Clymeniida


Clymeniida
Clymeniida
Temporal range: Upper Devonian
Clymenia laevigata
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Cephalopoda
Subclass: Ammonoidea
Order: Clymeniida
Hyatt, 1884
Suborders
  • Clymeniina
  • Cyrtoclymeniina

The Clymeniida constitute a unique order of ammonoid cephalods from the Upper Devonian characterized by having an unusual dorsal siphuncle. They measured about 4 cm in diameter and are restricted to Europe, North Africa, and possibly Australia.

Contents

Morphologic characteristics

Clymeniids produced a variety of shells ranging from smooth to ribbed and spinose and from evolute with all whorls exposed to strongly involute with the last whorl covering the previous. Some were even triangular as viewed from the side (along the axis of coiling). With the exception of the first few chambers, all have a siphuncle that runs along the dorsal margin, along the inside of the coils, opposite that of most ammonoids.

The siphuncle starts off ventrally, like that in other ammonoids, but after the first few septa migrates to a definite and stable dorsal position. Septal necks are retrosiphonate, characteristic of their nautlloid ancestors, and are commonly very long, forming an almost continuous siphunclular tube. Septa, characteristic of ammonoids, are convex toward the front.

Classification

Miller, Furnish, and Schindewolf, 1957, in Part L of the Treatise [1] included three superfamilies in the Clymeniida, the Gonioclymeniaceae, Clymeniaceae, and Parawocklumeriaceae. The Gonoclymeniaceae unites five families, the Clymeniaceae three. The Parawocklumeraceae was established for a single family, the Parawocklumeriidae.

Saunders, Work, and Nikoleava, 1999,[2] divided the Clymeniida into two suborders, the Gonioclymeniina and the Clymeniina. The Gonioclymeniina includes the Sellaclymeniaceae with 7 families and 20 genera, the Gonioclyemniacea, containing a single family with six genera, and the Parawocklumeraceae, also containing a single family, but with only three genera. The Clymeniina combines five families with a total of 36 genera into a single superfamily, the Clymeniaceae.

GONIAT Website [3] gives two suborders which fall into the Clymeniida. They are the Clymeniina with four superfamilies and Gonioclymeniina , established for a single superfamily. In contrast, Dieter Korn, 2006 divided the Clymeniida in to the Clymeniina with superfamilies and families, and Cyrtoclymenia, named by him in 2002. with superfamilies and families.[4] Shevyrev, 2006 on the other hand diveded the Clymeniida into the Clymeniina and Gonioclymeniina, as with GONIAT and Saunders, Work, and Nikolaeva [5]

