1978 FIFA World Cup


1978 FIFA World Cup

Infobox International Football Competition
tourney_name = FIFA World Cup
year = 1978
other_titles = Argentina '78


size = 150px
caption = 1978 FIFA World Cup official logo
country = Argentina
country-flagvar = alt
dates = June 1June 25
confederations = 5
num_teams = 16
venues = 6
cities = 5
champion = Argentina
champion-flagvar = alt
count = 1
second = Netherlands
third = Brazil
third-flagvar = 1968
fourth = Italy
matches = 38
goals = 102
attendance = 1546151
top_scorer = flagicon|ARG|alt Mario Kempes (6 goals)
The 1978 FIFA World Cup, the 11th staging of the World Cup, was held in Argentina between June 1 and June 25. Argentina was chosen as hosts by FIFA in July 1966. The 1978 World Cup was won by Argentina who beat the Netherlands 3-1 after extra time in the final. This win was the first World Cup title for Argentina who became the fifth team (after Uruguay, Italy, England, and West Germany), to be both hosts and world champions.

Qualification

England failed to qualify for the second World Cup in succession, losing out to Italy. European champions Czechoslovakia, Uruguay, Yugoslavia, and the Soviet Union also failed to make it through the qualifying tournament. Newcomers to the finals were Iran and Tunisia, while France, Spain and Hungary were back for the first time since 1966.

ummary

First Round

The format of the competition stayed the same as in 1974: 16 teams qualified, divided into four groups of four. The top two teams in each group would advance to the second round, where they would be split into two groups of four. The winners of each group would play each other in the final, and the second place finishers in the third place match.

A controversial fact surrounding the 1978 World Cup was that Argentina had suffered a military coup only two years before the cup. Because of this, some countries, most notably the Netherlands, considered publicly whether they should participate in the cup. Despite this, all teams eventually participated without restrictions. Allegations that Dutch star Johan Cruijff refused to participate because of political convictions were refuted by him 30 years later [cite news |url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/football/2008/apr/16/newsstory.sport15 |title= Kidnappers made Cruyff miss World Cup |work= guardian.co.uk | date= 2008-04-16 |accessdate= 2008-06-20] . Controversy surrounded the host, Argentina, as all of their games in the first round kicked off at night, giving Argentina the advantage of knowing where they stood in the group. This issue would arise again in Spain 1982, which prompted FIFA to change the rules so that the final two group games in subsequent World Cups would be played simultaneously.

The first round produced several surprises. Poland won Group 2 ahead of world champions West Germany, after holding the Germans to a goalless draw and then beating Tunisia and Mexico. The Germans played out a second goalless draw against Tunisia, and only redeemed themselves with a 6-0 thrashing of Mexico. Although they failed to qualify for the second round, Tunisia made history by beating Mexico 3-1. It was the first time that any African team had won a match at the World Cup finals.

Peru pushed the Netherlands into second place in Group 4, where Scotland missed out on goal difference for the second successive tournament. Teofilo Cubillas was outstanding for Peru, scoring twice against Scotland in Peru's 3-1 win and hitting a hat-trick in their 4-1 victory over Iran. Rob Rensenbrink of the Netherlands also scored three times against Iran, scoring all the goals as the Dutch won 3-0. Scotland drew with Iran 1-1 and the only highlight of their campaign was a 3-2 victory over the Netherlands in their final group game which was not enough to prevent elimination. Iran, the reigning Asian champions, went out of the tournament winless.

The biggest surprise of all came in Group 3, where Austria finished ahead of Brazil. The Austrians beat Spain and Sweden, while Brazil were held to draws by the same two teams. The draw with Sweden was especially controversial, due to the referee ending the game just as Zico headed the ball into the back of the net, a goal that would have won the game for Brazil. Brazil needed to beat Austria in their final group game to be sure of progressing to the second round, and managed a 1-0 win thanks to a goal from Roberto Dinamite. Brazil and Austria thus finished with the same number of points and the same goal difference, but Austria won the group by virtue of having scored more goals.

