- Sinking ships for wreck diving sites
Sinking ships for wreck diving sites is the practice of scuttling old ships to produce artificial reefs suitable for wreck diving, to benefit from commercial revenues from recreational diving of the shipwreck, or to produce a diver training site.
To prepare a hulk for sinking as a wreck site, several things must be done to make it safe for the marine environment and divers. To protect the environment, the ship is purged of all oils, hydraulic fluids, and dangerous chemicals such as PCBs. Much of the superstructure is removed to prevent the hazard of it eventually caving in from corrosion. Similarly, the interior of the ship is gutted of all structures that corrode quickly, and would be dangerous to divers if they came loose. The ship is thoroughly cleaned, often with the help of volunteers interested in diving. A significant part of the cost of preparing and sinking the ship comes from scrapping the contents of the ship, including valuable materials such as copper wiring. The hulk's suitability as a diving site is enhanced by cutting openings in its hull and interior bulkheads to allow divers access.
The preparation phase removes a significant amount of weight, so the ship sits higher in the water than normal. The ship must be carefully weighed down by filling some sections with water as makeshift ballast tanks to prevent excessive rolling in port or during towing. The ship is towed to the sinking location, usually in shallow waters. The ship is scuttled using dynamite, in a controlled demolition. The holes are blown so that the heavier engine room and stern floods first, then the rest of the hull. The aim is to sink the ship in an upright position.
List of ships sunk for wreck diving
Ships sunk for wreck diving Year Vessel Name Location Country/Territory 2011 USS Arthur W. Radford (DD-968) Cape May, New Jersey United States 2011 HMAS Adelaide Avoca Beach, New South Wales Australia 2011 USS Kittiwake West Bay, Grand Cayman Cayman Islands 2009 HMAS Canberra Barwon Heads, Victoria Australia 2009 USNS General Hoyt S. Vandenberg (T-AGM-10) Key West, Florida United States 2007 HMNZS Canterbury (F421) Bay of Islands New Zealand 2006 Xihwu Boeing 737 British Columbia Canada 2005 HMNZS Wellington (F69) Wellington New Zealand 2005 HMAS Brisbane Mooloolaba, Queensland Australia 2004 HMS Scylla Whitsand Bay, Cornwall United Kingdom 2004 USS Oriskany Florida United States 2003 CS Charles L Brown  Sint Eustatius Leeward Islands 2003 HMCS Nipigon Quebec Canada 2002 MV Dania Mombasa Kenya 2002 USS Spiegel Grove Florida United States 2002 HMAS Hobart Yankalilla Bay, South Australia Australia 2001 HMCS Cape Breton British Columbia Canada 2001 HMAS Perth Albany, Western Australia Australia 2000 HMCS Yukon San Diego, California United States 2000 Stanegarth Stoney Cove United Kingdom 2000 HMNZS Waikato (F55) Tutukaka New Zealand 1999 HMNZS Tui (1970) Tutukaka Heads New Zealand 1995 HMCS Saskatchewan British Columbia Canada 1997 HMAS Swan Dunsborough, Western Australia Australia 1996 HMCS Columbia British Columbia Canada 1996 MV Captain Keith Tibbetts (formerly Russian-built Frigate 356) Cayman Brac Cayman Islands 1996 Inganess Bay British Virgin Islands 1995 HMCS Mackenzie British Columbia Canada 1992 HMCS Chaudière British Columbia Canada 1991–2001 "Wreck Alley" – The Marie L, The Pat and The Beata British Virgin Islands 1991 MV G.B. Church British Columbia Canada 1990 Fontao Durban South Africa 1990 T-Barge Durban South Africa 1987–2000 Wreck Alley San Diego, California United States 1987 USCGC Bibb Florida United States 1987 USCGC Duane Florida United States 1980 Oro Verde Cayman Islands 1970 Glen Strathallen (sunk to produce a diver training facility) Plymouth United Kingdom
- HMCS Annapolis. An Annapolis class destroyer decommissioned by the Canadian Forces in 1996. The ship was purchased by the Artificial Reef Society of British Columbia in 2008, which plans to sink her in Port Graves (Long Bay) on Gambier Island in Howe Sound.
- Artificial Reef Society of British Columbia
- Archaeology of shipwrecks
- Diver training
- List of shipwrecks
- List of wreck diving sites
- Wreck Alley
- ^ "Vandenberg sinking this morning". Associated Press. MSNBC. 2009-05-27. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/30958675. Retrieved 2009-05-28.
- ^ a b c d e f g h "ARSBC". Artificial Reef Society of British Columbia. http://www.artificialreef.bc.ca. Retrieved 2010-08-20.
