- Battles of Rzhev
Rzhev Battles ( _ru. Ржевская битва) is a general term for a series of
World War IIoffensives launched during January 8, 1942— March 22, 1943by Soviet forces in the general directions of Rzhev, Sychevkaand Vyazmaagainst a German salient in the vicinity of Moscow, known as the "Rzhev meat grinder" ("Ржевская мясорубка") for these battles' huge losses.
This part of the
Great Patriotic Warwas poorly covered by Soviet military historiography, and what coverage exists occurred only after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, when historians gained access to relevant documents. Exact dates of particular battles, their names, outcomes, significance, and even losses have not been fully clarified.
A reminder of these nameless battles is the poem by
Aleksandr Tvardovskywhich contains the evocative phrase "I was killed near Rzhev..." (Я убит подо Ржевом, (1945-1946)).
The major operations that were executed as part of the strategic offensive were:
Sychevsk-Vyazma offensive operation( _ru. Сычевско-Вяземская наступательная операция) (08.01-28.02.42): Mozhaisk-Vyaz’ma offensive operation(Operation Jupiter) ( _ru. Можайско-Вяземская наступательная операция) (10.01-28.02.42):Toropets-Kholm Offensive Operation ( _ru. Торопецко-Холмская наступательная операция) (09.01-06.02.42): Vyazma airborne desant operation( _ru. Вяземская воздушно-десантная операция) (18.01-28.02.42):Rzhev offensive operation (Operation Mars) ( _ru. Ржевская наступательная операция) (03.03-20.04.42)
Rzhev-Vyazma Strategic Offensive Operation
During the , and the
Rzhev-Vyazma Strategic Offensive Operation(8 January 1942 - 20 April 1942), German forces were pushed back from Moscow. As a result, a salientwas formed along the front line in the direction of the capital, which became known as the Rzhev-Vyazma Salient. It was strategically important for the German Army Group Centredue to the threat it posed to Moscow, and was therefore heavily fortified and strongly defended.
Soviet forces along the
Kalinin Frontand Western Front broke through the German lines west of Rzhev in January, but because of a difficult supply route the troops of the Soviet Twenty-Second, 29th Army and 39th Armies became encircled. To eliminate this threat to the rear of the German 9th Army, the Germans had started Operation Seydlitzby the 2nd of July.
This operation resulted in the complete elimination of the trapped Russian forces on 12 July, the attempted rescue of 2nd Shock Army (13 May 1942 - 10 July 1942) and the
Rzhev-Sychevka Offensive Operation(30 July 1942 - 23 August 1942). The front line around the salient was pushed closer to the city of Rzhev by Wehrmacht forces. During this period, the city of Zubtsovwas liberated by the Red Army.
Rzhev-Sychevka Strategic Offensive Operation (Operation Mars)
The next Rzhev-Sychevka Offensive (25 November 1942 - 20 December 1942) codenamed
Operation Mars.the operation consisted of several incremental offensive phases: Sychevka Offensive Operation24 November 1942 - 14 December 1942: Belyi Offensive Operation25 November 1942 - 16 December 1942: Luchesa Offensive Operation25 November 1942 - 11 December 1942: Molodoi Tud Offensive Operation25 November 1942 - 23 December 1942: Velikie-Luki Offensive Operation24 November 1942 - 20 January 1943
This operation was nearly as heavy in losses for the Red Army as the first offensive, and also failed to reach desired objectives, but the Red Army tied down German forces which may have otherwise been used to try and relieve the Stalingrad garrison, which was fighting for its life in Stalingrad.
The information about offensive was provided to
OKHby an NKVDdouble agent known as Heine as part of the plan to distract German forces from Stalingrad. [Tennant H. Bayley, "Spy Wars: Moles, Mysteries and Deadly Games", 2007, Yale University Press, p. 117. Bayley cites Pavel Sudoplatov, Anatoly Sudoplatov, and Jerrold and Leona Schecter's book "Special Tasks", published by Little, Brown in 1994, p. 158-159. He also quotes a KGB chief as writing, "Marshal Zhukov knew his offensive was an auxiliary operation, but he did not know that he had been targeted in advance by the Germans."]
However, due to the general course of the war, Hitler ordered German forces to withdraw from the salient in March,
1943during operation 'Büffel'. The Stavka used this as an opportunity to pursue the retreating Wehrmacht troops.
For the whole series of Rzhev battles, the numbers are not clear but the total Soviet losses are estimated at between 500,000 and 1,000,000 men.The German losses are estimated at between 300,000 and 450,000 men.
* [http://rshew-42.narod.ru/ Rzhev Battle 1941-1943] ru icon
* Horst Grossmann [http://rshew-42.narod.ru/texts/list6id.html Geschichte der rheinisch-westfaelischen 6 Infanterie-Division 1939-1945] de icon
* [http://rshew-42.narod.ru/foto/fotogal.html German war photos] ru icon
* [http://www.1942.rzev.ru/ Battles of Rzhev] ru icon
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