Group 1 had the strongest line-up of teams in the first round, featuring Italy, the host Argentina, France and Hungary. The two places in the second round were claimed before the final round of games, with Italy and Argentina both beating France and Hungary. The Italy-Argentina game decided who topped the group, and a goal from Roberto Bettega midway through the second half was enough to give that honour to Italy. It also forced Argentina to move out of Buenos Aires and play in Rosario.

econd Group Round

In the all-European Group A, the Netherlands got off to a flying start by thrashing Austria 5-1, Johnny Rep scoring two of their goals. In a rematch of the 1974 final, the Dutch then drew 2-2 with West Germany, who had previously shared a goalless game with Italy. The Italians beat Austria 1-0, and so the Netherlands faced Italy in their last group game knowing that the winners would reach the final. Erny Brandts scored an 18th-minute own goal to put Italy ahead at half-time, but he made up for his mistake by scoring at the right end in the fifth minute of the second half. Arie Haan got the winner for the Dutch with 15 minutes remaining, and the Netherlands had reached their second successive World Cup Final. West Germany were surprisingly beaten by Austria 2-3 which marked their end as World Champions.

Group B was essentially a battle between Argentina and Brazil, and it was resolved in controversial circumstances. In the first round of group games, Brazil beat Peru 3-0 while Argentina saw off Poland 2-0. Brazil and Argentina then played out a tense and violent goalless draw, so both teams went into the last round of matches with three points. Argentina had an advantage that their match against Peru kicked off several hours after Brazil's match with Poland. Brazil won their match 3-1, so Argentina could know that they had to beat Peru by four clear goals to go through to the final. Argentina managed it with what some saw as a suspicious degree of ease. Trailing 2-0 at half-time, Peru simply collapsed in the second half, and Argentina eventually won 6-0. Brazil spread dark rumours suggesting that Peru might have been somehow illicitly induced not to try too hard (especially because the Peruvian goalkeeper, Ramón Quiroga, was born in Argentina); but nothing could be proved, and Argentina met the Netherlands in the final. Brazil, denied a final place by Argentina's 6-0 win over Peru, took third place from an enterprising Italy side and were dubbed "moral champions" by coach Cláudio Coutinho, because they did not win the tournament, but did not lose a single match either.

The Final

The final, Argentina vs Netherlands, was also controversial, as the Dutch accused the Argentines of using stalling tactics to delay the match. The host team came out late and questioned the legality of a plaster cast on René van de Kerkhof's wrist, which the Dutch claimed allowed tension to build in front of a hostile Buenos Aires crowd. The Netherlands refused to attend the post-match ceremonies after the match ended. [ [http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/soccer/world/events/1998/worldcup/news/1998/07/04/philjones_04/ CNN/SI - World Cup France '98 - The Netherlands pay back controversial loss to Argentina - Saturday July 04, 1998 03:33 PM ] ] Argentina won the final 3-1 after extra time, with two goals from Mario Kempes, who was also the tournament's top scorer with six goals. The Netherlands lost their second World Cup final in a row, both times to the host nation, after losing to West Germany in 1974.

Mascot

The official mascot of this World Cup was "Gauchito", a boy wearing an Argentina strip. His hat (with the words ARGENTINA '78), neckerchief and whip are typical of gauchos.

Venues

footballbox
date = 1978-06-01
time = 15:00
team1 = fb-rt|FRG
report = [http://www.fifa.com/worldcup/archive/edition=50/results/matches/match=2351/report.html (Report)]
score = 0 – 0
team2 = fb|POL
goals1 =
goals2 =
stadium = Estadio Monumental, Buenos Aires
attendance = 67,579
referee = Angel Norberto Coerezza (Argentina)
----footballbox
date = 1978-06-02
time = 16:45
team1 = fb-rt|TUN|old
report = [http://www.fifa.com/worldcup/archive/edition=50/results/matches/match=2433/report.html (Report)]
score = 3 – 1
team2 = fb|MEX
goals1 = Kaabi goal|55
Ghommidh goal|79
Dhouib goal|87
goals2 = Vázquez Ayala goal|45|pen.
stadium = Estadio Gigante de Arroyito, Rosario
attendance = 17,396
referee = John Gordon (Scotland)
----footballbox
date = 1978-06-06
time = 16:45
team1 = fb-rt|FRG
report = [http://www.fifa.com/worldcup/archive/edition=50/results/matches/match=2350/report.html (Report)]
score = 6 – 0
team2 = fb|MEX
goals1 = D. Müller goal|15
H. Müller goal|30
Rummenigge goal|38 goal|73
Flohe goal|44 goal|89
goals2 =
stadium = Estadio Chateau Carreras, Córdoba
attendance = 35,258
referee = Farouk Bouzo (Syria)
----footballbox
date = 1978-06-06
time = 16:45
team1 = fb-rt|POL
report = [http://www.fifa.com/worldcup/archive/edition=50/results/matches/match=2454/report.html (Report)]
score = 1 – 0
team2 = fb|TUN|old
goals1 = Lato goal|43
goals2 =
stadium = Estadio Gigante de Arroyito, Rosario
attendance = 9,624
referee = Angel Franco Martínez (Spain)
----footballbox
date = 1978-06-10
time = 16:45
team1 = fb-rt|FRG
report = [http://www.fifa.com/worldcup/archive/edition=50/results/matches/match=2352/report.html (Report)]
score = 0 – 0
team2 = fb|TUN|old
goals1 =
goals2 =
stadium = Estadio Olímpico Chateau Carreras, Córdoba
attendance = 30,667
referee = César Guerrero Orosco (Peru)
----footballbox
date = 1978-06-10
time = 16:45
team1 = fb-rt|POL
report = [http://www.fifa.com/worldcup/archive/edition=50/results/matches/match=2431/report.html (Report)]
score = 3 – 1
team2 = fb|MEX
goals1 = Boniek goal|43 goal|84
Deyna goal|56
goals2 = Rangel goal|52
stadium = Estadio Gigante de Arroyito, Rosario
attendance = 22,651
referee = Jaffar Namdar (Iran)

