Scuttling


Scuttling

Scuttling is the act of deliberately sinking a ship by allowing water to flow into the hull. This can be achieved in several ways - valves or hatches can be opened to the sea, or holes may be ripped into the hull with brute force or with explosives. Scuttling may be performed to dispose of an old or captured vessel, as an act of self-destruction to prevent the ship from being captured by an enemy force, as a blockship to restrict navigation through a channel or within a harbor, or to provide an artificial reef for divers and marine life. In naval combat usage, scuttling usually involves use of torpedoes, and is done to prevent an enemy from gaining (or retaining) a valuable ship; the term applies regardless of whether a friendly or enemy hulk is the target.

Notable historical examples

Hernán Cortés (1519)

The Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés, who overthrew the Aztec empire, ordered his men to strip and scuttle their ships in order to eliminate any means of desertion.

HMS Sapphire (1696)

The HMS "Sapphire" was a 32-gun, fifth-rate sailing frigate of the Royal Navy in Newfoundland to protect the English migratory fishery. The vessel was trapped in Bay Bulls harbour by four French naval vessels led by Jacques-François de Brouillan. In order to avoid capture, the English scuttled the vessel on 11 September 1696.

Russian Black Sea Fleet in Sevastopol (1854)

During the Crimean War, in anticipation of the Siege of Sevastopol, the Russians scuttled ships of the Black Sea Fleet to protect the harbour to use their naval cannon as additional artillery and the ships' crews as marines. Those ships that were deliberately sunk included "Grand Duke Constantine", "City of Paris" (both with 120 guns), "Brave", "Empress Maria", "Chesme", "Yagondeid" (84 guns), "Kavarna" (60 guns), "Konlephy" (54 guns), steam frigate "Vladimir", steamboats "Thunderer", "Bessarabia", "Danube", "Odessa", "Elbrose" and "Krein".

USS Merrimack (1861)

In 1861, the Federal steam frigate "Merrimack" was set afire in Gosport Shipyard (now Norfolk Naval Shipyard) to keep her from falling into Confederate hands. The unsuccessful attempt at scuttling enabled the Confederate Navy to raise and rebuild her as "Virginia".

SS Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse

In August 1914, SS Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse was requisitioned by the Kaiserliche Marine and converted into an auxiliary cruiser, assigned to commerce raiding in the Atlantic. She was fitted with six 10.5 cm (4 inch) guns and two 37 mm guns. After sparing two passenger ships because they were carrying many women and children, she sank two freighters before she herself was sunk on 26 August, 1914. She was caught refuelling off the shore of the then Spanish colony of Rio de Oro in western Africa by the old British 6-inch gunned cruiser HMS|Highflyer|1898|6. Badly outgunned, the ship eventually ran out of ammunition. The crew abandoned and scuttled her. British sources at the time insisted that "Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse" sank because of the damage inflicted by "Highflyer". Whatever the cause, she was the first passenger ship sunk during World War I.

Zeebrugge Raid (1918)

The Zeebrugge Raid involved three outdated British cruisers chosen to serve as blockships in the German-held Belgian port of Bruges-Zeebrugge from which German U-boat operations threatened British shipping. "Thetis", "Intrepid" and "Iphigenia" were filled with concrete then sent to block a critical canal. Heavy defensive fire caused the "Thetis" to scuttle prematurely; the other two cruisers sank themselves successfully in the narrowest part of the canal. Within three days, however, the Germans had broken through the western bank of the canal to create a shallow detour for their submarines to move past the blockships at high tide.

German fleet at Scapa Flow (1919)

In 1919, over 50 warships of the German High Seas Fleet were scuttled by their crews at Scapa Flow following the deliverance of the fleet as part of the terms of the German surrender. Rear Admiral Ludwig von Reuter ordered the sinkings, denying the majority of the ships to the British. Von Reuter was imprisoned as a war criminal in Britain but his defiant final act of war was celebrated in Germany. The seabed of Scapa Flow is still littered with the warships, making the area very popular amongst undersea diving enthusiasts.

"Admiral Graf Spee" (1939)

Following the Battle of the River Plate the damaged German pocket battleship "Admiral Graf Spee" sought refuge in the port of Montevideo. On 17 December 1939, with the British and Commonwealth cruisers "Ajax", "Achilles", and "Cumberland" waiting in international waters outside the mouth of the Río de la Plata, the "Graf Spee" sailed just outside the harbour and was scuttled by Captain Hans Langsdorff to avoid risking the lives of his crew in what he expected to be a losing battle. Capt. Langsdorff shot himself three days later.