- ^ Barnette, Michael C. (2008). Florida's Shipwrecks. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7385-5413-6.
- ^ "Charlie Brown Artificial Reef". Golden Rock Dive Center. http://www.goldenrockdive.com/cb.htm. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
- ^ "5 Star PADI IDC Centre, Kenya, Zanzibar". Buccaneer Diving. http://www.buccaneerdiving.com. Retrieved 2010-08-20.
- ^ "The ''Spiegel Grove'' is believed to be the largest ever wreck deliberately sunk as a diving site". Fla-keys.com. http://fla-keys.com/spiegelgrove/. Retrieved 2010-08-20.
- ^ "HMAS Perth (II) - Royal Australian Navy". Navy.gov.au. http://www.navy.gov.au/HMAS_Perth_%28II%29. Retrieved 2010-08-20.
- ^ "HMAS Swan (III) - Royal Australian Navy". Navy.gov.au. http://www.navy.gov.au/HMAS_Swan_(III). Retrieved 2010-08-20.
- ^ "BVI Dive Site: Wreck of the Inganess Bay". Bvidiving.com. http://www.bvidiving.com/divesites_inganess_bay.html. Retrieved 2010-08-20.
- ^ "Cooper Island". Dive BVI. http://www.divebvi.com/cooper_island.htm. Retrieved 2010-08-20.
- ^ a b Williams, Chris; Bowen, Linda (2008). "Wrecks of the Duane and Bibb". Advanced Diver Magazine Ezine (1, reprinted from ADM issue 4): 62–72. http://www.advanceddivermagazine.com/ADMEZINE/Issues/admezineissue1.pdf. Retrieved 2009-06-04.
- ^ "The Cayman Islands Shipwreck Expo Directory Capt. Dan Berg's Guide to Shipwrecks information". Aquaexplorers.com. http://www.aquaexplorers.com/cayman_shipwrecks.htm. Retrieved 2010-08-20.
- ^ "Anouncing, Annapolis!". Artificialreef.bc.ca. http://www.artificialreef.bc.ca/OurReefs/265_Annapolis/index.htm. Retrieved 2010-08-20. [dead link]
- National Geographic channel, "The Ship Sinkers"
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Wreck diving — Diver at the wreck of the Hilma Hooker, Netherlands Antilles. Wreck diving is a type of recreational diving where shipwrecks are explored. Although most wreck dive sites are at shipwrecks, there is an increasing trend to scuttle retired ships to… … Wikipedia
Thunderbolt Wreck — Thunderbolt is a 189 foot long shipwreck 5 miles southeast of Marathon Key in Florida. She was intentionally sunk as an artificial reef in 1986. She currently sits in 115 feet of water and is regarded as one of the best wreck diving sites in the… … Wikipedia
Dalarö wreck — The Dalarö wreck is a shipwreck of a 17th century ship lying in the waters off Dalarö, southeast of Stockholm, Sweden. It is the remains of a three masted sailing cargo carrying vessel. It was found in 2003, but the find was not made public until … Wikipedia
Shipwreck — A shipwreck can refer to a wrecked ship or to the event that caused the wreck, such as the striking of something that causes the ship to sink, the stranding of the ship on rocks, land or shoal, or the destruction of the ship at sea by violent… … Wikipedia
Artificial reef — An artificial reef is a man made, underwater structure, typically built for the purpose of promoting marine life in areas of generally featureless bottom. Artificial reefs may also serve to improve hydrodynamics for surfing or to control beach… … Wikipedia
Stanegarth — The Stanegarth was originally built in 1910 [http://www.severntales.co.uk/page95.html] as a steam powered tug by Lytham Ship Builders Company for service with the British Waterways Board. Converted to diesel power in 1957. The tug used to tow 3… … Wikipedia
Glen Strathallen — Glen Strathallan or Glen Strath Allen was built in 1928 by shipbuilders Cochrance and Sons in Yorkshire. Millionaire Colby Cubbin converted her to a pleasure yacht as the person who had commissioned her went bankrupt before the ship was completed … Wikipedia
SS Mendi — Career (Great Britain) … Wikipedia
MS Piłsudski — in New York M/S Piłsudski (later renamed ORP Piłsudski) was a large ocean liner of the Polish Merchant Marine, named for Józef Piłsudski, Marshal of Poland. She was built in Italy, with part of the payment being shipments of coal from Poland.… … Wikipedia
CSS Alabama — For other ships named Alabama, see USS Alabama. A painting of CSS Alabama Career … Wikipedia