- West Germanic languages
Infobox Language family
region=Originally between the Rhine, Alps, Elbe, and North Sea; today worldwide
Low Franconian languages
child4=High GermanThe West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three traditional branches of the Germanic family of
languages and include languages such as English, Dutch and Afrikaans, German, the Frisian languages, as well as Yiddish. The other two of these three traditional branches of the Germanic languages are the North and East Germanic languages.
Origins and characteristics
The Germanic languages are traditionally divided into three groups: West, East and North Germanic.cite book|last=Hawkins|first=John A.|chapter=Germanic languages|pages=68–76|editor=
Bernard Comrie|title=The World's Major Languages|publisher=Oxford University Press|year=1987|id=ISBN 0-19-520521-9] Their exact relation is difficult to determine from the sparse evidence of runic inscriptions, and they remained mutually intelligible throughout the Migration Period, so that some individual varieties are difficult to classify. The Western group presumably formed as a variety of Proto-Germanicin the late Jastorf culture(ca. 1st century BC). The West Germanic group is characterized by a number of phonological and morphological innovations not found in North and East Germanic, such as:cite book|last=Robinson|first=Orrin W.|title=Old English and Its Closest Relatives|id=ISBN 0-8047-2221-8|publisher=Stanford University Press|year=1992]
*The loss of "w" after "ng"
Geminationof consonants (except "r") before "j"
*Replacement of the 2nd person singular preterite ending "-t" with "-i"
*Short forms of the verbs for "stand" and "go"
*The development of a
gerundNevertheless, many scholars doubt whether the West Germanic languages descend from a common ancestor later than Proto-Germanic, that is, they doubt whether a "Proto-West Germanic" ever existed. Rather, some have argued that after East Germanic broke off from the group, the remaining Germanic languages, the Northwest Germaniclanguages, divided into four main dialects:cite journal|last=Kuhn|first=Hans|title=Zur Gliederung der germanischen Sprachen|journal=Zeitschrift für deutsches Altertum und deutsche Literatur|volume=66|year=1955–56|pages=1–47] North Germanic, and the three groups conventionally called "West Germanic", namely
#North Sea Germanic (
Ingvaeonic, ancestral to Anglo-Frisianand Low German)
#Elbe Germanic (Irminonic, ancestral to
#Weser-Rhine Germanic (Istvaeonic, ancestral to
Old Frankish)Evidence for this view comes from a number of linguistic innovations found in both North Germanic and West Germanic, including:
*The retraction of Proto-Germanic Unicode|"ǣ" to "ā"
*The development of umlaut
rhotacismof "z" to "r"
*The development of the
demonstrativepronoun ancestral to English "this"Under this view, the properties that the West Germanic languages have in common separate from the North Germanic languages are not inherited from a "Proto-West-Germanic" language, but rather spread by language contactamong the Germanic languages spoken in central Europe, not reaching those spoken in Scandinavia. Nevertheless, it has been argued that, judging by their nearly identical syntax, the West Germanic languages of the Old period were close enough to have been mutually intelligible. [Graeme Davis (2006:154) notes "the languages of the Germanic group in the Old period are much closer than has previously been noted. Indeed it would not be inappropriate to regard them as dialects of one language. They are undoubtedly far closer one to another than are the various dialects of modern Chinese, for example. A reasonable modern analogy might be Arabic, where considerable dialectical diversity exists but within the concept of a single Arabic language." In: cite book
title=Comparative Syntax of Old English and Old Icelandic: Linguistic, Literary and Historical Implications
Middle Ages, the West Germanic languages were separated by the insular development of Middle Englishon one hand, and by the second Germanic sound shifton the continent on the other.
High German consonant shiftdistinguished the High German languagesfrom the other West Germanic languages. By early modern times, the span had extended into considerable differences, ranging from Highest Alemannic in the South (the Walliser dialect being the southernmost surviving German dialect) to Northern Low Saxonin the North. Although both extremes are considered German, they are not mutually intelligible. The southernmost varieties have completed the second sound shift, while the northern dialects remained unaffected by the consonant shift.
Of modern German varieties,
Low Germanis the one that most resembles modern English. The district of Angeln(or Anglia), from which the name "English" derives, is in the extreme northern part of Germany between the Danish border and the Baltic coast. Saxonylies further to the south. The Anglo-Saxons, two Germanic tribes, were a combination of a number of peoples from northern Germanyand the JutlandPeninsula.
240px|thumb|right|The Germanic languages in Europe are divided into North (blue) and West Germanic (green and orange) Languages
Note that divisions between subfamilies of Germanic are rarely precisely defined; most form dialect continua, with adjacent
dialects being mutually intelligible and more separated ones not.
* Low Franconian
Limburgish(in the Netherlands, Germany, and Belgium)
Afrikaans(in South Africaand Namibia)
Low German(sometimes called "Low Saxon")
* High German
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