Blockade of Massawa (1941)

As the British advanced toward Eritrea during their East African Campaign in World War II, Mario Bonetti, the Italian commander of the Red Sea Flotilla based at Massawa, realized that his harbor was going to be overrun by the enemy. In the first week of April, 1941, he began to destroy the harbor's facilities and ruin its usefulness to the British. Bonetti ordered the sinking of two large floating dry docks and supervised the calculated scuttling of eighteen large commercial ships in the mouths of the north Naval Harbor, the central Commercial Harbor and the main South Harbor, blocking navigation in and out. Scuttled, too, was a large floating crane. The harbor was rendered useless by 8 April 1941 when it was surrendered to the British. Scuttled ships included the German steamers "Liebenfels", "Frauenfels", "Lichtenfels", "Crefeld", "Gera" and "Oliva". Also scuttled were the Italian steamers "Adua", "Brenta", "Arabia", "Romolo Gessi", "Vesuvio", "XXIII Marzo", "Antonia C.", "Riva Ligure", "Clelia Campenella", "Prometeo" and the Italian tanker "Giove". The largest scuttled vessel was the 11,760 ton "Colombo", an Italian steamer. The most dangerous problems for salvage were the "Brenta" which contained a booby trap made of an armed naval mine sitting on three torpedo warheads and Regia Marina minelayer "Ostia" which had been sunk by the RAF with all mines still racked. Thirteen additional coastal steamers and small naval vessels were scuttled as well.

Though a civilian contractor was retained to clear a navigable passage through the wrecks, it wasn't until a year later that headway was made in the effort to return Massawa to military duties. U.S. Navy Commander Edward Ellsberg arrived in April, 1942 with a salvage crew and a small collection of specialized tools and began methodically correcting the damage. His salvage efforts were to yield significant results in just 5½ weeks. On 8 May 1942, the SS "Koritza", an armed Greek steamer, was drydocked for cleaning and minor hull repairs. Massawa's first major surface fleet 'customer' was HMS "Dido" which needed repairs to a heavily damaged stern in mid-August, 1942. Many of the harbor's sunken ships were patched by divers, refloated, repaired and taken into service. [Commander Edward Ellsberg, O.B.E. "Under the Red Sea Sun", (1946). Dodd, Mead and Co., New York]

"Bismarck" (1941)

In 1941, the battleship "Bismarck", heavily damaged by the Royal Navy, leaking fuel, listing, rendered mostly unmaneuverable and with no effective weapons but still afloat, was reported to have been scuttled by her crew to avoid capture. This was supported by survivors' reports in "Pursuit: the Sinking of the Bismarck", by Ludovic Kennedy, 1974 and by a later examination of the wreck itself by Dr. Robert Ballard in 1989.

Coral Sea and Midway (1942)

After the Battles of the Coral Sea and Midway, the heavily damaged aircraft carriers "Lexington", "Sōryū", "Akagi", and "Kaga" were scuttled to prevent their preservation and use by the enemy.

The French fleet in Toulon (1942)

In November 1942, in an operation codenamed "Case Anton", Nazi German forces occupied the so-called "Free Zone" in response to the Allied landing in North Africa. On 27 November they reached Toulon, where the majority of the French Navy was anchored. To avoid capture by the Nazis (Operation "Lila"), the French admirals-in-command (Laborde and Marquis) decided to scuttle the 230,000 tonne fleet, most notably, the battleships "Dunkerque" and "Strasbourg". 80% of the fleet was utterly destroyed, all of the capital ships proving impossible to repair. Legally, the scuttling of the fleet was allowed under the terms of the 1940 Armistice with Germany.

The Danish fleet in Copenhagen (1943)

Anticipating a German attack on the Copenhagen Docks, the Danish navy had instructed its captains to resist any German attempts to assume control over their vessels, by scuttling if necessary. Of the fifty-two vessels in the Danish Navy on 29 August, two were in Greenland, thirty-two were scuttled, four reached Sweden and fourteen were taken undamaged by the Germans. Nine Danish sailors lost their lives and ten were wounded. Subsequently major parts of the Naval personnel were interned for a period. Just after, on the evening of 29 August, the Supreme Commander of the German Naval Forces in Denmark addressed Vice Admiral Vedel, the Commander in Chief of the Royal Danish Navy, as follows "Wir haben beide unsere Pflicht getan" (We have both done our duty).

Allied Landing in Normandy (1944)

Old ships code-named "Corn cobs" were sunk to form a protective reef for the Mulberry harbours at Arromanches and Omaha Beach for the Normandy landings. The sheltered waters created by these scuttled ships were called "Gooseberries" and protected the harbors so transport ships could unload without being hampered by waves.