Group 3

footballbox
date = 1978-06-14
time = 13:45
team1 = fb-rt|AUT
report = [http://www.fifa.com/worldcup/archive/edition=50/results/matches/match=2220/report.html (Report)]
score = 1 – 5
team2 = fb|NED
goals1 = Obermayer goal|79
goals2 = Brandts goal|6
Rensenbrink goal|35|pen.
Rep goal|36 goal|53
W. van de Kerkhof goal|82
stadium = Estadio Chateau Carreras, Córdoba
attendance = 25,050
referee = John Gordon (Scotland)
----footballbox
date = 1978-06-14
time = 13:45
team1 = fb-rt|ITA
report = [http://www.fifa.com/worldcup/archive/edition=50/results/matches/match=2349/report.html (Report)]
score = 0 – 0
team2 = fb|FRG
goals1 =
goals2 =
stadium = Estadio Monumental, Buenos Aires
attendance = 67,547
referee = Dušan Maksimović (Yugoslavia)
----footballbox
date = 1978-06-18
time = 16:45
team1 = fb-rt|NED
report = [http://www.fifa.com/worldcup/archive/edition=50/results/matches/match=2348/report.html (Report)]
score = 2 – 2
team2 = fb|FRG
goals1 = Haan goal|27
R. van de Kerkhof goal|84
goals2 = Abramczik goal|3
D. Müller goal|70
stadium = Estadio Chateau Carreras, Córdoba
attendance = 40,750
referee = Ramón Barreto (Uruguay)
----footballbox
date = 1978-06-18
time = 16:45
team1 = fb-rt|ITA
report = [http://www.fifa.com/worldcup/archive/edition=50/results/matches/match=2221/report.html (Report)]
score = 1 – 0
team2 = fb|AUT
goals1 = Rossi goal|14
goals2 =
stadium = Estadio Monumental, Buenos Aires
attendance = 66,695
referee = Francis Rion (Belgium)
----footballbox
date = 1978-06-21
time = 13:45
team1 = fb-rt|AUT
report = [http://www.fifa.com/worldcup/archive/edition=50/results/matches/match=2217/report.html (Report)]
score = 3 – 2
team2 = fb|FRG
goals1 = Vogts goal|59|o.g.
Krankl goal|66 goal|87
goals2 = Rummenigge goal|19
Hölzenbein goal|72
stadium = Estadio Chateau Carreras, Córdoba
attendance = 38,318
referee = Abraham Klein (Israel)
----footballbox
date = 1978-06-21
time = 13:45
team1 = fb-rt|ITA
report = [http://www.fifa.com/worldcup/archive/edition=50/results/matches/match=2391/report.html (Report)]
score = 1 – 2
team2 = fb|NED
goals1 = Brandts goal|18|o.g.
goals2 = Brandts goal|50
Haan goal|75
stadium = Estadio Monumental, Buenos Aires
attendance = 67,433
referee = Angel Franco Martínez (Spain)

