Kampfgeschwader 77


Kampfgeschwader 77

Infobox Military Unit
unit_name=Kampfgeschwader 77


caption=
dates=1939-1944
country=Germany
allegiance=flagicon|Nazi Germany Nazi Germany
branch=Luftwaffe
type=Bomber Squadron
role= Tactical and Direct Ground Support.
size=Air Force Wing
command_structure=
current_commander=
garrison=
ceremonial_chief=
colonel_of_the_regiment=
nickname=
patron=
motto=
colors=
identification_symbol=
march=
mascot=
battles=
notable_commanders=
anniversaries=
decorations=
battle_honours=

Kampfgeschwader 77 (KG 77) was a Luftwaffe bomber wing during World War II.Its units participated on all of the major fronts in the European Theatre until its dissolution in 1944. It operated all three of the major German bomber types; the Dornier Do 17, Heinkel He 111 and the Junkers Ju 88.

History

Kampfgeschwader 77 was formed on 1 May 1939 at Prahakelby in Czechoslovakia with "Stab"./KG 77 and I "Gruppe". II "Gruppe" at Prahakelby on the same date. The unit was allocated to "Luftflotte 4", and equipped with the Do 17Z, while III./KG 77 was not made operational until 26 August 1939, again in Königgrätz, now Hradec Králové.While training in the summer of 1939 the "Geschwader" "worked up" on the Dornier Do 17Z and He 111.

Wartime service

Polish Campaign

During the Polish campaign I. and III. "Gruppes" of KG 77 took part in combat operations. Operating from Breslau-Schöngarten, I./KG 77 committed 108 bombers to the campaign. Operating from Breslau under "Luftflotte 4". The unit participated in the Battle of Bzura, and carried out raids in the areas of Galicia, Radom, Kielce and Warsaw against rail, airfield and troop targets.

Denmark and Norway

The unit did not participate in Operation Weserübung but instead spent the spring training and resting in preparation for the decisive western offensive in 1940.

France and the Low Countries

The Unit committed 111 bombers to the campaign. From its base at Werl it operated over Belgium and northern France, attacking French armour targets in the Reims and Amiens area. KG 77 supported the German Army during the Battle of Dunkirk, and it supported the southern offensive, "Fall Rot" until the French surrender. Its most notable action during the campaign was its part in "Operational Paula", a all-out attack on Paris airfields, 3 June 1940.

Over Britain and the Battle of the Atlantic 1940-1941

In mid-July 1940 all three "gruppen" returned to Germany to convert to the Junkers Ju 88. When III./KG 77 returned to France in late August (it was still based at Regensburg on 26 August) it had 35 Ju 88s operational. This "gruppe" suffered losses of 9 Ju 88s on a single mission against Gravesend on 18 September, one of the highest losses of any "gruppe" in a single mission. [de Zeng "et al" Vol 1 2007, p. 260.] I./KG 77 in conjunction with II. and III. "gruppe" supported operations during the the Blitz. On 27 September I./KG 77 lost six J 88s when raiding London, while II./KG 77 lost another six on the same night. [de Zeng "et al" Vol 1 2007, pp. 252-256.]

During 1941 the "Geschwader" also took part in the Battle of the Atlantic. It attempted to support the German battleship Bismarck during her Atlantic operation during 26-28 May 1941. However, the unit was unable to intervene before she sank. The Geschwader did manage to sink the Royal Navy destroyer HMS|Mashona|F59|6 on 28 May 1941, as the British forces withdrew to port. [de Zeng "et al" Vol 1 2007, p. 252.]

Daylight and night attacks were undertaken over the British Isles again from 27 July - 13 August 1942.

oviet Union

Only I and III./KG 77 were the only units that were committed to Operation Barbarossa, with a total of 59 Ju 88s. [de Zeng "et al" Vol 1 2007, p. 252, 260.] The "Geschwader" supported Army Group Norths drive into the Baltic states and took part in the Siege of Leningrad. During this period I./KG 77 helped defeat a strong Soviet counter-attack by the 11th Army and 34th Army. KG 77 also supported Operation Beowulf, the invasion of the Baltic islands of Osel, Moon and Dago.during the battle for Estonia inflicted severe losses on Soviet shipping, with the same dive-bombing tactics used over Norway, France and Britain. KGr 806 sank the Soviet destroyer "Karl Marx" on 8 August 1941 in Loksa Bay, Tallin. [Bergström 2007, p. 36.] On 28 August the Ju 88s had more success when KG 77 and KGr 806 sank the 2,026 grt steamer "Vironia", the 2,317 grt "Lucerne", the 1,423 "Artis Kronvalds" and the ice breaker "Krisjanis Valdemars" (2,250 grt). The rest of the Soviet "fleet", were forced to change course. This took them through a heavily mined area. As a result, 21 Soviet warships, including five destroyers, struck mines and sank. On 29 August, the Ju 88s accounted for the transport ships "Vtoraya Pyatiletka" (3,974 grt), "Kalpaks" (2,190 grt) and "Leningradsovet" (1,270 grt) sunk. Furthermore, the ships "Ivan Papanin", "Saule", "Kazakhstan" and the "Serp i Molot" were damaged. Some 5,000 Soviet soldiers were lost. [Bergström 2007, p. 60.] KG 77 was largely withdrawn from Russia, although I./KG 77 continued to operate on the Eastern Front until July 1942, supporting German forces at the Operation Seydlitz and the Second Battle of Kharkov.