Contemporary era

Today, ships (and other objects of similar size) are sometimes sunk in order to help the formation of artificial reefs, as was done with the former USS "Oriskany" in 2006. It is also common for military organizations to use old ships as targets, in war games, or for various other experiments. As an example, the decommissioned aircraft carrier USS "America" was subjected to surface and underwater explosions in 2005 as part of classified research to help design the next generation of carriers (the CVN-21 class), before being sunk with demolition charges.

Scuttled ships have been used as conveyance for dangerous materials. In the late 1960s, the United States Army scuttled the SS "Corporal Eric G. Gibson" and SS "Mormactern" with VX nerve gas rockets aboard as part of Operation CHASE — "CHASE" being Pentagon shorthand for "Cut Holes and Sink 'Em." Other ships have been "chased" containing mustard agents, bombs, land mines, and radioactive waste. [cite news | url=http://www.dailypress.com/news/local/dp-02761sy0oct30,0,3545637.story?page=4 | title=SPECIAL REPORT, PART 1: The Deadliness Below| first=John | last=Bull | accessdate=2007-06-18 | journal=The Daily Press]

During the Falklands War, the Argentinian submarine ARA "Santa Fe" was attacked and damaged by British helicopters on 23 April 1982. The crew abandoned the submarine on South Georgia and were captured by British forces. The submarine was later scuttled by the British.

The Iranian converted minelayer "Iran Ajr" was caught laying mines in the Persian Gulf during the Iran–Iraq War on 21 September 1987, in an effort to sink or damage U.S.-flagged Kuwaiti oil tankers in international waters. The ship was attacked by U.S. Army helicopter gunships flying from a U.S. Navy frigate, then boarded by SEALs, who captured the surviving crew, confirmed the presence of mines, and then scuttled the ship five days later.

Narco submarines

Narco submarines are known to be used by Colombian drug cartel members to import cocaine from Colombia to the United States. Due to their fiberglass construction, they are nearly invisible to radar, sonar, and infrared. After unloading or when intercepted, the submersible is scuttled; with no evidence of trafficking against them, the crewmen go from suspected traffickers to castaways who, in accordance with maritime law, must be rescued and cannot be charged.

See also

*Scorched earth
*Marine salvage

Notes

References

*cite book |last=George |first=S. C. |title=Jutland to Junkyard |year=1981 |publisher=Paul Harris Publishing |location=Edinburgh |isbn=0-86228-029-X Describes the salvaging of the scuttled High Seas Fleet.


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Scuttling — Scuttle Scut tle, v. t. [imp. & p. p. {Scuttled} (sk[u^]t t ld); p. pr. & vb. n. {Scuttling}.] 1. To cut a hole or holes through the bottom, deck, or sides of (as of a ship), for any purpose. [1913 Webster] 2. To sink by making holes through the… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • scuttling — scut·tle || skÊŒtl n. run, quick movement, scamper, scurry; hatch on the deck or side of a ship; container for carrying coal v. run or move quickly, scamper, scurry; cause a ship to sink by opening or creating holes in its hull …   English contemporary dictionary

  • scuttling — Sinking a ship by opening holes below the water line. 48 Am J1st Ship § 636 …   Ballentine's law dictionary

  • scuttling — …   Useful english dictionary

  • Scuttling of the French fleet in Toulon — Part of the Mediterranean Theatre of World War II The French fleet scuttles itself: left is the …   Wikipedia

  • Scuttling of the German fleet in Scapa Flow — Infobox Military Conflict conflict=Scuttling of the German fleet in Scapa Flow caption=SMS Bayern sinking by the stern partof=First World War date=21 June 1919cite book |last=Longman |title=Island Fortress |pages=p. 452] place=Scapa Flow,… …   Wikipedia

  • Operation Deadlight — 52 surrendered U boats moored at HMS Ferret, Lisahally, Northern Ireland (June, 1945) Operation Deadlight was the code name for the scuttling of U boats surrendered to the Allies after the defeat of Germany near the end of World War II. Of the… …   Wikipedia

  • German battleship Bismarck — Bismarck in …   Wikipedia

  • German cruiser Admiral Graf Spee — Admiral Graf Spee in 1936 Career (Nazi Germany) …   Wikipedia

  • Hundimiento de la flota alemana en Scapa Flow — Parte de I Guerra Mundial SMS Bayern hundiendose de popa Fecha 21 de junio d …   Wikipedia Español


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