Taxonomy

Clymeniida

  • Suborder Clymeniina Hyatt, 1884
    • Superfamily Clymeniaceae Edwards, 1849
      • Family Clymeniidae Edwards, 1849
        • Genus Aktuboclymenia Bogoslovsky, 1979
        • Genus Clymenia Münster, 1834
      • Family Kosmoclymeniidae Korn and Price, 1987
          • Subfamily Kosmoclymeniinae Korn and Price, 1987
            • Genus Kosmoclymenia Schindewolf, 1949
            • Genus Linguaclymenia Korn and Price, 1987
            • Genus Lissoclymenia Korn and Price, 1987
            • Genus Muessenbiaergia Korn and Price, 1987
          • Subfamily Rodeckiinae Korn 2002
            • Genus Franconiclymenia Korn and Price, 1987
            • Genus Protoxyclymenia Schindewolf, 1923
            • Genus Rodeckia Korn, 2002
    • Superfamily Gonioclymeniaceae Hyatt, 1884
      • Family Costaclymeniidae Ruzhencev, 1957
        • Genus Costaclymenia Schindewolf, 1920
        • Genus Endosiphonites Ansted, 1838
      • Family Gonioclymeniidae Hyatt, 1884
        • Genus Finiclymenia Price and Korn 1989
        • Genus Gonioclymenia Sepkoski, Jr., 2002
        • Genus Kalloclymenia Wedekind, 1914
        • Genus Leviclymenia Korn, 2002
        • Genus Mesoclymenia Bogoslovsky, 1981
      • Family Sellaclymeniidae Schindewolf, 1923
        • Genus Sellaclymenia Sepkoski, Jr., 2002
      • Family Sphenoclymeniidae Korn, 1992
        • Genus Medioclymenia Korn, 2002
        • Genus Sphenoclymenia Schindewolf, 1920
    • Superfamily Platyclymeniaceae Wedekind, 1914
      • Family Glatziellidae Schindewolf, 1928
        • Genus Glatziella Renz, 1914
        • Genus Liroclymenia Czarnocki, 1989
        • Genus Postglatziella Schindewolf, 1937
        • Genus Soliclymenia Schindewolf, 1937
      • Family Piriclymeniidae Korn, 1992
        • Genus Ornatoclymenia Bogoslovsky, 1979
        • Genus Piriclymenia Schindewolf, 1937
        • Genus Sulcoclymenia Schindewolf, 1923
      • Family Platyclymeniidae Wedekind, 1914
          • Subfamily Nodosoclymeniinae Korn, 2002
            • Genus Czarnoclymenia Korn, 1999
            • Genus Nodosoclymenia Czarnocki, 1989
            • Genus Stenoclymenia Lange, 1929
          • Subfamily Platyclymeniinae Wedekind, 1914
            • Genus Fasciclymenia Korn and Price, 1987
            • Genus Platyclymenia Sepkoski, Jr., 2002
            • Genus Progonioclymenia Schindewolf, 1937
            • Genus Spinoclymenia Bogoslovsky, 1962
            • Genus Trigonoclymenia Schindewolf, 1934
            • Genus Varioclymenia Wedekind, 1908
          • Subfamily Pleuroclymeniinae Korn, 2002
            • Genus Borisiclymenia Korn, 2002
            • Genus Nanoclymenia Korn, 2002
            • Genus Pleuroclymenia Schindewolf, 1934
            • Genus Trochoclymenia Schindewolf, 1926
    • Superfamily Wocklumeriaceae Schindewolf, 1937
      • Family Parawocklumeriidae Schindewolf, 1937
        • Genus Kamptoclymenia Schindewolf, 1937
        • Genus Parawocklumeria Schindewolf, 1926
        • Genus Tardewocklumeria Becker, 2000
        • Genus Triaclymenia Schindewolf, 1937
      • Family Wocklumeriidae Schindewolf, 1937
        • Genus Epiwocklumeria Schindewolf, 1937
        • Genus Kielcensia Czarnocki, 1989
        • Genus Synwocklumeria Librovitch, 1957
        • Genus Wocklumeria Wedekind, 1918
  • Suborder Cyrtoclymeniina Korn, 2002
    • Superfamily Biloclymeniaceae Bogoslovsky, 1955
      • Family Biloclymeniidae Bogoslovsky, 1955
        • Genus Biloclymenia Schindewolf, 1923
        • Genus Dimeroclymenia Czarnocki, 1989
        • Genus Kiaclymenia Bogoslovsky, 1965
        • Genus Rhiphaeoclymenia Bogoslovsky, 1965
      • Family Pachyclymeniidae Korn, 1992
        • Genus Pachyclymenia Schindewolf, 1937
        • Genus Uraloclymenia Bogoslovsky, 1977
    • Superfamily Cyrtoclymeniaceae Hyatt, 1884
      • Family Carinoclymeniidae Bogoslovsky, 1975
        • Genus Acriclymenia Bogoslovsky, 1975
        • Genus Carinoclymenia Bogoslovsky, 1965
        • Genus Karaclymenia Bogoslovsky, 1983
        • Genus Pinacoclymenia Bogoslovsky, 1975
      • Family Cymaclymeniidae Hyatt 1884
          • Subfamily Cymaclymeniinae Hyatt, 1884
            • Genus Cymaclymenia Sepkoski, Jr., 2002
            • Genus Laganoclymenia Bogoslovsky, 1979
            • Genus Procymaclymenia Korn, 2002
            • Genus Rodachia Korn, 2002
          • Subfamily Genuclymeniinae Korn, 2002
            • Genus Flexiclymenia Czarnocki, 1989
            • Genus Genuclymenia Wedekind, 1908
            • Genus Siekluckia Czarnocki, 1989
      • Family Cyrtoclymeniidae Hyatt, 1884
        • Genus Cyrtoclymenia Sepkoski, Jr., 2002
        • Genus Hexaclymenia Schindewolf, 1923
        • Genus Praeflexiclymenia Czarnocki, 1989
        • Genus Pricella Korn, 1991
        • Genus Protactoclymenia Wedekind, 1908
      • Family Rectoclymeniidae Schindewolf, 1923
        • Genus Cteroclymenia Bogoslovsky, 1979
        • Genus Falciclymenia Schindewolf, 1923
        • Genus Karadzharia Korn, 2002
        • Genus Rectoclymenia Wedekind, 1908
  • Suborder Incertae sedis
    • Genus Borkinia
    • Genus Gyroclymenia
    • Genus Kazakhoclymenia
    • Genus Miroclymenia
    • Genus Schizoclymenia

References

  1. ^ Miller, Furnish, and Schindewolf, 1957; Paleozoic Ammonoidea; Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part-L, Ammonoidea, Geological Society of America & Univ of Kansas.
  2. ^ Evolution of Complexity in Paleozoic Ammonoid Sutures; Supplementary Materia [1]
  3. ^ GONIAT
  4. ^ D. Korn. 2006. Paleozoic ammonoid classification. [2]
  5. ^ Classification of A. A. Shevyrev 2006 [3]

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