- Urban climate
Urban climate refers to climatic conditions in an
urban areathat differ from neighboring ruralareas and are attributable to urban development. Urbanizationtremendously changes the form of the landscape and also produces changes in an area's air.
urban heat island"
Urban areas tend to be significantly warmer than their rural (and possibly
suburban) surroundings, particularly at night. As population centers grow in size from village to town to city, they tend to have a corresponding increase in average temperature (which is more often welcome in winter months than in summer). The U.S. EPA says: "On hot summer days, urban air can be 2-10°F [1-6°C] hotter than the surrounding countryside." Not to be confused with global warming, scientists call this phenomenon the " urban heat islandeffect." [http://yosemite.epa.gov/oar/globalwarming.nsf/content/ActionsLocalHeatIslandEffect.html]
Cities absorb much less water per square metre than rural areas, as much of them is paved or built on. In some areas this creates a need for specific measures to reduce the risk of localised
flooding during periods of heavy rainfall. Measures include the use of rainwater storageand drainagesystems. In some areas this may involve storm sewers to collect rainwater separately from household blackwater, to reduce the risk of polluted water overflowing during periods of rainfall heavy enough to overwhelm sewers.
According to one study, the growing season in east coast U.S. cities is fifteen days longer than in the surrounding rural areas. This is attributed to the higher temperature. [http://www.livescience.com/environment/041026_Urban_Heat_Island.html]
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