Radical conservatism and the future of politics / Göran Dahl., 1999
* Fascists and conservatives : the radical right and the establishment in twentieth-century Europe / Martin Blinkhorn., 1990
* The Routledge companion to fascism and the far right / Peter Davies., 2002
* The terrorist next door : the militia movement and the radical right / Daniel Levitas., 2002
* Right-wing populism in America : too close for comfort / Chip Berlet & Matthew N. Lyons, 2000
* The extreme right : freedom and security at risk / Aurel Braun., 1997
* The impact of radical right-wing parties in West European democracies / Michelle Hale Williams., 2006
* Right-wing extremism in the twenty-first century / Peter Merkl., 2003
* Extreme right parties in Western Europe / Piero Ignazi., 2003
* The United States and right-wing dictatorships, 1965-1989 / David Schmitz., 2006
* The emergence of a Euro-American radical right / Jeffrey Kaplan., 1998
* The politics of the extreme right : from the margins to the mainstream / Paul Hainsworth., 2000
* The revival of right-wing extremism in the nineties / Peter Merkl., 1997
* Shadows over Europe : the development and impact of the extreme right in Western Europe / Martin Schain., 2002
* Western democracies and the new extreme right challenge / Roger Eatwell., 2004
* The voice of modern hatred : encounters with Europe's new right / Nicholas Fraser., 2000
* Extreme right activists in Europe : through the magnifying glass / Bert Klandermans., 2006
* Preachers of hate : the rise of the far right / Angus Roxburgh., 2002
* Movements of exclusion : radical right-wing populism in the Western world / Jens Rydgren., 2005

ee also

*History of the French far right
* Left-Right politics
** Ultra leftism
** Far left
** Left-wing politics
** Right-wing politics
** Radical right-wing populism
* Extremism
** Anarchism
** Communism
** Fascism
** Nazism
* Ideology
* Glossary of the French Revolution
* Political spectrum
* moralism
* nationalism
* theocracy

External links

* [http://www.politik.uni-mainz.de/ereps/ Extreme Right Electorates and Party Success Research Group (EREPS)]
* [http://www.kai-arzheimer.com/Extreme-Right.html The Extreme Right Vote in Western Europe]


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