Group B

footballbox
date = 1978-06-14
time = 16:45
team1 = fb-rt|PER
report = [http://www.fifa.com/worldcup/archive/edition=50/results/matches/match=2251/report.html (Report)]
score = 0 – 3
team2 = fb|BRA|1968
goals1 =
goals2 = Dirceu goal|15 goal|28
Zico goal|73|pen.
stadium = Estadio Ciudad de Mendoza, Mendoza
attendance = 31,278
referee = Nicolae Rainea (Romania)
----footballbox
date = 1978-06-14
time = 19:15
team1 = fb-rt|ARG|alt
report = [http://www.fifa.com/worldcup/archive/edition=50/results/matches/match=2202/report.html (Report)]
score = 2 – 0
team2 = fb|POL
goals1 = Kempes goal|16 goal|71
goals2 =
stadium = Estadio Gigante de Arroyito, Rosario
attendance = 37,091
referee = Ulf Eriksson (Sweden)
----footballbox
date = 1978-06-18
time = 13:45
team1 = fb-rt|PER
report = [http://www.fifa.com/worldcup/archive/edition=50/results/matches/match=2450/report.html (Report)]
score = 0 – 1
team2 = fb|POL
goals1 =
goals2 = Szarmach goal|65
stadium = Estadio Ciudad de Mendoza, Mendoza
attendance = 35,288
referee = Pat Partridge (England)
----footballbox
date = 1978-06-18
time = 19:15
team1 = fb-rt|ARG|alt
report = [http://www.fifa.com/worldcup/archive/edition=50/results/matches/match=2196/report.html (Report)]
score = 0 – 0
team2 = fb|BRA|1968
goals1 =
goals2 =
stadium = Estadio Gigante de Arroyito, Rosario
attendance = 37,326
referee = Károly Palotai (Hungary)
----footballbox
date = 1978-06-21
time = 16:45
team1 = fb-rt|POL
report = [http://www.fifa.com/worldcup/archive/edition=50/results/matches/match=2252/report.html (Report)]
score = 1 – 3
team2 = fb|BRA|1968
goals1 = Lato goal|45
goals2 = Nelinho goal|12
Roberto Dinamite goal|57 goal|63
stadium = Estadio Ciudad de Mendoza, Mendoza
attendance = 39,586
referee = Juan Silvagno Cavanna (Chile)
----footballbox
date = 1978-06-21
time = 19:15
team1 = fb-rt|ARG|alt
report = [http://www.fifa.com/worldcup/archive/edition=50/results/matches/match=2201/report.html (Report)]
score = 6 – 0
team2 = fb|PER
goals1 = Kempes goal|21 goal|46
Tarantini goal|43
Luque goal|50 goal|72
Houseman goal|67
goals2 =
stadium = Estadio Gigante de Arroyito, Rosario
attendance = 37,315
referee = Robert Wurtz (France)

Third place match

footballbox
date = 1978-06-24
time = 15:00
team1 = fb-rt|BRA|1968
report = [http://www.fifa.com/worldcup/archive/edition=50/results/matches/match=2247/report.html (Report)]
score = 2 – 1
team2 = fb|ITA
goals1 = Nelinho goal|64
Dirceu goal|72
goals2 = Causio goal|38
stadium = Estadio Monumental, Buenos Aires
attendance = 69,659
referee = Abraham Klein (Israel)

Final

footballbox
date = 1978-06-25
time = 15:00
team1 = fb-rt|NED
report = [http://www.fifa.com/worldcup/archive/edition=50/results/matches/match=2198/report.html (Report)]
score = 1 – 3 (a.e.t.)
team2 = fb|ARG|alt
goals1 = Nanninga goal|82
goals2 = Kempes goal|38 goal|105
Bertoni goal|116
stadium = Estadio Monumental, Buenos Aires
attendance = 71,483
referee = Sergio Gonella (Italy)

Winner

Awards

corers

;6 goals
*flagicon|ARG|alt Mario Kempes

;5 goals
*flagicon|NED Rob Rensenbrink
*flagicon|PER|state Teófilo Cubillas

;4 goals
*flagicon|ARG|alt Leopoldo Luque
*flagicon|AUT Hans Krankl

;3 goals
*flagicon|BRA|1968 Dirceu
*flagicon|BRA|1968 Roberto Dinamite
*flagicon|FRG Karl-Heinz Rummenigge
*flagicon|ITA Paolo Rossi
*flagicon|NED Johnny Rep