Mediterranean Aand North Africa

I./KG 77 was reformed as I./KG 6 on 31 August 1942, after the unit ceased operations over Great Britain. However I./KG 77 was reformed again on 10 September 1942. The "Kampfgeschwader" carried out perations in the Mediterranean and North Africa until June 1943, taking part in the Siege of Malta and the Second Battle of El Alamein. The unit also resisted the Allied invasion of Sicily, probably destroying the U.S. Liberty ship SS|Robert Rowan on 11 July. KG 77 made constant night attacks against Allied Naval forces from 10 July - 25 August 1943. [ de Zeng "et al" Vol 1 2007, p. 252.] After retraining naval attack methods, the unit could now operate with effective torpedo methods. I./KG 77 operated from Salon in southern France from March - July 1944, attacking American convoys of the coast of Algeria.

Western Front 1943-1944

KG 77's primary responsibility was anti-shipping in the English Channel. Committed under the command of "Luftflotte 3", KG 77 supported the German Army, although at night to avoid overwhelming Allied air superiority forces, until 1 September 1944, when it was no longer mentioned on "Luftflotte 3"'s order of battle.

Commanding officers

Geschwaderkommodore

* Oberst Heinrich Seywald 1 May 1939 - 13 September 1939 (possibly acting CO)
* Oberst Wolff von Stutterheim 14 September 1939 - 20 March 1940
* Oberst Dr. Johan-Volkmar Fisser 21 March 1940 - 31 May 1940 (possibly acting CO)
* Major-General Wolff von Stutterheim (promoted) 31 May 1940 - 15 June 1940 (Wounded in action, died 3 December 1940)
* Major-General Heinz-Hellmuth von Wühlisch 21 June 1940 - 1 August 1940
* Oberstlt Johann Raithel 1 August 1940 - 13 March 1942
* Major Arved Crüger 13 March 1942 - 22 March 1942
* Major Wilhelm Stremmler 12/15 February 1943 - 20 July 1944

References

8. http://www.aufhimmelzuhause.com/id93.htm

Bibliography

* Bergstrom, Christer (2007). "Barbarossa - The Air Battle: July-December 1941". London: Chervron/Ian Allen. ISBN 978-1-85780-270-2.
* de Zeng, H.L; Stanket, D.G; Creek, E.J. "Bomber Units of the Luftwaffe 1933-1945; A Reference Source, Volume 1". Ian Allen Publishing, 2007. ISBN 978-1-85780-279-5
* de Zeng, H.L; Stanket, D.G; Creek, E.J. "Bomber Units of the Luftwaffe 1933-1945; A Reference Source, Volume 2". Ian Allen Publishing, 2007. ISBN 978-1-903223-87-1


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Kampfgeschwader 1 — Période Mai 1939 – Août 1944 Pays Allemagne Allégeance Troisième Reich Branche Luftwaffe …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Kampfgeschwader 3 — Période Mai 1939 – Juillet 1944 Pays Allemagne Allégeance Troisième Reich Branche Luftwaffe …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Kampfgeschwader 51 — Période Mai 1939 – Avril 1945 Pays Allemagne Allégeance Troisième Reich Branche Luftwaffe …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Kampfgeschwader 2 — Période Mai 1939 – Février 1945 Pays Allemagne Allégeance Troisième Reich Branche Luftwaffe …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Kampfgeschwader 26 — Période Mai 1939 – Mai 1945 Pays Allemagne Allégeance Troisième Reich Branche Luftwaffe …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Kampfgeschwader 30 — Période 1939 – Mai 1945 Pays Allemagne Allégeance Troisième Reich Branche …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Kampfgeschwader 4 — Période 1939 – Mai 1945 Pays Allemagne Allégeance Troisième Reich Branche L …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Kampfgeschwader 54 — Période Mai 1939 – Avril 1945 Pays Allemagne Allégeance …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Kampfgeschwader 55 — Geschwaderwappen Aktiv November 1938–1945 …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Kampfgeschwader 27 — Période Mai 1939 – Avril 1945 Pays Allemagne Allégeance Troisième Reich Branche Luftwaffe …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Kampfgeschwader 53 — Période Mai 1939 – Mars 1945 Pays Allemagne Allégeance Troisième Reich Branche Luftwaffe …   Wikipédia en Français


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.