;2 goals
*flagicon|ARG|alt Daniel Bertoni
*flagicon|BRA|1968 Nelinho
*flagicon|FRG Heinz Flohe
*flagicon|FRG Dieter Müller
*flagicon|ITA Roberto Bettega
*flagicon|NED Ernie Brandts
*flagicon|NED Arie Haan
*flagicon|POL Zbigniew Boniek
*flagicon|POL Grzegorz Lato
*flagicon|SCO Archie Gemmill

;1 goal
*flagicon|ARG|alt René Houseman
*flagicon|ARG|alt Daniel Passarella
*flagicon|ARG|alt Alberto Tarantini
*flagicon|AUT Erich Obermayer
*flagicon|AUT Walter Schachner
*flagicon|BRA|1968 Reinaldo
*flagicon|BRA|1968 Zico
*flagicon|FRA Marc Berdoll
*flagicon|FRA Bernard Lacombe
*flagicon|FRA Christian Lopez
*flagicon|FRA Michel Platini
*flagicon|FRA Dominique Rocheteau
*flagicon|FRG Rüdiger Abramczik
*flagicon|FRG Bernd Hölzenbein
*flagicon|FRG Hansi Müller

*flagicon|HUN|1957 Károly Csapó
*flagicon|HUN|1957 András Tóth
*flagicon|HUN|1957 Sándor Zombori
*flagicon|IRN|1964 Iraj Danaeifard
*flagicon|IRN|1964 Hassan Rowshan
*flagicon|ITA Romeo Benetti
*flagicon|ITA Franco Causio
*flagicon|ITA Renato Zaccarelli
*flagicon|MEX Víctor Rangel
*flagicon|MEX Arturo Vázquez Ayala
*flagicon|NED Dick Nanninga
*flagicon|NED René van de Kerkhof
*flagicon|NED Willy van de Kerkhof
*flagicon|PER|state César Cueto
*flagicon|PER|state José Velásquez
*flagicon|POL Kazimierz Deyna
*flagicon|POL Andrzej Szarmach
*flagicon|SCO Kenny Dalglish
*flagicon|SCO Joe Jordan
*flagicon|ESP|1977 Juan Manuel Asensi
*flagicon|ESP|1977 Dani
*flagicon|SWE Thomas Sjöberg
*flagicon|TUN|old Mokhtar Dhouib
*flagicon|TUN|old Néjib Ghommidh
*flagicon|TUN|old Ali Kaabi

;Own goals
*flagicon|FRG Berti Vogts (for Austria)
*flagicon|IRN|1964 Andranik Eskandarian (for Scotland)
*flagicon|NED Ernie Brandts (for Italy)

Other facts

*Argentina was a candidate to host the 1970 World Cup, but since Mexico City was hosting the 1968 Summer Olympics and had constructed new football stadia, it went to Mexico.
*The Netherlands's Rob Rensenbrink's goal against Scotland was the 1000th goal of World Cup history.
*Scotland's Willie Johnston was expelled from the World Cup after he was found to have taken a banned stimulant during the opening game against Peru.
* At the final minutes of the Brazil vs Sweden match, the Brazilians were awarded a corner kick that resulted in a goal (which would have given Brazil a 2-1 victory). However, the goal was not awarded, because the referee Clive Thomas had whistled the end of the game as the ball was being kicked into the area. The Brazilian players were not happy with the decision, but the final result remained a 1-1 draw.

Firsts

*Tunisia was the first African team to win a match in World Cup finals, beating Mexico 3-1.
*This edition was the first appearance of Coca-Cola in the FIFA World Cup as a sponsor.
*For the 1978 World Cup, FIFA introduced the penalty shootout as a means of determining the winner in knockout stages should the match end on a draw after 120 minutes. The method, however, was not put in practice as both the third-place match and the final were decided before 120 minutes. The first World Cup to feature a penalty shootout was the 1982 World Cup, in the semifinal match between France and West Germany.

Notes

External links

* [http://www.fifa.com/worldcup/archive/edition=50/index.html 1978 FIFA World Cup on FIFA.com]
* [http://www.rsssf.com/tables/78full.html Details at RSSSF]
* [http://homepages.enterprise.net/eico/1978.htm History of the World Cup-1978]
* [http://www.planetworldcup.com/CUPS/1978/wc78index.html Planet World Cup - Argentina 1978]


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